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1.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 36(7): 545-549, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556715

ABSTRACT

One cannot spend >5 min on social media at the moment without finding a link to some conspiracy theory or other regarding the origin of SARS-CoV2, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the virus being deliberately released as a bioweapon to pharmaceutical companies blocking the trials of natural remedies to boost their dangerous drugs and vaccines, the Internet is rife with far-fetched rumors. And predictably, now that the first immunization trials have started, the antivaccine lobby has latched on to most of them. In the last week, the trailer for a new "bombshell documentary" Plandemic has been doing the rounds, gaining notoriety for being repeatedly removed from YouTube and Facebook. We usually would not pay much heed to such things, but for retrovirologists like us, the name associated with these claims is unfortunately too familiar: Dr. Judy Mikovits.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/virology , Fraud , Medical Laboratory Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , Research Personnel/psychology , Retroviridae Infections/complications , Retroviridae/physiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deception , Humans , Male , Mice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retroviridae Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media
2.
OMICS ; 25(6): 358-371, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243453

ABSTRACT

About a tenth of all cancers are caused by viruses or associated with viral infection. Recent global events including the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic means that human encounter with viruses is increased. Cancer development in individuals with viral infection can take many years after infection, demonstrating that the involvement of viruses in cancer development is a long and complex process. This complexity emanates from individual genetic heterogeneity and the many steps involved in cancer development owing to viruses. The process of tumorigenesis is driven by the complex interaction between several viral factors and host factors leading to the creation of a tumor microenvironment (TME) that is ideal and promotes tumor formation. Viruses associated with human cancers ensure their survival and proliferation through activation of several cellular processes including inflammation, migration, and invasion, resistance to apoptosis and growth suppressors. In addition, most human oncoviruses evade immune detection and can activate signaling cascades including the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, Notch and Wnt pathways associated with enhanced proliferation and angiogenesis. This expert review examines and synthesizes the multiple biological factors related to oncoviruses, and the signaling cascades activated by these viruses contributing to viral oncogenesis. In particular, I examine and review the Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, and Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus in a context of cancer pathogenesis. I conclude with a future outlook on therapeutic targeting of the viruses and their associated oncogenic pathways within the TME. These anticancer strategies can be in the form of, but not limited to, antibodies and inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Retroviridae Infections/virology , Retroviridae/physiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Viral , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/physiology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology , Retroviridae Infections/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Signal Transduction , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Virus Infections/pathology
3.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040990

ABSTRACT

The APOBEC3 family of proteins in mammals consists of cellular cytosine deaminases and well-known restriction factors against retroviruses, including lentiviruses. APOBEC3 genes are highly amplified and diversified in mammals, suggesting that their evolution and diversification have been driven by conflicts with ancient viruses. At present, lentiviruses, including HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, are known to encode a viral protein called Vif to overcome the antiviral effects of the APOBEC3 proteins of their hosts. Recent studies have revealed that the acquisition of an anti-APOBEC3 ability by lentiviruses is a key step in achieving successful cross-species transmission. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the interplay between mammalian APOBEC3 proteins and viral infections and introduce a scenario of the coevolution of mammalian APOBEC3 genes and viruses.


Subject(s)
APOBEC Deaminases/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Retroviridae Infections/metabolism , Retroviridae Infections/virology , Retroviridae/physiology , APOBEC Deaminases/genetics , Animals , Disease Resistance/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Lentivirus/physiology , Phylogeny , Retroviridae Infections/transmission , Species Specificity , vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20296, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938317

ABSTRACT

Bats are natural reservoirs for potential zoonotic viruses. In this study, next-generation sequencing was performed to obtain entire genome sequences of picornavirus from a picornavirus-positive bat feces sample (16BF77) and to explore novel viruses in a pooled bat sample (16BP) from samples collected in South Korea, 2016. Fourteen mammalian viral sequences were identified from 16BF77 and 29 from 16BP, and verified by RT-PCR. The most abundant virus in 16BF77 was picornavirus. Highly variable picornavirus sequences encoding 3Dpol were classified into genera Kobuvirus, Shanbavirus, and an unassigned group within the family Picornaviridae. Amino acid differences between these partial 3Dpol sequences were ≥ 65.7%. Results showed that one bat was co-infected by picornaviruses of more than two genera. Retrovirus, coronavirus, and rotavirus A sequences also were found in the BP sample. The retrovirus and coronavirus genomes were identified in nine and eight bats, respectively. Korean bat retroviruses and coronavirus demonstrated strong genetic relationships with a Chinese bat retrovirus (RfRV) and coronavirus (HKU5-1), respectively. A co-infection was identified in one bat with a retrovirus and a coronavirus. Our results indicate that Korean bats were multiply infected by several mammal viruses.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Feces/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Mouth/virology , RNA Viruses/genetics , Animals , Brain/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/physiology , Geography , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Intestines/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Phylogeny , Picornaviridae/classification , Picornaviridae/genetics , Picornaviridae/physiology , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/physiology , Republic of Korea , Retroviridae/classification , Retroviridae/genetics , Retroviridae/physiology , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/physiology
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