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2.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053894, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603839

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, social isolation and loneliness (SIL) affected at least one-third of the older people. The pandemic has prompted governments around the world to implement some extreme measures such as banning public gatherings, imposing social distancing, mobility restrictions and quarantine to control the spread and impact of the novel coronavirus. Though these unprecedented measures may be crucial from a public health perspective, they also have the potential to further exacerbate the problems of SIL among residents in long-term care homes (LTCHs). However, some LTCHs have developed promising best practices (PBPs) to respond to the current situation and prepare for future pandemics. Key aspects of such practices revolve around maintaining and strengthening social connections between residents and their families which helps to reduce SIL. This scoping review looks at existing PBPs that have been implemented to reduce SIL among LTCH residents during the most recent pandemics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will follow Arksey and O'Malley's framework of scoping review, further developed by Levac et al. In addition, we will also apply the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' 'Methodology for Scoping Reviews'. Ten electronic databases and grey literature will be searched for articles published from January 2003 to March 2021 in either English or French. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts and then full texts for final inclusion. Data will be extracted using a standardised form from 'Evidence for Policy and Practice Information'. The results will be presented in a tabular form and will be summarised and interpreted using a narrative synthesis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data are collected. Findings will be used to develop a solid knowledge corpus to address the challenges of SIL in LTCHs. Our findings will help to identify cutting edge practices, including technological interventions that could support health services in addressing SIL in the context of LTCHs and our ageing society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Humans , Loneliness , Long-Term Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e057985, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Owing to their inherent vulnerabilities, the burden of COVID-19 and particularly of its control measures on migrants has been magnified. A thorough assessment of the value of the interventions for COVID-19 tailored to migrants is essential for improving their health outcomes as well as promoting an effective control of the pandemic. In this study, based on evidence from primary biomedical research, we aimed to systematically identify health interventions for COVID-19 targeting migrants and to assess and compare their effectiveness. The review will be conducted within a programme aimed at defining and implementing interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and conducted by a consortium of Italian regional health authorities. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Embase, LOVE Platform COVID-19 Evidence, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies must evaluate health interventions for COVID-19 in migrants. Two independent reviewers will screen articles for inclusion using predefined eligibility criteria, extract data of retained articles and assess methodological quality by applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus or arbitrated by a third reviewer if necessary. In synthesising the evidence, we will structure results by interventions, outcomes and quality. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous, trial data will be pooled and meta-analyses will be performed. Data will be reported according to methodological guidelines for systematic review provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a review of existing literature, and ethics approval is not required. We will submit results for peer-review publication and present at relevant conferences. The review findings will be included in future efforts to develop evidence-informed recommendations, policies or programmatic actions at the national and regional levels and address future high-quality research in public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 317, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was identified as the cause of an acute respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given the lack of validated treatments, there is an urgent need for a high-quality management of COVID-19. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are one tool that healthcare providers may use to enhance patient care. As such, it is necessary that they have access to high-quality evidence-based CPGs upon which they may base decisions regarding the management and use of therapeutic interventions (TI) for COVID-19. The purpose of the proposed study is to assess the quality of CPGs that make management or TI recommendations for COVID-19 using the AGREE II instrument. METHODS: The proposed systematic review will identify CPGs for TI use and/or the management of COVID-19. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases, as well as the Guidelines International Network, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, and the World Health Organization websites, will be searched from December 2019 onwards. The primary outcome of this study is the assessed quality of the CPGs. The quality of eligible CPGs will be assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. Descriptive statistics will be used to quantify the quality of the CPGs. The secondary outcomes of this study are the types of management and/or TI recommendations made. Inconsistent and duplicate TI and/or management recommendations made between CPGs will be compared across guidelines. To summarize and explain the findings related to the included CPGs, a narrative synthesis will also be provided. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will be of utmost importance to enhancing clinical decision-making among healthcare providers caring for patients with COVID-19. Moreover, the results of this study will be relevant to guideline developers in the creation of CPGs or improvement of existing ones, researchers who want to identify gaps in knowledge, and policy-makers looking to encourage and endorse the adoption of CPGs into clinical practice. The results of this review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO)- CRD42020219944.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Evidence-Based Practice , Humans , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 299, 2021 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated the global community with nearly 4.9 million deaths as of October 2021. While organ transplant (OT) recipients (OTr) may be at increased risk for severe COVID-19 due to their chronic immunocompromised state, outcomes for OTr with COVID-19 remain disputed in the literature. This review will examine whether OTr with COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe illness and death than non-immunocompromised individuals. METHODS: MEDLINE (via Ovid and PubMed) and EMBASE (via Embase.com ) will be searched from December 2019 to October 2021 for observational studies (including cohort and case-control) that compare COVID-19 clinical outcomes in OTr to those in individuals without history of OT. The primary outcome of interest will be mortality as defined in each study, with possible further analyses of in-hospital mortality, 28 or 30-day mortality, and all-cause mortality versus mortality attributable to COVID-19. The secondary outcome of interest will be the severity of COVID-19 disease, most frequently defined as requiring intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. Two reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text articles. Potential conflicts will be resolved by a third reviewer and potentially discussion among all investigators. Methodological quality will be appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. If data permit, we will perform random-effects meta-analysis with the Sidik-Jonkman estimator and the Hartung-Knapp adjustment for confidence intervals to estimate a summary measure of association between histories of transplant with each outcome. Potential sources of heterogeneity will be explored using meta-regression. Additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g., subgroup analysis) considering least minimal adjustment for confounders. DISCUSSION: This rapid review will assess the available evidence on whether OTr diagnosed with COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe illness and death compared to non-immunocompromised individuals. Such knowledge is clinically relevant and may impact risk stratification, allocation of organs and healthcare resources, and organ transplantation protocols during this, and future, pandemics. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework (OSF) registration DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/osf.io/4n9d7 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e054900, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523045

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has necessitated greater adoption of virtual care (eg, telephone (audio), videoconference) delivery models. Virtual care provides opportunities for innovative practice in care planning with older persons and meaningful family engagement by synchronously involving multiple care providers. Nevertheless, there remains a paucity of summarising evidence regarding virtual team-based care planning for older persons. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarise evidence on the utilisation of virtual team-based care planning for older persons in formal care settings. Specifically, (1) what has been reported in the literature on the impact or outcomes of virtual team-based care planning? (2) What are the facilitators and barriers to implementation? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow a rigorous and well-established methodology by the Joanna Briggs Institute, supplemented by the Arksey & O'Malley and Levac, Colquhoun, & O'Brien frameworks. A three-step search strategy will be used to conduct a search on virtual team-based care planning for older persons in formal care settings. Keywords and index terms will be identified from an initial search in PubMed and AgeLine, and used to conduct the full search in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, AgeLine, PsycInfo and Scopus. Reference lists of included articles and grey literature retrieved through Google and Google Scholar will also be reviewed. Three researchers will screen titles and abstracts, and will conduct full-text review for inclusion. Extracted data will be mapped in a table. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research ethics approval is not required for data collection from publicly accessible information. Findings will be presented at conferences, submitted for open-access publication in a peer-reviewed journal and made accessible to multiple stakeholders. The scoping review will summarise the literature on virtual team-based care planning for the purpose of informing the implementation of a virtual PIECES™ intervention (Physical/Intellectual/Emotional health, Capabilities, Environment, and Social).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Research Design , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Peer Review , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053959, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501721

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought tremendous changes in healthcare delivery and exacerbated a wide range of inequities. Social workers across a broad range of healthcare settings bring an expertise in social, behavioural and mental healthcare needed to help address these health inequities. In addition, social workers integrate policy-directed interventions and solutions in clinical practice, which is a needed perspective for recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. It remains unclear, however, what the most pressing policy issues are that have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, many social workers in health settings tend to underuse policy in their direct practice. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) systematically scope the literature on social work, COVID-19 pandemic and policy; and (2) describe the competencies required by social workers and the social work profession to address the policy issues emerging during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review follows Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework. Identification of literature published between 1 December 2019 and the search date, 31 March 2021, will take place in two stages: (1) title and abstract review, and (2) full-text review. In partnership with a health science librarian, the research team listed keywords related to social work and policy to search databases including Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Services Abstract and Social Work Abstracts. Two graduate-level research assistants will conduct screening and full-text review. Data will then be extracted, charted, analysed and summarised to report on our results and implications on practice, policy and future research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results will help develop a policy practice competence framework to inform how social workers can influence policy. We will share our findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. This study does not require Research Ethics Board approval as it uses publicly available sources of data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Workers , Capacity Building , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053962, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495474

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infectious diseases pose a risk to public health, requiring efficient strategies for disease prevention. Digital health surveillance technologies provide new opportunities to enhance disease prevention, detection, tracking, reporting and analysis. However, in addition to concerns regarding the effectiveness of these technologies in meeting public health goals, there are also concerns regarding the ethics, legality, safety and sustainability of digital surveillance technologies. This scoping review examines the literature on digital surveillance for public health purposes during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify health-related applications of digital surveillance technologies, and to highlight discussions of the implications of these technologies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review will be guided by the framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and the guidelines outlined by Colquhoun et al and Levac et al. We will search Medline (Ovid), PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), ACM Digital Library, Google Scholar and IEEE Explore for relevant studies published between December 2019 and December 2020. The review will also include grey literature. Data will be managed and analysed through an extraction table and thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Findings will be disseminated through traditional academic channels, as well as social media channels and research briefs and infographics. We will target our dissemination to provincial and federal public health organisations, as well as technology companies and community-based organisations managing the public response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Digital Technology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053124, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495470

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Communicable disease epidemics and pandemics magnify the health inequities experienced by marginalised populations. People who use substances suffer from high rates of morbidity and mortality and should be a priority to receive palliative care, yet they encounter many barriers to palliative care access. Given the pre-existing inequities to palliative care access for people with life-limiting illnesses who use substances, it is important to understand the impact of communicable disease epidemics and pandemics such as COVID-19 on this population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review and report according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews reporting guidelines. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in seven bibliographical databases from the inception of each database to August 2020. We also performed a grey literature search to identify the publications not indexed in the bibliographical databases. All the searches will be rerun in April 2021 to retrieve recently published information because the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing at the time of this writing. We will extract the quantitative data using a standardised data extraction form and summarise it using descriptive statistics. Additionally, we will conduct thematic qualitative analyses and present our findings as narrative summaries. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for a scoping review. We will disseminate our findings to healthcare providers and policymakers through professional networks, digital communications through social media platforms, conference presentations and publication in a scientific journal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Palliative Care , Pandemics , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e050296, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476601

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Accurate and affordable laboratory testing is key to timely diagnosis and appropriate management of patients with COVID-19. New laboratory test protocols are released into the market under emergency use authorisation with limited evidence on diagnostic test accuracy. As such, robust evidence on the diagnostic accuracy and the costs of available tests is urgently needed to inform policy and practice especially in resource-limited settings. We aim to determine the diagnostic test accuracy, cost-effectiveness and utility of laboratory test strategies for COVID-19 in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a multistaged, protocol-driven systematic review conducted in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for diagnostic test accuracy studies. We will search for relevant literature in at least six public health databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and the WHO Global Index Medicus. In addition, we will search Cochrane Library, COVID-END and grey literature databases to identify additional relevant articles before double-screening and abstraction of data. We will conduct a structured narrative and quantitative synthesis of the results guided by the Fryback and Thornbury framework for assessing a diagnostic test. The primary outcome is COVID-19 diagnostic test accuracy. Using the GRADE approach specific to diagnostic accuracy tests, we will appraise the overall quality of evidence and report the results following the original PRISMA statement. The protocol is registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical review was done by the School of Biomedical Sciences Research Ethics Committee and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. The published article will be accessible to policy and decision makers. The findings of this review will guide clinical practice and policy decisions and highlight areas for future research.PROSPERO registration number CRD42020209528.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , Income , Laboratories , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047314, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the single greatest contributor to global mortality. The successful introduction and scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivered a reduction in HIV mortality. Consequently, an association was found between the scale-up of ART and an increased prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV (PLWH) such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. A higher quality diet can delay the onset of comorbidities related to HIV infection. Diet quality and its methods of assessment are not fully established among PLWH. This review will identify the diet quality and food insecurity indices that have been used among PLWH and how these constructs are associated with risk of developing CVD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The frameworks recommended by Arksey and O'Malley and the Joanna Briggs Institute's manual for conducting scoping reviews will be adopted. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines will be used for reporting. A search strategy was developed using keywords related to the topic. A preliminary MEDLINE (via PubMed) search was conducted on 11 November 2020 to develop a comprehensive search strategy. The final search will be conducted on PubMed, EbscoHost, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. Titles and abstracts of retrieved records will be screened independently by two reviewers. Data will be extracted from records that meet the inclusion criteria using a predesigned charting tool. Discrepancies in decisions made by reviewers will be resolved by consensus or the decision of a third reviewer. Extracted data will be presented in tables or charts. A descriptive summary of the charts or tables will follow. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for a scoping review. Findings will inform other studies currently underway and will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://osf.io/7k3ja.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diet , Food Insecurity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
12.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 237, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In pediatric palliative care (PPC), there is a need to involve the child's voice in situations regarding their symptoms and care needs. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can be tools to systematically gather data reported from the child or a proxy if the child is not capable to self-report in order to provide the services they need. There has been a rapid development in PROM research the last decade, and there is a need for an overview of current knowledge and experiences in the field. Thus, we aim to explore and summarize what is known from the published research about PROMs in PPC. METHODS: We propose a scoping review following the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. A systematic search will be performed in the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), American Psychological Association (APA) PsycInfo, Health and Psychosocial Instruments (HaPI), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED). The search will be followed by snowballing to identify key papers and significant researchers for additional citations. Covidence will facilitate the independent review of eligible citations, and data will be extracted and presented descriptively, and thematically analyzed using NVivo. DISCUSSION: The scoping review suggested in this protocol will identify PROMs which have been proposed in PPC and clarify the experiences with their use. The findings of this review will be relevant for researchers and healthcare personnel caring for children and adolescents in PPC. In addition, by highlighting knowledge gaps about the use of PROMs in PPC, this review will point out future needs within this field of research, which is crucial for improving quality of care in PPC. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: https://osf.io/yfch2/ .


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Palliative Care , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052634, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455720

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Universal access to preventative healthcare is essential to children's health. Registered nurses (RN) are well positioned to deliver well-child care within primary care settings; however, RN role implementation varies widely in this sector and the scope of literature that examines the influence of organisational attributes on nursing contributions to well-child care is not well understood. The aim of this scoping review is to identify the scope and characteristics of the literature related to organisational attributes that act as barriers to, or facilitators for RN delivery of well-child care within the context of primary care in high-income countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methodology will be used to conduct this review. Databases that will be accessed include Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE and Embase. Inclusion criteria includes articles with a focus on RNs who deliver well-child care in primary care settings. Literature that meets this inclusion criteria will be included in the study. Covidence software platform will be used to review citations and full-text articles. Titles, abstracts and full-text articles will be reviewed independently by two reviewers. Any disagreements that arise between the reviewers will be resolved through discussion, or with an additional reviewer. Data will be extracted and organised according to the dimensions outlined in the nursing care organisation conceptual framework (NCOF). Principles of the 'best fit' framework synthesis will guide the data analysis approach and the NCOF will act as the framework for data coding and analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review will undertake a secondary analysis of data already published and does not require ethical approval. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations targeting stakeholders involved in nursing practice and the delivery of well-child care. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: Braithwaite, S., Tranmer, J., Lukewich, J., & Macdonald, D. (2021, March 31). Protocol for a Scoping Review of the Influence of Organisational Attributes on Registered Nurse Contributions to Well-child Care. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/UZYX5.


Subject(s)
Child Care , Nurses , Child , Child Health , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044663, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455711

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Precision health is a nascent field of research that would benefit from clearer operationalisation and distinction from adjacent fields like precision medicine. This clarification is necessary to enable precision health science to tackle some of the most complex and significant health problems that are faced globally. There is a pressing need to examine the progress in human precision health research in the past 10 years and analyse this data to first, find similarities and determine discordances in how precision health is operationalised in the literature and second, identify gaps and future directions for precision health research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To define precision health and map research in this field, a scoping review will be undertaken and reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses - Scoping Review Extension guidelines. Systematic searches of scientific databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and PsycINFO) and grey literature sources (Google Scholar, Google Patents) identified 8053 potentially eligible articles published from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2020. Following removal of duplicates, a total of 3190 articles were imported for screening. Article data will be extracted using a customised extraction template on Covidence and analysed descriptively using narrative synthesis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required. Findings will be disseminated through professional networks, conference presentations and publication in a scientific journal.


Subject(s)
Precision Medicine , Research Design , Humans , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e039246, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare is increasingly challenged to meet the demands of user involvement and knowledge mobilisation required by the 21st-century patient-centred and knowledge-based economies. Innovations are needed to reduce problematic barriers to knowledge exchange and improve collaborative problem solving. Living labs, as open knowledge systems, have the potential to address these gaps but are underexplored in healthcare. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct the first systematic review of living labs across healthcare contexts. We will comprehensively search the following online databases from inception to 31 December 2020: Scopus, the Cochrane Library (Wiley), Medline (OVID), Embase (OVID), Web of Science, PsycINFO (OVID) and EBSCOhost databases including Academic Search Complete, Business Source Premier, Canadian Reference Centre, CINAHL, MasterFILE Premier, SPORTDiscus, Library & Information Science Source, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, AgeLine, EconLit, Art Full Text, Women's Studies International and Social Work Abstracts. We will search for grey literature using Google advanced techniques and books/book chapters through scholarly and bibliographical databases. We will use a dual-reviewer, two-step selection process with pre-established inclusion criteria and limit to English language publications. Empirical studies of any design examining living lab development, implementation or evaluation in health or healthcare will be included. We will use the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) for methodological quality appraisal and Covidence software for review management, and we will extract data on pre-established variables such as lab context and technological platforms. We will create evidence tables and analyse across variables such as focal aim and achievement of living lab principles, such as the use of cocreation and multimethod approaches. We will tabulate data for descriptive reporting and narrative synthesis to identify current applications, approaches and promising areas for living lab development across health contexts. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was not required for this review. This review will inform research into living labs in health environments, including guidance for a living lab in paediatric rehabilitation. Academic publications shared through collaborative networks and social media channels will provide substantive knowledge to the growing tech-health development sector and to researchers, practitioners and organisations seeking enhanced patient/stakeholder engagement and innovations in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020175275.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Canada , Child , Evidence-Based Practice , Female , Humans , Organizations , Review Literature as Topic
16.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 160, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than eight in ten of the world's 1.65 million adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV) live in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and poor viral suppression are reported among ALHIV which may in turn compromise the gains achieved so far. The evidence on whether knowing one's own human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and self-disclosure to others benefit adherence to ART or not is inconclusive. This review aims to estimate the association between knowing one's HIV status and self-disclosure on adherence to ART among ALHIV in SSA. METHODS: Comprehensive search strings will be used to identify relevant observational studies published in English up to May 2020 in major databases: Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), PubMed, and Ovid/MEDLINE. To access African studies and also to freely access subscription-based articles, the African Index Medicus (AIM) and the WHO HINARI databases will be searched. The AfroLib database will be searched to access the gray literature of African studies. We will use the COVIDENCE software for title/abstract screening, full-text screening, quality assessment, and data extraction. Two authors will independently screen retrieved articles, and a third author authorized to resolve conflicts will handle disagreements. The Joanna Briggs Institute's (JBI) critical appraisal tools will be used to assess study quality. Appropriate statistical tests will be conducted to quantify the between studies heterogeneity and for the assessment of publication bias. We will check individual study influence analysis and also do subgroup analysis. The STATA version 14.2 will be used for statistical analysis. DISCUSSION: A high-level adherence to ART is required to achieve adequate viral suppression and improve quality of life. Consequently, the evidence on how adherence to ART differs with knowledge of one's own HIV status and self-disclosure may help guide interventions aimed at improving adherence to ART.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medication Adherence , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Quality of Life , Review Literature as Topic , Self Disclosure
17.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 63, 2020 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the burden of disease is preventable, yet investment in health promotion and disease prevention programmes remains a small share of the total health budget in many countries. The perception that there is paucity of evidence on the cost-effectiveness of public health programmes is seen as a barrier to policy change. The aim of this scoping review is to conduct a census of economic evaluations in primary prevention in order to identify and map the existing evidence. METHODS: This review is an update of a prior census and will include full economic evaluations of primary prevention programmes conducted in a community-based setting that were published between 2014 and 2019. The search of electronic databases (MEDLINE and Embase, and NHS-EED for 2014) will be supplemented by a search for grey literature in OpenGrey and a search of the reference lists of reviews of economic evaluations identified in our searches. Retrieved citations will be imported into Covidence® and independently screened in a two-stage process by two reviewers (abstracts and full papers). Any disagreements on the eligibility of a citation will be resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. Included studies will then be categorised by one independent reviewer according to a four-part typology covering the type of health promotion intervention, the risk factor being tackled, the setting in which the intervention took place and the population most affected by the intervention. New to this version of the census, we will also document whether or not the intervention sets out specifically to address inequalities in health. DISCUSSION: This review will produce an annotated bibliography of all economic evaluations plus a report summarising the current scope and content of the economic evidence (highlighting where it is plentiful and where it is lacking) and describing any changes in the type of economic evidence available for the various categories of disease prevention programmes since the last census. This will allow us to identify where future evaluative efforts should be focused to enhance the economic evidence base regarding primary prevention interventions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Registration is being sought concurrently.


Subject(s)
Censuses , Primary Prevention , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Health Promotion , Review Literature as Topic
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040881, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Driving is one of the main modes of transport with safe driving requiring a combination of visual, cognitive and physical skills. With population ageing, the number of people living with vision impairment is set to increase in the decades ahead. Vision impairment may negatively impact an individual's ability to safely drive. The association between vision impairment and motor vehicle crash involvement or driving participation has yet to be systematically investigated. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of vision-related interventions aimed at decreasing crashes and driving errors has not been synthesised. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A search will be conducted for relevant studies on Medline (Ovid), EMBASE and Global Health from their inception to March 2020 without date or geographical restrictions. Two investigators will independently screen abstracts and full texts using Covidence software with conflicts resolved by a third investigator. Data extraction will be conducted on all included studies, and their quality assessed to determine the risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Outcome measures include crash risk, driving cessation and surrogate measures of driving safety (eg, driving errors and performance). The results of this review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guideline. Meta-analysis will be undertaken for outcomes with sufficient data and reported following the Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. Where statistical pooling is not feasible or appropriate, narrative summaries will be presented following the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis in systematic reviews guideline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will only report on published data thus no ethics approval is required. Results will be included in the Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health, published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020172153.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vision, Ocular
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039458, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455705

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Universal health coverage (UHC) includes the dimensions of equity in access, quality services that improve health and protection against financial hardship. Cataract continues to be the leading cause of blindness globally, despite cataract surgery being an efficacious intervention. The aim of this scoping review is to map the nature, extent and global distribution of data on cataract services for UHC in terms of equity, access, quality and financial protection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The search will be constructed by an Information Specialist and undertaken in MEDLINE, Embase and Global Health databases. We will include all published non-interventional primary research studies and systematic reviews that report a quantitative assessment of access, equity, quality or financial protection of cataract surgical services for adults at the subnational, national, regional or global level from population-based surveys or routinely collected health service data since 1 January 2000 and published through to February 2020.Screening and data charting will be undertaken using Covidence systematic review software. Titles and abstracts of identified studies will be screened by two authors independently. Full-text articles of potentially relevant studies will be obtained and reviewed independently by two authors against the inclusion criteria. Any discrepancies between the authors will be resolved by discussion, and with a third author as necessary. A data charting form will be developed and piloted on three studies by three authors and amendments made as necessary. Data will be extracted by two reviewers independently and summarised narratively and using maps. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was not sought as the scoping review will only use published and publicly accessible data. The review will be published in an open access peer-reviewed journal. A summary of the results will be developed for website posting, stakeholder meetings and inclusion in the ongoing Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Universal Health Insurance , Delivery of Health Care , Global Health , Humans , Review Literature as Topic
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e037643, 2020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455703

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Digital health interventions (DHIs) are defined as health services delivered electronically through formal or informal care. DHIs can range from electronic medical records used by providers to mobile health apps used by consumers. DHIs involve complex interactions between user, technology and the healthcare team, posing challenges for implementation and evaluation. Theoretical or interpretive frameworks are crucial in providing researchers guidance and clarity on implementation or evaluation approaches; however, there is a lack of standardisation on which frameworks to use in which contexts. Our goal is to conduct a scoping review to identify frameworks to guide the implementation or evaluation of DHIs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping review will be conducted using methods outlined by the Joanna Briggs Institute reviewers' manual and will conform to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews. Studies will be included if they report on frameworks (ie, theoretical, interpretive, developmental) that are used to guide either implementation or evaluation of DHIs. Electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO will be searched in addition to grey literature and reference lists of included studies. Citations and full text articles will be screened independently in Covidence after a reliability check among reviewers. We will use qualitative description to summarise findings and focus on how research objectives and type of DHIs are aligned with the frameworks used. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We engaged an advisory panel of digital health knowledge users to provide input at strategic stages of the scoping review to enhance the relevance of findings and inform dissemination activities. Specifically, they will provide feedback on the eligibility criteria, data abstraction elements, interpretation of findings and assist in developing key messages for dissemination. This study does not require ethical review. Findings from review will support decision making when selecting appropriate frameworks to guide the implementation or evaluation of DHIs.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Research Report , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Publications , Reproducibility of Results , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
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