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1.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While COVID-19 vaccination prevents severe infections, poor immunogenicity in immunocompromised people threatens vaccine effectiveness. We analysed the clinical characteristics of patients with rheumatic disease who developed breakthrough COVID-19 after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We included people partially or fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 who developed COVID-19 between 5 January and 30 September 2021 and were reported to the Global Rheumatology Alliance registry. Breakthrough infections were defined as occurring ≥14 days after completion of the vaccination series, specifically 14 days after the second dose in a two-dose series or 14 days after a single-dose vaccine. We analysed patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and COVID-19 symptoms and outcomes. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 197 partially or fully vaccinated people with rheumatic disease (mean age 54 years, 77% female, 56% white). The majority (n=140/197, 71%) received messenger RNA vaccines. Among the fully vaccinated (n=87), infection occurred a mean of 112 (±60) days after the second vaccine dose. Among those fully vaccinated and hospitalised (n=22, age range 36-83 years), nine had used B cell-depleting therapy (BCDT), with six as monotherapy, at the time of vaccination. Three were on mycophenolate. The majority (n=14/22, 64%) were not taking systemic glucocorticoids. Eight patients had pre-existing lung disease and five patients died. CONCLUSION: More than half of fully vaccinated individuals with breakthrough infections requiring hospitalisation were on BCDT or mycophenolate. Further risk mitigation strategies are likely needed to protect this selected high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e049749, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is not only a traumatic event, but a collective stressor unfolding over time, causing devastating implications for the mental health. This study aimed to shed light on the mental health status of patients with rheumatic disease (RD) during the massive outbreak of COVID-19 in China, especially the prevalence and severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 486 patients with RD and 486 age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited into the study. For each participant, we collected demographic and clinical characteristics data. The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and four items from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to investigate the prevalence and severity of PTSD and sleep quality, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with healthy control subjects (n=486), patients with RD (n=486) had a higher prevalence of PTSD (12.1% vs 4.1%; p<0.001). Higher total scores on the PCL-5 and on all four items from the PSQI (p≤0.001) were also observed. Female, old age, poor sleep quality, long duration of RD, poor subjective evaluation of the disease and pessimistic subjective perception of the epidemic were identified as risk factors of PTSD in patients with RD during the COVID-19 epidemic. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 outbreak, patients with RD presented a higher prevalence and severity of PTSD and showed more sleep disturbances. Our findings confirm the importance of psychological assessment and mental healthcare out of regular clinical care for patients with RD during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
3.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(5): 783-790, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767481

ABSTRACT

As a result of the pandemic, many patients with an inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD) have isolated themselves. The lack of disease management together with fear of infection could lead to changes in physical- and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the social- and health behaviour in patients with an IRD compared with the behaviour of healthy individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was a questionnaire survey answered by patients with an IRD and healthy individuals (HI). The questionnaire contained seven sections with questions regarding COVID-19 and quality of life including SF-36, EQ-5D-5L, and visual analogue scale (VAS) pain, fatigue and global health. Of 1663 invited participants, 661 patients with IRD and 266 HI were included in the analyses. Patients with an IRD felt more isolated during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with HI (IRD: 9.5% (61/644), HI: 3.1% (8/259), p-value = 0.001). More HI (5.4%) had been infected with COVID-19 than patients with an IRD (1.7%). Among patients with an IRD those with worse self-reported disease activity outcomes (VAS pain, fatigue and global health, all p-value < 0.001), worse social functioning and emotional well-being were more isolated than individuals with low disease activity. Patients with an IRD feel more isolated during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to HI. Isolation seems to be most pronounced in patients with worse disease related patient-reported outcomes and lower quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Pain , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(5): 766-775, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The relative risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease severity among people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) compared to those without RMDs is unclear. This study was undertaken to quantify the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in those with RMDs and describe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review using 14 databases from January 1, 2019 to February 13, 2021. We included observational studies and experimental trials in RMD patients that described comparative rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, oxygen supplementation/intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation, or death attributed to COVID-19. Methodologic quality was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools or the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated, as applicable for each outcome, using the Mantel-Haenszel formula with random effects models. RESULTS: Of the 5,799 abstracts screened, 100 studies met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review, and 54 of 100 had a low risk of bias. Among the studies included in the meta-analyses, we identified an increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with an RMD (RR 1.53 [95% CI 1.16-2.01]) compared to the general population. The odds of hospitalization, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation were similar in patients with and those without an RMD, whereas the mortality rate was increased in patients with RMDs (OR 1.74 [95% CI 1.08-2.80]). In a smaller number of studies, the adjusted risk of outcomes related to COVID-19 was assessed, and the results varied; some studies demonstrated an increased risk while other studies showed no difference in risk in patients with an RMD compared to those without an RMD. CONCLUSION: Patients with RMDs have higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and an increased mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Hospitalization , Humans , Muscular Diseases , Respiration, Artificial , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 18(4): 191-204, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758247

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought challenges for people with rheumatic disease in addition to those faced by the general population, including concerns about higher risks of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and poor outcomes of COVID-19. The data that are now available suggest that rheumatic disease is associated with a small additional risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that outcomes of COVID-19 are primarily influenced by comorbidities and particular disease states or treatments. Despite considerable advances in our knowledge of which therapeutic agents provide benefits in COVID-19, and of what constitutes effective vaccination strategies, the specific considerations that apply to people with rheumatic disease are yet to be definitively addressed. An overview of the most important COVID-19 studies to date that relate to people with rheumatic disease can contribute to our understanding of the clinical-care requirements of this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732046

ABSTRACT

The management of patients with immuno-rheumatological diseases has profoundly changed during the COVID-19 pandemic and telemedicine has played an important role in the disease follow-up. In addition to monitoring disease activity and any adverse events, especially infectious events, assessing the psychological situation of the patient can be fundamental. Furthermore, COVID-19 has a serious impact on mental health and, since the beginning of the pandemic, a significantly higher incidence of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms especially in younger people was observed. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of depressive disorders, anxiety, and fibromyalgia (FM) in our patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis during the lockdown period due to the COVID-19 pandemic and we validate the use of telemedicine in the clinical management of these patients. Mental and physical stress during the COVID-19 pandemic can greatly worsen FM symptoms and intensify patients' suffering without a clinical flare of the inflammatory disease for patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis. Telemedicine has allowed us to identify patients who needed a face-to-face approach for therapeutic reevaluation even if not related to a flare of the inflammatory disease. Even if our data does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of telemedicine as greater than or equal to the standard face-to-face approach, we continue to work by modifying our approach to try to ensure the necessary care in compliance with safety and, optimistically, this tool will become an important part of rheumatic disease management.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Fibromyalgia , Mental Disorders , Rheumatic Diseases , Telemedicine , Arthritis, Psoriatic/complications , Arthritis, Psoriatic/epidemiology , Arthritis, Psoriatic/therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Fibromyalgia/diagnosis , Fibromyalgia/epidemiology , Fibromyalgia/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology
7.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(4): 601-608, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680771

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the management of rheumatic diseases (RD). An online survey included 10 questions were designed to assess potential differences in rheumatology practice. The survey was conducted between March 2021 and June 2021. Marginal homogeneity test was used to compare frequencies of outpatient clinic patients between the pre-pandemic and pandemic. Other results were analyzed by descriptive statistics. One hundred three clinicians (75.7% in rheumatology practice for at least five years) responded to the survey. Almost 70% examined < 30 patients per day during the pandemic while nearly 70% examined ≥ 30 patients per day before the pandemic (p < 0.001). They indicated following reasons for decreasing outpatient clinic activity were concerns regarding COVID-19 transmission risk of the patients (95%) and the clinicians (53%), being able to supply chronic medications directly from the pharmacy (85%), lockdown (71%), limited outpatient appointments (64%) and using telemedicine (20%). The frequencies of rheumatology daily routine procedures were decreased as follows; patient hospitalization for diagnosing (80%) and treatment (78%), labial salivary gland biopsy (63%), Schirmer's test/salivary flow rate test (56%), nail bed video-capillaroscopy (52%), musculoskeletal ultrasonography (51%) and Pathergy test (50%). Clinicians hesitated to use rituximab (63%) mostly, followed by cyclophosphamide (53%), glucocorticoids (43%), tofacitinib (41%), mycophenolate mofetil (36%), and azathioprine (33%). In this first national survey, the prominent differences in the management of RD have decreased outpatient clinic activity, reduced rheumatology daily procedures, and hesitancy to use some rheumatic drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Telemedicine , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnosis , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262756, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous models that assess quality-of-Life (QoL) in patients with rheumatic diseases have a strong biomedical focus. We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 related-health care interruption (HCI) on the physical, psychological, social relationships and environment QoL-dimensions, and explored factors associated with QoL when patients were reincorporated to the outpatient clinic, and after six-month follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study phase-1 consisted of a COVID-19 survey administered from June 24th-October 31st 2020, to outpatients with rheumatic diseases who had face-to-face consultation at outpatient clinic reopening. Study phase-2 consisted of 3 consecutive assessments of patient´s QoL (WHOQOL-BREF), disease activity/severity (RAPID-3), and psychological comorbidity/trauma (DASS-21 and IES-R) to patients from phase-1 randomly selected. Sociodemographic, disease and treatment-related information, and comorbidities were obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis identified factors associated with the score assigned to each WHOQOL-BREF dimension. RESULTS: Patients included (670 for phase-1 and 276 for phase-2), had primarily SLE and RA (44.2% and 34.1%, respectively), and all the dimensions of their WHOQOL-BREF were affected. There were 145 patients (52.5%) who referred HCI, and they had significantly lower dimensions scores (but the environment dimension score). Psycho-emotional factors (primarily feeling confused, depression and anxiety), sociodemographic factors (age, COVID-19 negative economic impact, years of scholarship, HCI and having a job), and biomedical factors (RAPID-3 score and corticosteroid use) were associated with baseline QoL dimensions scores. Psycho-emotional factors showed the strongest magnitude on dimensions scores. Most consistent predictor of six-month follow-up QoL dimensions scores was each corresponding baseline dimension score, while social determinants (years of scholarship and having a job), emotional factors (feeling bored), and biomedical aspects (RAPID 3) had an additional impact. CONCLUSIONS: HCI impacted the majority of patient´s QoL dimensions. Psycho-emotional, sociodemographic and biomedical factors were consistently associated with QoL dimensions scores, and these consistently predicted the QoL trajectory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Rheumatic Diseases/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/physiopathology , Rheumatic Diseases/therapy
11.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the effect of targeted therapies, either biological (b) disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), targeted synthetic (ts) DMARDs and other factors (demographics, comorbidities or COVID-19 symptoms) on the risk of COVID-19 related hospitalisation in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. METHODS: The COVIDSER study is an observational cohort including 7782 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of hospitalisation. Antirheumatic medication taken immediately prior to infection, demographic characteristics, rheumatic disease diagnosis, comorbidities and COVID-19 symptoms were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 426 cases of symptomatic COVID-19 from 1 March 2020 to 13 April 2021 were included in the analyses: 106 (24.9%) were hospitalised and 19 (4.4%) died. In multivariate-adjusted models, bDMARDs and tsDMARDs in combination were not associated with hospitalisation compared with conventional synthetic DMARDs (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.25 of b/tsDMARDs, p=0.15). Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-i) were associated with a reduced likelihood of hospitalisation (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.82, p=0.018), whereas rituximab showed a tendency to an increased risk of hospitalisation (OR 4.85, 95% CI 0.86 to 27.2). Glucocorticoid use was not associated with hospitalisation (OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.55). A mix of sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and COVID-19 symptoms contribute to patients' hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: The use of targeted therapies as a group is not associated with COVID-19 severity, except for rituximab, which shows a trend towards an increased risk of hospitalisation, while TNF-i was associated with decreased odds of hospitalisation in patients with rheumatic disease. Other factors like age, male gender, comorbidities and COVID-19 symptoms do play a role.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 162, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) and identify the risk factors associated with symptomatic or severe disease defined as hospital admission, intensive care admission or death. METHODS: An observational longitudinal study was conducted during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (March 2020-March 2021). All pediatric patients attended at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of six tertiary referral hospitals in Madrid, Spain, with a diagnosis of RMD and COVID-19 were included. Main outcomes were symptomatic disease and hospital admission. The covariates were sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and treatment regimens. We ran a multivariable logistic regression model to assess associated factors for outcomes. RESULTS: The study population included 77 pediatric patients. Mean age was 11.88 (4.04) years Of these, 30 patients (38.96%) were asymptomatic, 41 (53.25%) had a mild-moderate COVID-19 and 6 patients (7.79%) required hospital admission. The median length of hospital admission was 5 (2-20) days, one patient required intensive care and there were no deaths. Previous comorbidities increased the risk for symptomatic disease and hospital admission. Compared with outpatients, the factor independently associated with hospital admission was previous use of glucocorticoids (OR 3.51; p = 0.00). No statistically significant risk factors for symptomatic COVID-19 were found in the final model. CONCLUSION: No differences in COVID-19 outcomes according to childhood-onset rheumatic disease types were found. Results suggest that associated comorbidities and treatment with glucocorticoids increase the risk of hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/drug therapy , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
13.
J Rheumatol ; 49(2): 219-224, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) is key to achieving effective treatment and improving prognosis. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to major changes in clinical practice on a global scale. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on rheumatological clinical practice and autoimmunity testing demands. METHODS: Data regarding the first rheumatological visits and new diagnoses, together with the autoimmunity laboratory testing volumes related to the COVID-19 pandemic phase (January-December 2020), were collected from medical records and the laboratory information system of a regional reference hospital (Basilicata, Italy) and compared with those obtained during the corresponding period in 2019. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the 2020 autoimmunity laboratory test volume was found when compared with the same period in 2019 (9912 vs 14,100; P < 0.05). A significant decrease in first rheumatological visits and diagnosis (1272 vs 2336; P < 0.05) was also observed. However, an equivalent or higher percentage of positive autoimmunity results from outpatient services was recorded during 2020 when compared to the prepandemic state. Of note, COVID-19-associated decline in new diagnoses affected mainly less severe diseases. In contrast, ARDs with systemic involvement were diagnosed at the same levels as in the prepandemic period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected access to health services. However, our study highlighted that during the outbreak, greater appropriateness of the requests for laboratory tests and visits emerged, as shown by a greater percentage of positive test results and new diagnoses of more severe ARDs compared to the prepandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Ambulatory Care , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnosis , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(1): 51-57, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491096

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and implemented restrictions on the frequency of pediatric rheumatic diseases remain unknown, while they have probably prevented common infections in children. We present the effects of the COVID-19 on our pediatric rheumatology practice in a main referral center. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients presenting to pediatric rheumatology department in 4 years before March 2020 and compared it to the pandemic year (March 2020-March 2021). Since there was an overall decrease in patient numbers, we calculated the percentage according to the total number of that year. A total of 32,333 patients were evaluated. The mean annual number of patients decreased by 42% during the COVID-19 pandemic. When follow-up visits (25,156) were excluded, there were 2818 new diagnoses of rheumatic diseases. In the pre-pandemic period, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) (n = 695, 28.1%) was the most frequent, whereas in the pandemic period multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) (n = 68, 19.2%) was the most common diagnosis. There were no significant differences in the percentages of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, autoimmune diseases, rare autoinflammatory diseases, and other vasculitides. However, there was a significant decrease in patients diagnosed with FMF, IgA vasculitis (IgAV), acute rheumatic fever (ARF), classic Kawasaki disease (KD), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) (all p < 0.05). During the pandemic year, the percentage of most common diseases did not differ. On the other hand, we suggest that the decreases in IgAV, KD (classic), and MAS, which parallels the decrease in ARF, confirm the role of infections in the pathogenesis for these diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
15.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(2021-14)2021 10 12.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic joint diseases may be more prone to infections, we wished to investigate the incidence of COVID-19 in this group, and explore the possible significance of factors related to the rheumatic disease, the patient or the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Altogether 27 907 patients registered in the Norwegian Arthritis Registry (NorArthritis) were linked to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and the Norwegian Intensive Care and Pandemic Registry in order to find the incidence of COVID-19 in 2020, and the proportion of patients who were hospitalised. A standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated by comparing with sex and age-specific incidence in the general population. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether diagnosis, age, sex, disease activity, comorbidity or drug therapy had any bearing on the incidence. RESULTS: A total of 185 of the patients in NorArthritis tested positive for COVID-19, of whom 10 % were hospitalised. The incidence was lower than in the general population (SIR 0.84; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.97, P = 0.02). Young age and low disease activity were associated with higher incidence of infection. The other factors had no significant effect. INTERPRETATION: The fact that the incidence of COVID-19 was lower than in the general population, and that within the group it was lower in those with moderate/high disease activity and greater age, is most likely attributable to patients of advanced age with chronic active disease having protected themselves against infection to a greater degree.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Joint Diseases , Rheumatic Diseases , Comorbidity , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI59-SI67, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD); in patients with RA treated with specific DMARDs; and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with RA. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study from Denmark between 1 March and 12 August 2020. The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals. Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA treated and non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, HCQ or glucocorticoids, respectively. Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD sp - individudals. RESULTS: Patients with IRD (n = 58 052) had an increased partially adjusted incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 compared with the 4.5 million people in the general population [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.86] with strongest associations for patients with RA (n = 29 440, HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.30) and vasculitides (n = 4072, HR 1.82, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.64). There was no increased incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization associated with TNF-inhibitor, HCQ nor glucocorticoid use. COVID-19 admitted patients with RA had a HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.53) for a severe outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with IRD were more likely to be admitted with COVID-19 than the general population, and COVID-19 admitted patients with RA could be at higher risk of a severe outcome. Treatment with specific DMARDs did not affect the risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/virology
17.
Z Rheumatol ; 80(9): 795-800, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451968

ABSTRACT

The corona pandemic changed the lives of people in Germany in 2020. Completely new challenges had to be met in outpatient care and of course also in rheumatology practices. The rapid development, the constant changes, the readjustment, the accompaniment of patients and staff team in this global catastrophe are described. The influence on the daily work and the implementation of new scientific knowledge, e.g. the recommendations of the German Society of Rheumatology (DGRh), are reported. Experiences and insights into what can be learned and taken away from crisis situations are outlined. A detailed chronology of the events, taking the special rheumatological features into account, completes this report of experiences.


Subject(s)
Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Ambulatory Care , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnosis , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(41): 4245-4252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic may have a deleterious impact on patients with autoimmune systemic diseases (ASD) due to their deep immune-system alterations. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of symptomatic Covid-19 and its correlations with both organ involvement and ongoing treatments in a large series of Italian ASD patients during the first wave of pandemic. METHODS: Our multicenter telephone 6-week survey included 3,029 unselected ASD patients enrolled at 36 tertiary referral centers of northern, central, and southern Italian macro-areas with different diffusion of the pandemic. Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was classified as definite Covid-19 (presence of symptoms plus positive oral/nasopharyngeal swabs) or highly suspected Covid-19 (highly suggestive symptoms, in the absence of a swab testing). RESULTS: A significantly higher prevalence of definite plus highly suspected Covid-19 compared to the Italian general population was detected in the whole ASD series (p=.000), as well as in patients from the three macro-areas (p=.000 in all). Statistically higher prevalence of Covid-19 was also found in connective tissue diseases compared to chronic arthritis subgroup (p=.000) and in ASD patients with pre-existing interstitial lung involvement (p=.000). Patients treated with either conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or biological DMARDs showed a significantly lower prevalence of Covid-19 (p=.000 in both). Finally, scleroderma patients undergoing low-dose aspirin showed a significantly lower rate of Covid-19 compared to those without (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of Covid-19 in ASD patients, along with the significant correlations with important clinical features and therapeutic regimens, suggests the need to develop targeted prevention/management strategies during the current pandemic wave.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Lung , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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