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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884143

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created challenges for college athletes as they return to sport and campus life. Emerging literature highlights some of these challenges, but no studies have used a primarily qualitative approach to assess the impact of the pandemic on college athletes. The purpose of this study was to better understand factors affecting college athletes' return to sport and campus life amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with varsity athletes who participated in the 2020-2021 season at a single university. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Strauss and Corbin method to derive codes, categories, and themes. Additionally, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28) scores were recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. (3) Results: A total of 20 student athletes were interviewed, revealing that confidence and motivation, increased stress and anxiety, and adaptive coping strategies were common themes affecting their experiences returning to sport and campus life. Results from the ACSI-28 showed an average score of 49.5 and a range of 24-66. (4) Conclusions: Semi-structured interviews revealed factors impacting return to sport and student life. These findings can help inform how to better support college athletes throughout the remainder of the current pandemic and moving forward.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , COVID-19 , Sports , Adaptation, Psychological , Athletes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Return to Sport
3.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 21(3): 100-104, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731573

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease (COVID) has become a global pandemic that has widely impacted athletes at all levels of competition. For many athletes infected with COVID, the course is mild or asymptomatic, and most athletes are able to return to play in a matter of weeks. However, 10% to 15% of people infected with COVID will go on to have prolonged COVID symptoms that last for weeks to months and impact their ability to function and exercise. Not much is known about why certain people become "COVID long-haulers," nor are there any predictive tools to predetermine who may have prolonged symptoms. However, many athletes will suffer from prolonged symptoms that may require further evaluation and may prolong their return to exercise, training, and competition. The purpose of this article is to discuss a framework in which sports medicine and primary care physicians can use to evaluate COVID long-haulers and help them return to sport.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Athletes , Humans , Pandemics , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(7): 670-679, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720501

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the perceptions of South African elite and semi-elite athletes on return to sport (RTS); maintenance of physical conditioning and other activities; sleep; nutrition; mental health; healthcare access; and knowledge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: Cross- sectional study. METHODS: A Google Forms survey was distributed to athletes from 15 sports in the final phase (last week of April 2020) of the level 5 lockdown period. Descriptive statistics were used to describe player demographic data. Chi-squared tests investigated significance (p<0.05) between observed and expected values and explored sex differences. Post hoc tests with a Bonferroni adjustment were included where applicable. RESULTS: 67% of the 692 respondents were males. The majority (56%) expected RTS after 1-6 months. Most athletes trained alone (61%; p<0.0001), daily (61%; p<0.0001) at moderate intensity (58%; p<0.0001) and for 30-60min (72%). During leisure time athletes preferred sedentary above active behaviour (p<0.0001). Sleep patterns changed significantly (79%; p<0.0001). A significant number of athletes consumed excessive amounts of carbohydrates (76%; p<0.0001; males 73%; females 80%). Many athletes felt depressed (52%), and required motivation to keep active (55%). Most had access to healthcare during lockdown (80%) and knew proceedings when suspecting COVID-19 (92%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had physical, nutritional and psychological consequences that may impact on the safe RTS and general health of athletes. Lost opportunities and uncertain financial and sporting futures may have significant effects on athletes and the sports industry. Government and sporting federations must support athletes and develop and implement guidelines to reduce the risk in a COVID-19 environment.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Return to Sport , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Dietary Carbohydrates , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(7): 639-663, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720499

ABSTRACT

Sport makes an important contribution to the physical, psychological and emotional well-being of Australians. The economic contribution of sport is equivalent to 2-3% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating effects on communities globally, leading to significant restrictions on all sectors of society, including sport. Resumption of sport can significantly contribute to the re-establishment of normality in Australian society. The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), in consultation with sport partners (National Institute Network (NIN) Directors, NIN Chief Medical Officers (CMOs), National Sporting Organisation (NSO) Presidents, NSO Performance Directors and NSO CMOs), has developed a framework to inform the resumption of sport. National Principles for Resumption of Sport were used as a guide in the development of 'the AIS Framework for Rebooting Sport in a COVID-19 Environment' (the AIS Framework); and based on current best evidence, and guidelines from the Australian Federal Government, extrapolated into the sporting context by specialists in sport and exercise medicine, infectious diseases and public health. The principles outlined in this document apply to high performance/professional, community and individual passive (non-contact) sport. The AIS Framework is a timely tool of minimum baseline of standards, for 'how' reintroduction of sport activity will occur in a cautious and methodical manner, based on the best available evidence to optimise athlete and community safety. Decisions regarding the timing of resumption (the 'when') of sporting activity must be made in close consultation with Federal, State/Territory and/or Local Public Health Authorities. The priority at all times must be to preserve public health, minimising the risk of community transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Return to Sport/standards , Sports , Australia , Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Decision Making , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 54(7): 1051-1057, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714685

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) can result in myocarditis. Protocols were developed to allow competitive athletes to safely return to play (RTP) after a COVID-19 infection, but the financial impact of these protocols is unknown. Our objective was to determine the differential cost of post-COVID-19 RTP protocols for competitive collegiate athletes. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study of clinical evaluation of 295 athletes after COVID-19 infection was performed at four institutions with three RTP protocols. Costs were calculated using adjusted Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services pricing. All athletes underwent electrocardiogram and clinical evaluation. A tiered approach performed cardiac imaging and biomarker analysis for major symptoms. A universal transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) approach performed TTE and biomarkers for all athletes. A universal exercise stress echocardiogram (ESE) approach performed ESE and biomarkers for all athletes. RESULTS: The cost per athlete was $632.51 ± 651.80 ($44,908 total) in tiered group (n = 71), $1,072.30 ± 517.93 ($87,928 total) in the universal TTE group (n = 82), and $1357.38 ± 757.05 ($192,748 total) in the universal ESE group (n = 142) (P < 0.001). Extrapolated national costs for collegiate athletes would be $39 to 64 million higher for universal imaging approaches versus a tiered approach. Only seven athletes had probable/possible myocarditis with no significant difference between approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac screening in collegiate athletes after COVID-19 infection resulted in significant cost to the health care system. A tiered-based approach was more economical, and a universal exercise echocardiogram group detected slightly more myocardial abnormalities by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical consequences of these approaches are unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Aged , Athletes , Biomarkers , Humans , Medicare , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 299-305, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704008

ABSTRACT

During December 2021, the United States experienced a surge in COVID-19 cases, coinciding with predominance of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant (1). During this surge, the National Football League (NFL) and NFL Players Association (NFLPA) adjusted their protocols for test-to-release from COVID-19 isolation on December 16, 2021, based on analytic assessments of their 2021 test-to-release data. Fully vaccinated* persons with COVID-19 were permitted to return to work once they were asymptomatic or fever-free and experiencing improving symptoms for ≥24 hours, and after two negative or high cycle-threshold (Ct) results (Ct≥35) from either of two reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests† (2). This report describes data from NFL's SARS-CoV-2 testing program (3) and time to first negative or Ct≥35 result based on serial COVID-19 patient testing during isolation. Among this occupational cohort of 173 fully vaccinated adults with confirmed COVID-19 during December 14-19, 2021, a period of Omicron variant predominance, 46% received negative test results or had a subsequent RT-PCR test result with a Ct≥35 by day 6 postdiagnosis (i.e., concluding 5 days of isolation) and 84% before day 10. The proportion of persons with positive test results decreased with time, with approximately one half receiving positive RT-PCR test results after postdiagnosis day 5. Although this test result does not necessarily mean these persons are infectious (RT-PCR tests might continue to return positive results long after an initial positive result) (4), these findings indicate that persons with COVID-19 should continue taking precautions, including correct and consistent mask use, for a full 10 days after symptom onset or initial positive test result if they are asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Quarantine , Return to Sport , Return to Work , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Athletes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Football , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
8.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 102-109, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609015

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020; one consequence has been the increase in sedentary lifestyle and reduction of sports activity. Exercise benefits the immune defense system especially in older adults; it is recommended to keep a distance of 1.5 meters between people, and if walking or jogging is carried out, the space must be up to 5 and 10 meters respectively. The reported cases are mostly mild up to 80% and can be critical in up to 4.7%; the risk factors are well known, hypertension, diabetes and previous heart disease. Severe or critical cases present as symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and in the case of cardiovascular disease, they mainly occur as myopericarditis, acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, thrombotic events, among others. Returning to exercise after recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is always recommended, however it will depend on the clinical picture what measures should be taken prior to its onset, and it is in moderate cases and especially in the severe ones where the evaluation and prescription prior to returning to exercise or sport should be guided by medical personnel experts in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, especially in athletes.


La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) fue declarada pandemia el 11 de marzo de 2020; una consecuencia ha sido el incremento en el sedentarismo y la reducción de la actividad deportiva. El ejercicio beneficia el sistema inmunitario de defensa, especialmente en adultos mayores. Se recomienda guardar distancia de 1.5 metros entre personas, y si se realiza caminata o trote, el espacio debe ser de hasta 5 y 10 metros respectivamente. Los casos reportados son en su mayoría leves hasta en un 80%, y pueden ser críticos hasta en 4.7%; los factores de riesgo son bien conocidos: hipertensión, diabetes y enfermedad cardiaca previa. Los casos graves o críticos se presentan como cuadros de síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo y ante afección cardiovascular cursan principalmente como miopericarditis, síndromes coronarios agudos, choque cardiogénico y eventos trombóticos, entre otros. El ejercicio después de la recuperación de infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) siempre está recomendado, sin embargo, dependerá del cuadro clínico qué medidas se deben tomar previo a su inicio, y es en casos moderados y especialmente en los graves donde la evaluación y prescripción previa al retorno al ejercicio o deporte debe ser guiada por personal médico experto en rehabilitación cardiopulmonar, en especial en deportistas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Return to Sport , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiology , Humans , Mexico , Pandemics
9.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e465-e469, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547524

ABSTRACT

The widespread shutdown in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, although varied across state and county levels, has undoubtedly impacted everyone to some degree. Within the pediatric population, the closure of schools and organized youth athletic programs has resulted in a unique situation that has made athletes physically deconditioned and at risk for injury. As sports and competition gradually restart, there are considerable risks to the skeletally immature athlete. The anatomic and physiologic changes that occur to bone and cartilage during growth make the young athlete particularly susceptible to both acute and overuse injuries. In the context of the pandemic, deconditioning, obesity, lack of variety, and the resultant mental health burden pose unique challenges in ensuring that young athletes safely return to the field. This review aims to identify risk factors for sport-related injuries and to outline strategies for minimizing these injuries as pediatric patients return-to-play after COVID-19. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e465-e469.].


Subject(s)
Athletes/psychology , Athletic Injuries/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Return to Sport , Youth Sports , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Cumulative Trauma Disorders , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(5): 264-270, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection might be associated with cardiac complications in low-risk populations, such as in competitive athletes. However, data obtained in adults cannot be directly transferred to preadolescents and adolescents who are less susceptible to adverse clinical outcomes and are often asymptomatic. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this prospective multicentre study to describe the incidence of cardiovascular complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large cohort of junior athletes and to examine the effectiveness of a screening protocol for a safe return to play. METHODS: Junior competitive athletes suffering from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent cardiac screening, including physical examination, 12-lead resting ECG, echocardiogram and exercise ECG testing. Further investigations were performed in cases of abnormal findings. RESULTS: A total of 571 competitive junior athletes (14.3±2.5 years) were evaluated. About half of the population (50.3%) was mildly symptomatic during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the average duration of symptoms was 4±1 days. Pericardial involvement was found in 3.2% of junior athletes: small pericardial effusion (2.6%), moderate pericardial effusion (0.2%) and pericarditis (0.4%). No relevant arrhythmias or myocardial inflammation was found in subjects with pericardial involvement. Athletes with pericarditis or moderate pericardial effusion were temporarily disqualified, and a gradual return to play was achieved after complete clinical resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cardiac involvement was low in junior athletes after asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. A screening strategy primarily driven by cardiac symptoms should detect cardiac involvement from SARS-CoV-2 infection in most junior athletes. Systematic echocardiographic screening is not recommended in junior athletes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Athletes , Humans , Prospective Studies , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e470-e473, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512787

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic profoundly impacted athletes and organizations of all ages and calibers. As optimism grows and restrictions lift, the mindset of youth sports shifts to prospection. Using the lessons learned during the cancelled, postponed, or modified 2020-2021 season, stakeholders should envision a different playing field moving forward. The void of youth sports highlighted the many values it brings to athletes physically, mentally, and socially. The regionality of sport during the pandemic highlighted resource and funding disparities among communities. Consideration must be given to the overall health of the student-athlete and how to return to competition and spectatorship safely and responsibly. The pandemic required youth sport to collaborate with public health with the hope of creating a semblance of normalcy in upcoming seasons. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e470-e473.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Return to Sport , Youth Sports , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sports
13.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e461-e464, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512786

ABSTRACT

Children represent a small fraction of total cumulative cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The potential health consequences related to infection for children are not inconsequential. For example, some may develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, which is commonly associated with cardiovascular involvement. Nevertheless, the short- and long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection remain unknown. In particular, the impact on physical health and how it affects one's ability to return to physical activity are continuously evolving. As more youth sports organizations are lifting restrictions, the volume of youth athletes will increase and the demand for providing medical clearance will grow. This article aims to provide a review of return to physical activity guidelines for young athletes post-SARS-CoV-2 infection based on expert consensus statements and professional organization recommendations. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e461-e464.].


Subject(s)
Athletes/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Return to Sport , Youth Sports , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512313

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in sport has been the subject of numerous studies over the past two years. However, knowledge about the direct impact of COVID-19 infection on the performance of athletes is limited, and the importance of studies on this topic is crucial during the current pandemic era. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the match running performance (MRP) of professional soccer players that occurred as a result of COVID-19 infection after fulfilling all of the prerequisites for a safe return to play (RTP). The participants were 47 professional soccer players from a team which competed in first Croatian division (21.6 years old on average) during the 2020/21 season. The total sample was divided into two subgroups based on the results of a PCR test for COVID-19, where 31 players tested positive (infected) and 16 tested negative. We observed the PCR test results (positive vs. negative PCR), the number of days needed to return to the team, number of days needed to RTP after quarantine and isolation, and MRP (10 variables measured by a global positioning system). The number of days where the infected players were not included in the team ranged from 7 to 51 (Median: 12). Significant pre- to post-COVID differences in MRP for infected players were only found for high-intensity accelerations and high-intensity decelerations (t-test = 2.11 and 2.13, respectively; p < 0.05, moderate effect size differences), with poorer performance in the post-COVID period. Since a decrease of the MRP as a result of COVID-19 infection was only noted in two variables, we can highlight appropriateness of the applied RTP. However, further adaptations and improvements of the RTP are needed with regard to high-intensity activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Soccer , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 221, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the gradual resumption of sports activities after the lock-down period for coronavirus pandemic, a new problem is emerging: Allow all athletes to be able to return to compete after SARS-CoV-2 infection in total safety. Several protocols have been proposed for healed athletes but all of them have been formulated for the adult population. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adequacy of Italian practical recommendations for return-to-paly, in order to exclude cardiorespiratory complications due to COVID-19 in children and adolescents. METHODS: Between April 2020 and January 2021 the Italian Sports Medical Federation formulated cardiorespiratory protocols to be applied to athletes recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The protocols take into account the severity of the infection. Protocols include lung function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise test, echocardiographic evaluation, blood chemistry tests. RESULTS: From September 2020 to February 2021, 45 children and adolescents (aged from 9 to 18 years; male = 26) with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated according to the protocols in force for adult. 55.5% of the subjects (N = 25) reported an asymptomatic infection; 44.5% reported a mild symptomatic infection. Results of lung function test have exceeded the limit of 80% of the theoretical value in all patients. The cardiorespiratory capacity of all patients was within normal limits (average value of maximal oxigen uptake 41 ml/kg/min). No arrhythmic events or reduction in the ejection fraction were highlighted. CONCLUSION: The data obtained showed that, in the pediatric population, mild coronavirus infection does not cause cardiorespiratory complications in the short and medium term. Return to play after Coronavirus infection seems to be safe but it will be necessary to continue with the data analysis in order to modulate and optimize the protocols especially in the pediatric field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Return to Sport , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Child , Clinical Protocols , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
16.
J Sport Rehabil ; 31(2): 218-223, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438066

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic has had catastrophic impact on a global scale, affecting people from all walks of life including elite athletes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reported rates of return to play (RTP) in conjunction with the expert-derived guidelines previously recommended to enable safe RTP post COVID-19 infection. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Two independent reviewers searched the literature based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, utilizing the MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases. Only studies that reported rates of RTP and/or recommended guidelines for safe RTP were included. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 17 studies (3 level III and 14 level V) were included. A total of 3 studies reported rates of RTP in a total of 1255 athletes and 623 officials; 72 (30 symptomatic) were infected with COVID-19, 100% of whom were able to RTP post COVID-19 infection. Of the 14 studies recommending guidelines for safe RTP, 3 and 9 studies recommended 7 and 14 days of rest in isolation respectively for asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 infection, prior to safe RTP. In contrast, 7 studies recommended 3 to 6 months of rest (following 14 d isolation) in cases of COVID-19-induced myocarditis as a safe timeframe for safe RTP. Of the 11 studies reporting on whether blanket testing prior to RTP was recommended, only 7 studies recommended a negative test result as mandatory prior to RTP for athletes previously infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Although excellent rates of RTP have been reported for elite athletes post COVID-19 infection, discrepancies in recommended rest periods, requirement for mandatory negative test results, and the magnitude of screening investigations required continue to exist in the literature, with a need for further standardized international guidelines required in future. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V; systematic review of all forms of evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Athletes , Humans , Pandemics , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(19): 1270-1276, 2021 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434172

ABSTRACT

The recently published guidelines "Sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease" (2020) are the first of a kind by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). The guidelines provide comprehensive training recommendations for patients with cardiovascular diseases or risk factors, covering the entire spectrum of cardiovascular diseases with case-specific recommendations for recreational and competitive sports.The ESC recognizes exercise as an essential part of both prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases, that - comparable to drug therapies - requires correct prescription.The initial cardiac examination is used for individual risk stratification and is indispensable for individualized training recommendations addressing training frequency, duration and intensity, as well as type of sport.Thus, the question is not whether a patient with cardiovascular disease shall be allowed to exercise, but rather how he can safely perform it. Only in exceptional cases exercise therapy is (temporarily) contraindicated.COVID-19 can lead to cardiovascular complications even in asymptomatic and mild disease courses. Before resuming intense sporting activities, different return-to-sports protocols have been introduced. The current consensus is that the extent of these examinations should be based on symptoms, severity and duration of COVID-19 and that individual return-to-training recommendations should be given.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Sports/physiology , Exercise , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Return to Sport
18.
Sci Med Footb ; 5(sup1): 38-43, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic forced global lockdowns. Herein, we examine the effect of a lockdown exercise programme in a case-study of youth Australian A-league academy football players. METHODS: Fifty-five u13-u15 age-grade players were provided with a 110 minute exercise programme including technical, tactical, cardiovascular and muscle strengthening exercises to perform 4 per week at home during the 10-week COVID-19 lockdown. RESULTS: Pre/Post lockdown, maximum aerobic speed was determined via the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Exercise compliance was high (78.5% CI72.2-83.8) with an average of 3.15 sessions completed each week. All time-loss (TL) and medical attention (MA) injuries were recorded. Pre/Post lockdown, no difference in the mean incidence or burden of total time-loss (TL), match TL, training TL or medical attention (MA) injuries or injury rate ratio (1.21 CI:0.85-2.74) was observed. Similarly, no difference was observed in any injury incidence or burden data or the injury rate ratio (1.53 CI:0.85-2.74) when comparing the 9-week period prior to lockdown with the first 9 weeks post lockdown (9v9 only). A 9.6% (p = <0.01) increase was also observed in Pre/Post 30-15 IFT composite scores (18.7 CI: 18.3-19.1 to 20.5 CI:20-21). CONCLUSION: In this case study, compliance to the home-based exercise programme was high and no increase in injury was apparent. These findings must however be considered alongside the limitations associated within this case-study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Football , Adolescent , Australia , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sports Med ; 51(Suppl 1): 89-96, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404686

ABSTRACT

With high profile events such as sporting and mass gathering events, recent history has revealed the importance of developing incident command structures to streamline communication, maximize coordination and establish contingencies. With the advent of COVID-19, a virus with significant human-to-human transmission and the potential for super-spreader events, there has been a brief universal cessation of sports, and the main question now is how to return to play in a way that keeps our athletes and general population healthy. This review aims to describe the core principles regarding return to play using a focus on incident command centers and disaster management. These principles include appropriate hygiene and social distancing, use of masks, rigorous monitoring and screening of symptoms, widespread testing, comprehensive contact tracing and considerations for travel and facilities. In addition, organizations need to have established scalable protocols for athletes who do contract the virus with symptom-based algorithms for length of time away from play and with screening for cardiac and pulmonary complications from COVID-19. Also, encouraging our athletes to become immunized against the virus and educating our athletes about nutrition and the relation to immune health is important as we return to play.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Humans , Pandemics , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2
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