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2.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e073300, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240200

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is responsible for a significant burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and remains the most common cause of acquired heart disease among children and young adults in low-income and middle-income countries. Additionally, the global COVID-19 pandemic has forced the emergency restructuring of many health systems, which has had a broad impact on health in general, including cardiovascular disease. Despite significant cost to the health system and estimates from 2015 indicating both high incidence and prevalence of RHD in South Africa, no cohesive national strategy exists. An updated review of national burden of disease estimates, as well as literature on barriers to care for patients with RHD, will provide crucial information to assist in the development of a national RHD programme. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using predefined search terms that capture relevant disease processes from Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infection through to the sequelae of RHD, a search of PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Sabinet African Journals, SA Heart and Current and Completed Research databases will be performed. All eligible studies on RHD, acute rheumatic fever and GAS infection published from April 2014 to December 2022 will be included. Vital registration data for the same period from Statistics South Africa will also be collected. A standardised data extraction form will be used to capture results for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. All studies included in burden of disease estimates will undergo quality assessment using standardised tools. Updated estimates on mortality and morbidity as well as a synthesis of work on primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of RHD will be reported. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethics clearance is required for this study. Findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and submitted to national stakeholders in RHD. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023392782.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Heart Disease , Streptococcal Infections , Child , Young Adult , Humans , Rheumatic Heart Disease/therapy , Rheumatic Heart Disease/prevention & control , South Africa/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Cost of Illness , Review Literature as Topic
3.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e069843, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237037

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the psychological health and well-being of healthcare providers. An amplification in chronic stressors, workload and fatalities may have increased the risk of compassion fatigue and disrupted the quality of patient care. Although current studies have explored the general psychological status of healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic, few have focused on compassion fatigue. The purpose of this review is to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on compassion fatigue in healthcare providers and the repercussions of compassion fatigue on patient care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow Joanna Briggs Institute and Arksey and O'Malley scoping review methodology. Comprehensive searches will be conducted in the following relevant databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science. To expand the search, reference lists of included studies will be handsearched for additional relevant studies. Included studies must report on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on compassion fatigue in healthcare providers and have been published in English since January 2020. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review does not require research ethics board approval. By examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on compassion fatigue in healthcare providers, this scoping review can offer important insight into the possible risks, protective factors and strategies to support healthcare providers' psychological health and patient care amidst persisting stressful conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Humans , Compassion Fatigue/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0281173, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244868

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While mainstream messaging about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disparities continues to highlight individual risk-taking behavior among historically marginalized groups, including racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minoritized patients, the effect of structural factors and social determinants of health (SDOH) on morbidity and mortality remain underestimated. Systemic barriers, including a failure of adequate and acceptable screening, play a significant role in the disparate rates of disease. Primary care practitioner (PCP) competency in culturally responsive screening practices is key to reducing the impact of structural factors on HIV rates and outcomes. To address this issue, a scoping review will be performed to inform the development of a training series and social marketing campaign to improve the competency of PCPs in this area. OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aims to analyze what recent literature identify as facilitators and barriers of culturally responsive HIV and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) screening practices for historically marginalized populations, specifically racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minoritized groups. A secondary aim is to identify themes and gaps in the literature to help guide future opportunities for research. METHODS: This scoping review will be performed following the framework set forth by Arksey and O'Malley and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Relevant studies between the years 2019-2022 will be identified using a rigorous search strategy across four databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Scopus, Cochrane (CENTRAL; via Wiley), and CINAHL (via EBSCO), using Boolean and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) search terms. Studies will be uploaded to the data extraction tool Covidence to remove duplicates and perform a title/abstract screening, followed by a full-text screening and data extraction. RESULTS: Data will be extracted and analyzed for themes related to culturally responsive HIV and PrEP screening practices in clinical encounters with the identified target populations. Results will be reported according to PRISMA-ScR guidelines. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to use scoping methods to investigate barriers and facilitators to culturally responsive HIV and PrEP screening practices for racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minoritized populations. The limitations of this study include the analysis restrictions of a scoping review and the timeframe of this review. We anticipate that this study's findings will interest PCPs, public health professionals, community activists, patient populations, and researchers interested in culturally responsive care. The results of this scoping review will inform a practitioner-level intervention that will support culturally sensitive quality improvement of HIV-related prevention and care for patients from minoritized groups. Additionally, the themes and gaps found during analysis will guide future avenues of research related to this topic.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual Behavior , Humans , Health Personnel , Knowledge , MEDLINE , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Review Literature as Topic
5.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068564, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243805

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir is an antiviral medication that is used in the treatment of severe COVID-19. Research has highlighted the potential cardiac side effects of remdesivir, including the occurrence of remdesivir-associated bradycardia (RAB), but these findings have not been consistent. In addition, very little is known about the clinical implications and outcomes of RAB. The aim of this rapid systematic review is to determine the event rate of developing bradycardia while receiving remdesivir treatment compared with not receiving remdesivir in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol guidelines and will include original papers related to COVID-19, remdesivir and bradycardia. Only English language papers published from 1 December 2019 to 31 December 2022 will be included. The following databases will be searched using keywords and controlled vocabulary: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed and Web of Science. Two reviewers will independently perform screening and data abstraction. Data will be synthesised qualitatively as well as quantitatively. A random-effects model will be used to calculate the pooled estimates. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will systematically analyse the clinical studies available to help better characterise RAB. The results will support a retrospective study investigating RAB that is currently being conducted at the University Medical Center of Southern Nevada in Las Vegas, Nevada. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: This protocol has been submitted to and approved by PROSPERO (Protocol ID: CRD42022331614).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic
6.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e072588, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242438

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People with complex health and social needs often require care from different providers and services. Identifying their existing sources of support could assist with addressing potential gaps and opportunities for enhanced service delivery. Eco-mapping is an approach used to visually capture people's social relationships and their linkages to the larger social systems. As it is an emerging and promising approach in the health services field, a scoping review on eco-mapping is warranted. This scoping review aims to synthesise the empirical literature that has focused on the application of eco-mapping by describing characteristics, populations, methodological approaches and other features of eco-mapping in health services research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. From the date of database construction to 16 January 2023, the following databases in English will be searched: Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, CINAHL Ultimate (EBSCOhost), Emcare (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Ovid) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid) Study/Source of Evidence selection. The inclusion criteria consist of empirical literature that uses eco-mapping or a related tool in the context of health services research. Two researchers will independently screen references against inclusion and exclusion criteria using Covidence software. Once screened, the data will be extracted and organised according to the following research questions: (1) What research questions and phenomena of interest do researchers address when using eco-mapping? (2) What are the characteristics of studies that use eco-mapping in health services research? (3) What are the methodological considerations for eco-mapping in health services research? ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review does not require ethical approval. The findings will be disseminated through publications, conference presentations and stakeholder meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GAWYN.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Health Services Research , Humans , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Databases, Factual , Interpersonal Relations , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068762, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With technological advancement and the COVID-19 pandemic, paper-based media are giving way to screen-based media to promote healthy ageing. However, there is no review available covering paper and screen media use by older people, so the objective of this review is to map the current use of paper-based and/or screen-based media for health education aimed at older people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The literature will be searched in Scopus, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The ACM Guide to Computing Literature and Psyinfo databases. Studies in English, Portuguese, Italian or Spanish published from 2012 to the date of the search will be examined. In addition, an additional strategy will be carried out, which will be a Google Scholar search, in which the first 300 studies according to Google's relevance algorithm will be verified. The terms used in the search strategy will be focused on older adults, health education, paper-based and screen-based media, preferences, intervention and other related terms. This review will include studies where the average age of the participants was 60 years or older and were users of health education strategies through paper-based or screen-based media. Two reviewers will carry out the selection of studies in five steps: identification of studies and removal of duplicates, pilot test, selection by reading titles and abstracts, full-text inclusion and search for additional sources. A third reviewer will resolve disagreements. To record information from the included studies, a data extraction form will be used. The quantitative data will be presented in a descriptive way and the qualitative data through Bardin's content analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not applicable to the scoping review. The results will be disseminated through presentations at significant scientific events and published in journals in the area. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open science framework (DOI: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/GKEAH).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Algorithms , Data Accuracy , Health Education , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
8.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068759, 2023 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327387

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has been demonstrated to enhance infant growth and development, reduce parental anxiety and stress and strengthen parent-infant bonding. Since eHealth technology emerged, research on its utilisation in NICUs has risen substantially. There is some evidence that incorporating such technologies in the NICU can reduce parental stress and enhance parent confidence in caring for their infant.Several countries, including China, restrict parental attendance in NICUs, citing infection control challenges, issues of privacy and confidentiality and perceived additional workload for healthcare professionals. Due to COVID-19 pandemic-related shortages of personal protective equipment and uncertain mode of transmission, many NICUs around the world closed to parental visiting and engagement in neonatal care.There is anecdotal evidence that, given pandemic-related restrictions, eHealth technologies, have increasingly been used in NICUs as a potential substitute for in-person parental presence.However, the constraints and enablers of technologies in these situations have not been exhaustively examined. This scoping review aims to update the literature on eHealth technology utilisation in the NICU and to explore the literature on the challenges and facilitators of eHealth technology implementation to inform future research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The five-stage Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework and the Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methodology will serve as the foundation for this scoping review. Eight databases will be searched for the relevant literature published between January 2000 and August 2022 in either English or Chinese. Grey literature will be manually searched. Data extraction and eligibility screening will be carried out by two impartial reviewers. There will be periods of both quantitative and qualitative analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since all data and information will be taken from publicly accessible literature, ethical approval would not be necessary. A peer-reviewed publication will be published with the results of this scoping review. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This scoping review protocol was registered in Open Science Framework and can be found here: https://osf.io/AQV5P/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parents , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
9.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e066649, 2023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326745

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To reduce the transmission of COVID-19, regulations included the use of cloth masks, sanitising regularly, maintaining social distance and having minimal personal contact. COVID-19 affected many different groups of people including service providers and users of correctional centres. In this protocol, we aim to establish evidence on the challenges and coping strategies adopted by the incarcerated and service providers of the incarcerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this scoping review, we will use the Arksey and O'Malley framework. We will consult PubMed, PsycInfo, SAGE, JSTOR, African Journals and Google Scholar as our databases to search for evidence, and run a continuous search of articles from June 2022 until we conduct an analysis to ensure that our search results are updated. Two reviewers will independently screen the titles, abstracts and full texts for inclusion. All results will be compiled, and duplicates will be removed. Discrepancies and conflicts will be discussed with the third reviewer. All articles that meet the full-text criteria will be included for data extraction. Results will be reported in line with the review objectives and the Donabedian conceptual framework. DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval of the study will not be applicable in this scoping review. Our findings will be disseminated in different ways, such as publishing in peer-reviewed journals and to other key correctional system stakeholders, as well as submitting a policy brief for prison decision makers and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adaptation, Psychological , Prisons , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
10.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285442, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318292

ABSTRACT

The continuous dissemination of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) literature can inform decision-makers and the public. Since the widespread use of COVID-19 vaccines, more systematic reviews have summarized the effectiveness and reported adverse events associated with vaccination. Previous systematic and scoping reviews on COVID-19 summarized various aspects surrounding COVID-19, however, a scoping review is needed to summarize the characteristics of COVID-19 vaccines and associated adverse events reported in systematic reviews and meta-analyses to provide comprehensive evidence for informed medical decision-making. We will conduct a scoping review concerning COVID-19 vaccines and adverse events from vaccines. We will search from December 2019 to present in Epistemonikos, Campbell Library, CINAHL (Ovid), MEDLINE (Ovid), Scopus, CENTRAL (Ovid), Web of Science, WHO COVID-19 database, Joanna Briggs Institute of Excellence, and COVID-19 Evidence Reviews resource. We will include systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or both of randomized controlled trials and observational studies and exclude individual randomized controlled trials and observational studies. Abstracts and full-texts will be screened prior to selection. Investigators will independently use a calibrated quantitative and qualitative data extraction sheet and rate the quality of articles with AMSTAR, resolving disagreements to aim for good agreement (≥80%). An updated scoping review of the characteristics and safety of COVID-19 vaccines would highlight the accuracy of the evidence to inform decision-making concerning COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Data Management , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vaccination/adverse effects , Meta-Analysis as Topic
11.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e071208, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314594

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite cultural, religious and legal constraints, alcohol and drug abuse is rising in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Therefore, we aim to produce a scoping review to summarise available scientific literature on alcohol and substance dependence (ASD) in all ethnic and religious groups in the UAE to inform future scientific inquiries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Social work faculty from the UAE University will conduct the scoping review between March 2023 and February 2024. Drawing on the participants, concept, context (PCC) framework, the following review question was developed: What can be learnt from a review of scientific literature on alcohol and substance abuse in all ethnic and religious groups in the UAE? The scientific literature on ASD in the UAE published between 1971 and January 2023, in either English or Arabic, will be considered, including all ethnic, religious and age groups. Grey literature, such as postgraduate dissertations and conference proceedings, will also be considered. Eight English and two Arabic databases and print copies of literature sources in university libraries will be included. EndNote and Covidence software will be used for deduplication, screening and data extraction. Screening and reviewing search results will involve two English-speaking and two Arabic-speaking team members who will work independently. A third reviewer will resolve conflicts. The inter-rater reliability data from the title and abstract screening stage will be exported, and Cohen's kappa coefficient will be calculated. Data charting informed by the Covidence data extraction tool 2.0 will occur after pilot testing, followed by qualitative content analysis. Reporting of the findings will align with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews tool. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this study because this is a scoping review of published studies and grey literature. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journal publications, scientific conferences and a policy brief.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Ethanol , Reproducibility of Results , Review Literature as Topic , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
12.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e070543, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312161

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data regarding the safety of drugs and vaccines in pregnant women are typically unavailable before licensure. Pregnancy exposure registries (PERs) are an important source of postmarketing safety information. PERs in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are uncommon but can provide valuable safety data regarding their distinct contexts and will become more relevant as the introduction and use of new drugs and vaccines in pregnancy increase worldwide. Strategies to support PERs in LMICs must be based on a better understanding of their current status. We developed a scoping review protocol to assess the landscape of PERs that operate in LMICs and characterise their strengths and challenges. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review protocol follows the Joanna Briggs Institute manual for scoping reviews. The search strategy will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist. We will search PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and WHO's Global Index Medicus, as well as the reference lists of retrieved full-text records, for articles published between 2000 and 2022 that describe PERs or other resources that systematically record exposures to medical products during pregnancy and maternal and infant outcomes in LMICs. Title and abstracts will be screened by two authors and data extracted using a standardised form. We will undertake a grey literature search using Google Scholar and targeted websites. We will distribute an online survey to selected experts and conduct semistructured interviews with key informants. Identified PERs will be summarised in tables and analysed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this activity, as it was determined not to involve human subjects research. Findings will be submitted to an open access peer-reviewed journal and may be presented at conferences, with underlying data and other materials made publicly available.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Vaccines , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Research Design , Vaccines/adverse effects , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Review Literature as Topic
13.
Syst Rev ; 12(1): 57, 2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder causes a great burden on patients and societies. Venlafaxine and mirtazapine are commonly prescribed as second-line treatment for patients with major depressive disorder worldwide. Previous systematic reviews have concluded that venlafaxine and mirtazapine reduce depressive symptoms, but the effects seem small and may not be important to the average patient. Moreover, previous reviews have not systematically assessed the occurrence of adverse events. Therefore, we aim to investigate the risks of adverse events with venlafaxine or mirtazapine versus 'active placebo', placebo, or no intervention for adults with major depressive disorder in two separate systematic reviews. METHODS: This is a protocol for two systematic reviews with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. The assessments of the effects of venlafaxine or mirtazapine will be reported in two separate reviews. The protocol is reported as recommended by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols, risk of bias will be assessed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool version 2, clinical significance will be assessed using our eight-step procedure, and the certainty of the evidence will be assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. We will search for published and unpublished trials in major medical databases and trial registers. Two review authors will independently screen the results from the literature searches, extract data, and assess risk of bias. We will include published or unpublished randomised clinical trial comparing venlafaxine or mirtazapine with 'active placebo', placebo, or no intervention for adults with major depressive disorder. The primary outcomes will be suicides or suicide attempts, serious adverse events, and non-serious adverse events. Exploratory outcomes will include depressive symptoms, quality of life, and individual adverse events. If feasible, we will assess the intervention effects using random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses. DISCUSSION: Venlafaxine and mirtazapine are frequently used as second-line treatment of major depressive disorder worldwide. There is a need for a thorough systematic review to provide the necessary background for weighing the benefits against the harms. This review will ultimately inform best practice in the treatment of major depressive disorder. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022315395.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Adult , Mirtazapine/adverse effects , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Review Literature as Topic
14.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e071682, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292578

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health inequalities are unfair, systematic differences in health between people. In the UK, the Health and Social Care Act 2012 recognised health inequalities as a responsibility of the National Health Service (NHS). Health inequalities were foregrounded in the publication of 2019 NHS Long Term Plan and during the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals are well placed to address health inequalities through their role as anchor institutions. While many hospitals have begun to address inequalities, children are often overlooked or assumed to have the same needs as adult populations. This grey literature scoping review aims to identify, collate and present approaches taken by hospitals to address health inequalities in children and young people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow Joanna Briggs Institute guidance. A four-step approach to identifying grey literature will be used. Literature will be examined to identify approaches that aim to address health inequalities. Literature must describe the health inequality they aim to address and be initiated by the hospital. It will exclude literature not available in English and published before 2010. Two reviewers will independently review the results of the searches using the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted using a data extraction tool. Study findings will be presented in tabular form detailing the interventions identified. DISSEMINATION: The review will synthesise information on worldwide hospital approaches to addressing child health inequalities. The findings will be used to inform guidelines for children's hospitals in the UK and will be disseminated through national and international professional bodies, conferences and research papers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Gray Literature , Pandemics , State Medicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
15.
Trials ; 24(1): 286, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) aim to assess the effect of one (or more) unproven health interventions relative to other reference interventions. RCTs sometimes use an ordinal outcome, which is an endpoint that comprises of multiple, monotonically ordered categories that are not necessarily separated by a quantifiable distance. Ordinal outcomes are appealing in clinical settings as specific disease states can represent meaningful categories that may be of clinical importance to researchers. Ordinal outcomes can also retain information and increase statistical power compared to dichotomised outcomes and can allow multiple clinical outcomes to be comprised in a single endpoint. Target parameters for ordinal outcomes in RCTs may vary depending on the nature of the research question, the modelling assumptions and the expertise of the data analyst. The aim of this scoping review is to systematically describe the use of ordinal outcomes in contemporary RCTs. Specifically, we aim to: [Formula: see text] Identify which target parameters are of interest in trials that use an ordinal outcome, and whether these parameters are explicitly defined. [Formula: see text] Describe how ordinal outcomes are analysed in RCTs to estimate a treatment effect. [Formula: see text] Describe whether RCTs that use an ordinal outcome adequately report key methodological aspects specific to the analysis of the ordinal outcome. Results from this review will outline the current state of practice of the use of ordinal outcomes in RCTs. Ways to improve the analysis and reporting of ordinal outcomes in RCTs will be discussed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will review RCTs that are published in the top four medical journals (British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet and the Journal of the American Medical Association) between 1 January 2012 and 31 July 2022 that use an ordinal outcome as either a primary or a secondary outcome. The review will identify articles through a PubMed-specific search strategy. Our review will adhere to guidelines for scoping reviews as described in the PRISMA-ScR checklist. The study characteristics and details of the study design and analysis, including the target parameter(s) and statistical methods used to analyse the ordinal outcome, will be extracted from eligible studies. The screening, review and data extraction will be conducted using Covidence, a web-based tool for managing systematic reviews. The data will be summarised using descriptive statistics.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Research Design , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , United States
16.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e066005, 2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302806

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cancer screening is an integral component of primary care, and providers can play a key role in facilitating screening. While much work has focused on patient interventions, there has been less attention on primary care provider (PCP) interventions. In addition, marginalised patients experience disparities in cancer screening which are likely to worsen if not addressed. The objective of this scoping review is to report on the range, extent and nature of PCP interventions that maximise cancer screening participation among marginalised patients. Our review will target cancers where there is strong evidence to support screening, including lung, cervical, breast and colorectal cancers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a scoping review conducted in accordance with the framework by Levac et al. Comprehensive searches will be conducted by a health sciences librarian using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Scopus, CINAHL Complete and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We will include peer-reviewed English language literature published from 1 January 2000 to 31 March 2022 that describes PCP interventions to maximise cancer screening participation for breast, cervical, lung and colorectal cancers. Two independent reviewers will screen all articles and identify eligible studies for inclusion in two stages: title and abstract, then full text. A third reviewer will resolve any discrepancies. Charted data will be synthesised through a narrative synthesis using a piloted data extraction form informed by the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since this is a synthesis of digitally published literature, no ethics approval is needed for this work. We will target appropriate primary care or cancer screening journals and conference presentations to publish and disseminate the results of this scoping review. The results will also be used to inform an ongoing research study developing PCP interventions for addressing cancer screening with marginalised patients.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Research Design , Bibliometrics , Primary Health Care , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Review Literature as Topic
17.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e071357, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306335

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: University students face challenges when starting their careers and entering the workforce after tertiary education is associated with negative psychological outcomes. The planned scoping review will synthesise the literature on the impact of university-to-work transitions on the mental health of new and recent graduates. We will describe the characteristics and main findings of the studies, and will examine the variables associated with, and the theories used to explain, the relationship between transitions to work and graduates' mental health. METHODS: We will search the following databases: Scopus, Web of Science, ERIC, PSYCINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, CINAHL Plus, Ovid MEDLINE and Google Scholar, to locate published and unpublished literature. The included studies will focus on undergraduate and postgraduate university students during planned or current university-to-work transitions, as well as early-career workers. We will include studies involving people who have left or are in their final year of study, are undergoing career transition preparation or have worked for no longer than 3 years since graduation. Studies from all countries, those published in English and since 2000, will be included. We will use a set of predefined search terms and we will extract studies using the EndNote V.20 reference management software. Two reviewers will screen and assess the identified studies using the Covidence software. Finally, we will present the data in a summary table and will qualitatively analyse the studies using thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Our scoping review does not require ethical approval. The scoping review's findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journal articles and conference presentations, and will inform the development of training resources for different stakeholders as part of a wider research project. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study has been registered with the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/gw86x).


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Students , Humans , Universities , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
18.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e069436, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300984

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies, exploring the effect of food insecurity on physical and mental health, have shown that food insecurity is associated with lower self-reports of physical and mental health. With the COVID-19 pandemic, food insecurity has increased leading to higher risks of poor mental health. Despite evidence of the negative implications of food insecurity on mental health, there is a paucity of research on these variables for adolescents specifically. The current evidence shows there is a gap in adolescent centred research linking mental health and food insecurity globally. Adolescence is a crucial period of development where habits, nutritional inadequacies linked to food insecurity and mental health problems formed due to these inadequacies can be conveyed into adulthood. The aim of this study is to systematically scope the literature exploring the relationship between mental health, food (in)security and/or diet intake of adolescents. METHODS: This review will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's extended framework. The search strategy was developed by two of the authors and will be used to search literature from January 2012 to December 2022 in PubMed, Academic search complete, PsychARTICLES, Google, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of science core collection. Searching published and unpublished literature will be done in the chosen databases. References used in included literature will be reviewed for additional studies/sources. Articles will be assessed for eligibility by two reviewers, and any discrepancies reviewed by a third reviewer. The inclusion and exclusion criteria will be used for screening. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow diagram will be used to document the selection process. A narrative summary and descriptive analysis will be used to summarise and report the extracted data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval for this study has been granted by the University of the Western Cape Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (BM21/8/3). Strict measures will be followed to ensure methodological rigour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food , Diet , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Review Literature as Topic
19.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 32(5): 907-908, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299465
20.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e066374, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276549

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For most of history, the majority of people died at home surrounded by family. However, the global scenario has progressively changed towards hospital death and more recently in some countries back again towards home, with indication that COVID-19 may have further increased the number of home deaths. It is therefore timely to establish the state-of-the-art about people's preferences for place of end-of-life care and death, to understand the full spectrum of preferences, nuances and commonalities worldwide. This protocol describes the methods for an umbrella review which aims to examine and synthesise the available evidence regarding preferences about place of end-of-life care and death of patients with life-threatening illnesses and their families. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search for relevant systematic reviews (quantitative and/or qualitative) in six databases from inception without language restrictions: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PROSPERO and Epistemonikos. Following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for umbrella reviews, eligibility screening, data extraction and quality assessment (using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist) will be done by two independent reviewers. We will report the screening process using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow diagram. Study double-counting will be reported using the Graphical Representation of Overlap for OVErviews tool. A narrative synthesis will include 'Summary of Evidence' tables to address five review questions (distribution of preferences and reasons, influencing variables, place of care vs place of death, changes over time, congruence between preferred and actual places), grading the evidence on each question using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and/or GRADE-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review does not require ethical approval. The results will be presented at conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022339983.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospice Care , Terminal Care , Humans , Qualitative Research , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
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