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1.
Phytother Res ; 36(6): 2394-2415, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782685

ABSTRACT

The interim results of the large, multinational trials on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using a combination of antiviral drugs appear to have little to no effect on the 28-day mortality or the in-hospital course. Therefore, there is a still vivid interest in finding alternate re-purposed drugs and nutrition supplements, which can halt or slow the disease severity. We review here the multiple preclinical studies, partially supported by clinical evidence showing the quercetin's possible therapeutic/prophylaxis efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) as well as comorbidities like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes mellitus, obesity, coagulopathy, and hypertension. Currently, 14 interventional clinical trials are underway assessing the efficacy of quercetin along with other antiviral drugs/nutritional supplements as prophylaxis/treatment option against COVID-19. The present review is tempting to suggest that, based on circumstantial scientific evidence and preliminary clinical data, the flavonoid quercetin can ameliorate COVID-19 infection and symptoms acting in concert on two parallel and independent paths: inhibiting key factors responsible for SARS-CoV-2 infections and mitigating the clinical manifestations of the disease in patients with comorbid conditions. Despite the broad therapeutic properties of quercetin, further high power randomized clinical trials are needed to firmly establish its clinical efficacy against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Reward , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 841345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776048

ABSTRACT

Background: Although positive safety leadership has attracted increasingly academic and practical attention due to its critical effects on followers' safety compliance behavior, far fewer steps have been taken to study the safety impact of laissez-faire leadership. Objective: This study examines the relationships between safety-specific leader reward and punishment omission (laissez-faire leadership) and followers' safety compliance, and the mediations of safety-specific distributive justice and role ambiguity. Methods: On a two-wave online survey of 307 workers from high-risk enterprises in China, these relationships were tested by structural equations modeling and bootstrapping procedures. Results: Findings show that safety-specific leader reward omission was negatively associated with followers' safety compliance through the mediating effects of safety-specific distributive justice and role ambiguity. Safety-specific leader punishment omission was also negatively associated with followers' safety compliance through the mediating effect of safety-specific role ambiguity, while safety-specific distributive justice was an insignificant mediator. Originality: The study addresses and closes more gaps by explaining how two contextualized laissez-faire leadership measures relate to followers' safety behaviors, following the contextualization and matching principles between predictors, mediators and criteria, and by revealing two mechanisms behind the detrimental effects of laissez-faire leadership on safety outcomes.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Punishment , Reward , Safety , China , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Social Justice
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 805733, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776003

ABSTRACT

Background: Social media activities affect every aspect of human life, be it personal, social or professional. Previous studies have confirmed the role of social media in affecting health in terms of releasing stress and providing social support. Increased occupational health disorders and increased time spent on social media activities motivate us to investigate this phenomenon in the context of occupational health. Therefore, the objective of this study is to measure the effects of social media activities related to personal and social life as well as work-life on health and wellbeing of office employees, on their job efforts and job rewards, and in moderating the effect of effort-reward imbalance on health and wellbeing. Methods: Initially, to develop constructs related to social media activities, web-based structured interviews were conducted with five office employees working in the oil and gas industry for the last 5 years. Then, using an online questionnaire survey, data was collected from 424 office employees working in the oil and gas industry in Malaysia. Using statistical software for social science (SPSS) and Smart PLS, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to identify reliability and validity (discriminant validity, convergent validity and composite validity) of the constructs. Following this, path analysis was conducted and the moderating effects were identified. Results: Social media activities related to work-life decrease health and wellbeing by 11% and weaken the negative effect of effort-reward-imbalance on health and wellbeing by 17.6% at a 1% level of significance. The results of social media activities related to personal and social life strengthen the negative effect of effort-reward imbalance on health and wellbeing by 12% and negatively affects health and wellbeing and job rewards by 13, 55%, respectively. The direct effect of effort-reward imbalance and job efforts is significantly negative on health and wellbeing by 59 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that social media activities of the office employees significantly moderate the effect of effort-reward imbalance on health and wellbeing and intervene in job rewards in the organizations. Hence, the effect of social media activities reduces the health and wellbeing of office employees.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Mental Health , Oil and Gas Industry , Social Media , Humans , Malaysia , Reproducibility of Results , Reward , Work-Life Balance
4.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1512(1): 61-75, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714293

ABSTRACT

With limited resources, exploring new opportunities is crucial for survival. Exploring novel options, however, comes at the cost of uncertainty. Therefore, there is a trade-off between exploiting options with a known beneficial outcome and exploring novel options with a potentially higher gain. Computational models have suggested that novelty may promote exploratory behavior by inducing a so-called novelty bonus through reward-related processes. So far, few studies have provided behavioral evidence for such a novelty bonus. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether spatial novelty can stimulate exploratory behavior (Experiment 1), and whether age, novelty-seeking, and reduced action radius or social interactions due to COVID-19 restrictions influenced the exploration-exploitation trade-off (Experiment 2). In both experiments, we employed a novel paradigm in which participants made binary decisions between food items, while on rare trials, a surprise option was presented. Results from Experiment 1 are in line with a novelty bonus, with spatial novelty promoting exploratory behavior. In Experiment 2, we found that exploratory behavior declined with age, high novelty seekers made more exploratory choices than low novelty seekers, and participants with a smaller action radius made fewer exploratory choices. These findings are consistent with previous findings in animals and predictions from computational models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exploratory Behavior , Animals , Bias , Humans , Reward , Uncertainty
5.
Psychol Trauma ; 14(2): 301-309, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with various health problems, and recent data suggest reward processing may be an important mechanism linking the 2. However, different reward processing dimensions may have distinct roles in these associations that may be sensible to the psychological impact of more recent stressful events. We examined these associations in the COVID-19 pandemic context. METHOD: A community sample of 419 respondents (M age = 27.32 years, SD = 8.98, 88.1% females) completed an online survey. Participants filled in self-report measures of CA, reward processing dimensions, depressive and anxiety symptoms, physical status, and psychological impact of COVID-19. RESULTS: CA was significantly associated (p < .05) with depressive (r = .20) and anxiety symptoms (r = .19), physical health (r= -.16), reward learning (r = -.11) and responsiveness (r = -.16), but not reward valuation. Reward learning mediated the association between CA and all health status indicators (i.e., higher CA predicted decreased reward learning which in turn predicted increased depressive and anxiety symptoms and poorer physical health). Psychological impact of COVID-19 did not moderate the mediating role of reward processing in the associations between CA and health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Reward learning appears to be the only reward processing dimension which cuts across depressive and anxiety symptoms, and physical health problems, providing information about their onset and maintenance. Given that these findings suggest that it is a potential transdiagnostic mechanism for these various health problems, reward learning should be targeted through specific interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , COVID-19 , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Reward , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(12): 5815-5826, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555431

ABSTRACT

The design of new inhibitors for novel targets is a very important problem especially in the current scenario with the world being plagued by COVID-19. Conventional approaches such as high-throughput virtual screening require extensive combing through existing data sets in the hope of finding possible matches. In this study, we propose a computational strategy for de novo generation of molecules with high binding affinities to the specified target and other desirable properties for druglike molecules using reinforcement learning. A deep generative model built using a stack-augmented recurrent neural network initially trained to generate druglike molecules is optimized using reinforcement learning to start generating molecules with desirable properties like LogP, quantitative estimate of drug likeliness, topological polar surface area, and hydration free energy along with the binding affinity. For multiobjective optimization, we have devised a novel strategy in which the property being used to calculate the reward is changed periodically. In comparison to the conventional approach of taking a weighted sum of all rewards, this strategy shows an enhanced ability to generate a significantly higher number of molecules with desirable properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Design , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Reward , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(1): 19-28, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the first of three COVID-19 vaccination clinics in U.S. nursing homes (NHs), the median vaccination coverage of staff was 37.5%, indicating the need to identify strategies to increase staff coverage. We aimed at comparing the facility-level activities, policies, incentives, and communication methods associated with higher staff COVID-19 vaccination coverage. METHODS: Design. Case-control analysis. SETTING: Nationally stratified random sample of 1338 U.S. NHs participating in the Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home leadership. MEASUREMENT: During February 4-March 2, 2021, we surveyed NHs with low (<35%), medium (40%-60%), and high (>75%) staff vaccination coverage, to collect information on facility strategies used to encourage staff vaccination. Cases were respondents with medium and high vaccination coverage, whereas controls were respondents with low coverage. We used logistic regression modeling, adjusted for county and NH characteristics, to identify strategies associated with facility-level vaccination coverage. RESULTS: We obtained responses from 413 of 1338 NHs (30.9%). Compared with facilities with lower staff vaccination coverage, facilities with medium or high coverage were more likely to have designated frontline staff champions (medium: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.3; high: aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.7) and set vaccination goals (medium: aOR 2.4, 95% 1.0-5.5; high: aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.6-8.3). NHs with high vaccination coverage were more likely to have given vaccinated staff rewards such as T-shirts compared with NHs with low coverage (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.3-11.0). Use of multiple strategies was associated with greater likelihood of facilities having medium or high vaccination coverage: For example, facilities that used ≥9 strategies were three times more likely to have high staff vaccination coverage than facilities using <6 strategies (aOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.9). CONCLUSIONS: Use of designated champions, setting targets, and use of non-monetary awards were associated with high NH staff COVID-19 vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nursing Homes , Nursing Staff/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Reward , United States
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512289

ABSTRACT

Overqualification is prevalent in times of economic downturn, and research has increasingly focused on its outcomes. This study aimed to explore the psychological burden caused by perceived overqualification (POQ) and its impact on creativity among high-tech enterprise employees. Drawing from effort-reward imbalance theory, we examined the effect of POQ on emotional exhaustion, along with the mediating role of emotional exhaustion in the POQ-creativity relationship and the moderating role of pay for performance (PFP) in strengthening the link between POQ and emotional exhaustion. Using cross-sectional data from a sample of 359 employees in China, we found that (1) POQ was positively related to emotional exhaustion; (2) emotional exhaustion was negatively related to creativity; (3) PFP moderated the effect of POQ on emotional exhaustion as well as the indirect effect of POQ on creativity via emotional exhaustion. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Reimbursement, Incentive , Creativity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reward
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053268, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and acceptability of a short-term reminder and incentives intervention in adolescents with low adherence to asthma medications. METHODS: Mixed-methods feasibility study in a tertiary care clinic. Adolescents recruited to a 24-week programme with three 8-weekly visits, receiving electronic reminders to prompt inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) inhalation through a mobile app coupled with electronic monitoring devices (EMD). From the second visit, monetary incentives based on adherence of ICS inhalation: £1 per dose, maximum £2 /day, up to £112/study, collected as gift cards at the third visit. End of study interviews and questionnaires assessing perceptions of asthma and ICS, analysed using the Perceptions and Practicalities Framework. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents (11-18 years) with documented low ICS adherence (<80% by EMD), and poor asthma control at the first clinic visit. RESULTS: 10 out of 12 adolescents approached were recruited (7 males, 3 females, 12-16 years). Eight participants provided adherence measures up to the fourth visits and received rewards. Mean study duration was 281 days, with 7/10 participants unable to attend their fourth visit due to COVID-19 lockdown. Only 3/10 participants managed to pair the app/EMD up to the fourth visit, which was associated with improved ICS adherence (from 0.51, SD 0.07 to 0.86, SD 0.05). Adherence did not change in adolescents unable to pair the app/EMD. The intervention was acceptable to participants and parents/guardians. Exit interviews showed that participants welcomed reminders and incentives, though expressed frustration with app/EMD technological difficulties. Participants stated the intervention helped through reminding ICS doses, promoting self-monitoring and increasing motivation to take inhalers. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention using electronic reminders and incentives through an app coupled with an EMD was feasible and acceptable to adolescents with asthma. A pilot randomised controlled trial is warranted to better estimate the effect size on adherence, with improved technical support for the EMD.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Asthma/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Electronics , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Reward , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
11.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(5): e433, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412279

Subject(s)
Reward , Humans
12.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(3): 703-716, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373848

ABSTRACT

There is major concern about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent suicidal ideation (SI) and peer relationships. We investigated (1) rates of SI and (2) the extent to which peer connectedness and pre-existing neural activation to social reward predicted SI during the initial stay-at-home orders of the pandemic (April-May 2020) in a longitudinal sample of adolescent girls (N = 93; Mage  = 15.06; 69% White non-Hispanic). Daily diary and fMRI methods were used to assess peer connectedness and neural activation to social reward, respectively. Nearly 40% of girls endorsed SI during the initial stay-at-home orders. Greater peer connectedness and neural responsivity to anticipated social reward were associated with a reduced odds of SI during the pandemic among girls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Reward , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16187, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356578

ABSTRACT

A fundamental assumption of learning theories is that the credit assigned to predictive cues is not simply determined by their probability of reinforcement, but by their ability to compete with other cues present during learning. This assumption has guided behavioral and neural science research for decades, and tremendous empirical and theoretical advances have been made identifying the mechanisms of cue competition. However, when learning conditions are not optimal (e.g., when training is massed), cue competition is attenuated. This failure of the learning system exposes the individual's vulnerability to form spurious associations in the real world. Here, we uncover that cue competition in rats can be rescued when conditions are suboptimal provided that the individual has agency over the learning experience. Our findings reveal a new effect of agency over learning on credit assignment among predictive cues, and open new avenues of investigation into the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Association Learning/physiology , Competitive Behavior , Cues , Discrimination Learning/physiology , Learning Disabilities/physiopathology , Reinforcement, Psychology , Reward , Animals , Inhibition, Psychological , Male , Rats , Rats, Long-Evans
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348628

ABSTRACT

In the context of public health emergency management, it is worth studying ways to mobilize the enthusiasm of government, community, and residents. This paper adopts the method of combining evolutionary game and system dynamics to conduct a theoretical modeling and simulation analysis on the interactions of the behavioral strategies of the three participants. In response to opportunistic behavior and inadequate supervision in the static reward and punishment mechanism, we introduced a dynamic reward and punishment mechanism that considers changes in the social environment and the situation of epidemic prevention and control. This paper proves that the dynamic reward and punishment mechanism can effectively suppress the fluctuation problem in the evolutionary game process under static scenarios and achieve better supervision results through scenario analysis and simulation experiments.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Punishment , Biological Evolution , Cooperative Behavior , Emergencies , Humans , Reward
15.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 46(8): 915-926, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Adolescent depression is increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly related to dramatic social changes. Individual-level factors that contribute to social functioning, such as temperament and neural reactivity to social feedback, may confer risk for or resilience against depressive symptoms during the pandemic. METHODS: Ninety-three girls (12-17 years) oversampled for high shy/fearful temperament were recruited from a longitudinal study for a follow-up COVID-19 study. During the parent study (2016-2018), participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task eliciting neural activity to performance-related social feedback. Depressive symptoms were assessed during the parent study and COVID-19 follow-up (April-May 2020). In 65 participants with complete data, we examined how interactions between temperament and neural activation to social reward or punishment in a socio-affective brain network predict depressive symptoms during COVID-19. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms increased during COVID-19. Significant interactions between temperament and caudate, putamen, and insula activation to social reward were found. Girls high in shy/fearful temperament showed negative associations between neural activation to social reward and COVID-19 depressive symptoms, whereas girls lower in shy/fearful temperament showed positive associations. CONCLUSIONS: Girls high in shy/fearful temperament with reduced neural activation to social reward may be less likely to engage socially, which could be detrimental during the pandemic when social interactions are limited. In contrast, girls lower in shy/fearful temperament with heightened neural reactivity to social reward may be highly motivated to engage socially, which could also be detrimental with limited social opportunities. In both cases, improving social connection during the pandemic may attenuate or prevent depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adolescent , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Reward , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(5): 643-656, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258551

ABSTRACT

Highly conscientious workers are more motivated and productive than their less conscientious colleagues. Moreover, conscientious employees tend to be more satisfied and less stressed from their work. One consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is that many workers have transitioned to working remotely, often under conditions of less direct supervision and less clarity about expected work activities and outcomes. We proposed that this significant change in work context constitutes a weakening of situational strength that can change the relationship of conscientiousness with job strain, job satisfaction, and job performance. Using Meyer et al.'s (2010) conceptualization of situational strength, we tested the moderating effect of situational strength by surveying 474 white-collar employees in a Fortune-1000 firm in 2019 and again in 2020 after they had all transitioned to working remotely. We found that the changes in work context due to COVID-19 significantly lowered scores on situational strength and this was accompanied by a stronger positive effect of conscientiousness on performance. Importantly, during COVID-19, the relationships of conscientiousness with strain and satisfaction showed a reversal of sign, with more conscientious workers reporting higher strain and lower satisfaction. These effects were partially mediated by job demands and were replicated with work hours. The results provide a test of situational strength theory and suggest that changes in situational strength due to COVID-19 may cause an organization's most conscientious employees to be at elevated risk for burnout and dissatisfaction, and consequently, turnover, if not managed appropriately. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Job Satisfaction , Teleworking , Work Performance , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotional Adjustment , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Reward , Risk Factors
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252516, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256041

ABSTRACT

Gambling Disorder (GD) has recently been reclassified from an impulse-control disorder to a behavioural addiction and, as in other addictive disorders, the dopaminergic reward system is involved. According to neuroimaging studies, alterations within the striatal dopaminergic signalling can occur in GD. However, the findings to date are controversial and there has been no agreement yet on how the reward system is affected on a molecular basis. Within the last 20 years, there has been growing evidence for a higher risk to develop GD in response to certain dopaminergic medication. Especially the dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropinirole, and the dopamine modulator aripiprazole seem to increase the likelihood for GD. The goal of this study was to examine the association between a prescription for either of the three pharmaceuticals and a GD diagnosis in a large cross-sectional study of the Swedish population. Compared to patients with any other dopaminergic drug prescription (38.7% with GD), the diagnosis was more common in patients with a dopamine agonist prescription (69.8% with GD), resulting in an odds ratio of 3.2. A similar association was found between aripiprazole prescriptions and GD diagnoses, which were analysed within the subgroup of all patients with schizophrenia or a schizotypal, delusional, or another non-mood psychotic disorder. An aripiprazole prescription increased the likelihood of GD (88.8%) in comparison to patients without an aripiprazole prescription (71.2%) with an odds ratio of 3.4. This study contributes to the increasingly reliable evidence for an association between several dopaminergic drugs and a higher risk for developing GD. Therefore, one future research goal should be a better understanding of the neurobiology in GD to be able to design more selective dopaminergic medication with less severe side effects. Additionally, this knowledge could enable the development of pharmacotherapy in GD and other addictive disorders.


Subject(s)
Aripiprazole/adverse effects , Behavior, Addictive/chemically induced , Dopamine Agonists/adverse effects , Gambling/chemically induced , Indoles/adverse effects , Pramipexole/adverse effects , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Behavior, Addictive/diagnosis , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dopamine/metabolism , Female , Gambling/diagnosis , Gambling/epidemiology , Gambling/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reward , Risk Factors , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(5): 125-126, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253993
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