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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(6): 1468-1471, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878211

ABSTRACT

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent chronic condition with dynamic developments in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches given the recent updated guidelines and novel therapeutic approaches. A critical reflection on clinical practice of CRS care in 2022 is needed, hence providing hints for better care. This review provides an overall evaluation of the current approach of CRS care, including strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threat related to the current care pathways in most regions worldwide. Strengths of current CRS care are mainly related to effective treatment options allowing personalized care, with preventive and curative goals included in the current guidelines. However, a large portion of patients with CRS remain uncontrolled given the multiple weaknesses in CRS care, related to several factors such as underdiagnosis, undertreatment, and suboptimal coordination of care among health care providers. The opportunities for better care are ample given the possibility of implementing optimal care following guidelines, including preventive interdisciplinary strategies and patient-oriented treatment plans. In 2022, CRS represents a chronic condition that is subject to a (r)evolution of care with good opportunities for better outcomes and health economic savings.


Subject(s)
Nasal Polyps , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Chronic Disease , Humans , Nasal Polyps/diagnosis , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/therapy , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(6): 1472-1473, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878209
3.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(2): 106-115, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760175

ABSTRACT

Background: The clinical effects of intranasal corticosteroids (INC) on nasal symptoms and the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in subjects with chronic rhinitis (CR) seem unclear. Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of INCs on nasal symptoms in subjects with CR and with COVID-19. Methods: In subjects with CR and diagnosed with COVID-19 at four tertiary centers, quality of life and nasal symptoms were assessed by using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) and the visual analog scale (VAS), respectively. In subjects with allergic rhinitis, nasal symptoms were also assessed on the total symptom score-6 (TSS-6) scale. The subjects were then allocated into two groups according to whether or not they used INCs while infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (group 1 and group 2, respectively). The subjects in group 2 were divided into two subgroups according to the use of antihistamines and/or leukotriene receptor antagonist or not (group 2a and group 2b, respectively). All the scores were compared before and during COVID-19 among the three groups. Results: A total of 71 subjects (21 in group 1, 24 in group 2a, and 26 in group 2b) were enrolled. The total scores of the SNOT-22 increased remarkably in all the groups during the infection when compared with the pre-COVID-19 scores (p < 0.001 in each group). However, the difference between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 values revealed a lower decrease in the senses of smell and/or taste in group 1 than in group 2a and group 2b (p = 0.015, adjusted p = 0.045; and p = 0.001, adjusted p = 0.002, respectively). There were no significant differences in other COVID-19 findings, VAS, and TSS-6 scores among the groups (all p > 0.05). Conclusion: INCs in subjects with CR seemed protective against the decrease in smell and/or taste observed during COVID-19 and do not aggravate the clinical course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhinitis , Administration, Intranasal , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Rhinitis/drug therapy
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(6): 1423-1432, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747846

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness about olfactory dysfunction, although a loss of smell was present in the general population before COVID-19. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common upper airway chronic inflammatory disease that is also one of the most common causes of olfactory dysfunction. It can be classified into different phenotypes (ie, with and without nasal polyps) and endotypes (ie, type 2 and non-type 2 inflammation). However, scientific information regarding CRS within the context of COVID-19 is still scarce. This review focuses on (1) the potential effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection on CRS symptoms, including a loss of smell, and comorbidities; (2) the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the olfactory dysfunction; (3) CRS diagnosis in the context of COVID-19, including telemedicine; (4) the protective hypothesis of CRS in COVID-19; and (5) the efficacy and safety of therapeutic options for CRS within the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasal Polyps , Olfaction Disorders , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Anosmia , Chronic Disease , Humans , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/epidemiology , Nasal Polyps/therapy , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhinitis/therapy , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Sinusitis/etiology , Sinusitis/therapy
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(2): 173-175, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhino-orbital mucormycosis was seen in epidemic proportions during the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Many of these post-coronavirus rhino-orbital mucormycosis patients underwent maxillectomy for disease clearance. Rehabilitating such a large number of patients with surgical obturators as an emergency in a low-income setting was challenging. METHODS: High-density polyurethane foam was used to make a temporary obturator for patients who underwent maxillectomy. These obturators helped alleviate functional problems like dysphagia and nasal regurgitation, improving nutritional outcomes and shortening the hospital stay. CONCLUSION: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic gave physicians time-sensitive challenges, for which immediate alternatives to established care were required. A maxillary obturator made of high-density polyurethane foam is an innovative solution to rehabilitate maxillectomy patients in the immediate post-operative period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maxilla/surgery , Mucormycosis/surgery , Orbital Diseases/surgery , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/rehabilitation , Palatal Obturators , Polyurethanes , Rhinitis/surgery , Debridement , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rhinology ; 59(6): 490-500, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528969

ABSTRACT

We look back at the end of what soon will be seen as an historic year, from COVID-19 to real-world introduction of biologicals influencing the life of our patients. This review describes the important findings in Rhinology over the past year. A large body of evidence now demonstrates loss of sense of smell to be one of the most common symptoms of COVID-19 infection; a meta-analysis of 3563 patients found the mean prevalence of self-reported loss to be 47%. A number of studies have now shown long-term reduced loss of smell and parosmia. Given the high numbers of people affected by COVID-19, even with the best reported recovery rates, a significant number worldwide will be left with severe olfactory dysfunction. The most prevalent causes for olfactory dysfunction, besides COVID-19 and upper respiratory tract infections in general, are trauma and CRSwNP. For these CRSwNP patients a bright future seems to be starting with the development of treatment with biologics. This year the Nobel prize in Medicine 2021 was awarded jointly to David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch which has greatly enhanced our understanding of nasal hyperreactivity and understanding of intranasal trigeminal function. Finally, a new definition of chronic rhinitis has been proposed in the last year and we have seen many papers emphasizing the importance of endotyping patients in chronic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis in order to optimise treatment effect.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Nasal Polyps , Olfaction Disorders , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Humans , Rhinitis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
8.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 257-258, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527450

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may have concerns regarding their potential for an increased likelihood of contracting Covid-19, given baseline inflammatory disease and utilization of topical or oral immunosuppressive therapies for disease treatment. In the present study, we utilize matched cohort sampling of over 12,000 CRS patients and 12,000 controls seen between June of 2020 and January of 2021, examining rates of Covid-19 testing and positivity during that time period. We found no difference in Covid-19 contraction between CRS patients and matched non-CRS patients, despite an almost twofold significant increase in testing among those with CRS. This suggests that CRS patients are likely not inherently more vulnerable to Covid-19 infection at a rate above that of the general population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:257-258, 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Rhinitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/virology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480795

ABSTRACT

Among millions of sufferers of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), the challenge is not only constantly coping with CRS-related symptoms, such as congested nose, sinus pain, and headaches, but also various complications, such as attention difficulties and possible depression. These complications suggest that neural activity in the central nervous system may be altered in those patients, leading to unexpected conditions, such as neurodegeneration in elderly patients. Recently, some studies linked the presence of CRS and cognitive impairments that could further develop into Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and is characterised by progressive memory loss, cognitive behavioural deficits, and significant personality changes. The microbiome, especially those in the gut, has been recognised as a human organ and plays an important role in the development of various conditions, including AD. However, less attention has been paid to the microbiome in the nasal cavity. Increased nasal inflammatory responses due to CRS may be an initial event that changes local microbiome homeostasis, which may further affect neuronal integrity in the central nervous system resulting in AD. Evidence suggests a potential of ß-amyloid deposition starting in olfactory neurons, which is then expanded from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system. In this paper, we reviewed currently available evidence that suggests this potential mechanism to advise the need to investigate the link between these two conditions.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/microbiology , Nose/microbiology , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/complications , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Microbiota , Rhinitis/microbiology , Rhinitis/pathology , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/pathology
10.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 47(1): 14-23, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review on single-nucleotide polymorphisms and risk-related chronic rhinosinusitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: A comprehensive review of the last 20 years' English language literature regarding chronic rhinosinusitis and single-nucleotide polymorphisms was performed. We included in the synthesis all the papers reporting gene variation implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and polyps. RESULTS: We found 12 papers with 9127 patients, of which 2739 CRS cases and 6388 controls. The major comorbidities reported related to chronic rhinosinusitis were atopy in 4555 (49.9%), asthma in 4594 (50.33%), Samter Triad in 448 (4.9%) and eosinophilia in 391 subjects (4.28%). CONCLUSION: Our systematic review revealed the major SNPs significantly associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and the specific pathways involved. Given the presence of different extraction methods and samples sequencing, further studies with larger courts are necessary to identify significative single-nucleotide polymorphisms.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Rhinitis/genetics , Sinusitis/genetics , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans
11.
Cephalalgia ; 42(3): 218-228, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The genesis of headache in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently unclear and the multitude of disease symptoms often further hinders locating the source of pain. Interestingly, many subjects with COVID-19 have symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis. The relation between nasal symptoms and headache in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unknown. METHODS: This bi-center longitudinal study evaluated symptoms in consecutive COVID-19 patients in the participating practices. The first assessment was performed during the initial consultation after infection confirmation. That was followed up by a second consultation after a median 9 days. RESULTS: 130 patients were included in the study (80 women, 50 men; mean age 46.9 years). Headache was highly prevalent at the first visit (72%) and significantly associated with acute rhinosinusitis symptoms. The odds ratio for headache in subjects with rhinosinusitis was 3.5. Headache could be attributed to systemic viral infection in 96% and to acute rhinosinusitis in 51% of cases according to 3rd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Criterium C.3 (exacerbation of headache by pressure applied over paranasal sinuses) and C.4 (ipsilaterality of headache and sinusitis) had low sensitivity in headache attributed to acute rhinosinusitis. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal inflammation is associated with headache in COVID-19, although the pain mechanism lies probably in a systemic reaction to the virus. 3rd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for headache attributed to acute rhinosinusitis need adjusting to the current understanding of acute sinonasal infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , COVID-19/complications , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Rhinitis/complications , Rhinitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/diagnosis
12.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 981-986, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 infection can result in immunosuppression. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is a frequent co-infection, even after recovery. METHODS: An ambispective interventional study was conducted of 41 coronavirus patients with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis at a tertiary care centre from March to May 2021. RESULTS: There were 28 males and 13 females with a mean age of 48.2 years (range, 21-68 years). Twelve had long-standing diabetes mellitus and 28 had been recently diagnosed. Thirty-six had received systemic corticosteroids for coronavirus disease 2019. Nasal signs were present in 95 per cent of patients, ophthalmic symptoms and signs in 87 per cent, palatal necrosis in 46.3 per cent, facial signs in 24.3 per cent, nerve palsies in 60.9 per cent, and intracranial involvement in 21.9 per cent. Treatment with amphotericin B was based on clinical features and co-morbidities. Endonasal debridement was performed in 51.2 per cent of patients, total maxillectomy in 14.6 per cent and orbital exenteration in 9.7 per cent. At the last follow up, 37 patients (90.24 per cent) were on antifungal therapy; 4 (9.75 per cent) did not survive. CONCLUSION: Early detection may improve survival. Follow up of high-risk patients after coronavirus disease 2019 infection is paramount.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Epidemics , Mucorales , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Debridement , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Young Adult
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(11): 1345-1347, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398754
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377695

ABSTRACT

AIMS: 1: Describe the epidemiology and determine risk factors for COVID-19 associated mucormycosis. 2: Elaborate the clinical spectrum of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM), pattern of neuroaxis involvement and it's radiological correlates. METHODS: Observational study. Consecutive, confirmed cases of mucormycosis (N = 55) were included. A case of mucormycosis was defined as one who had clinical and radiological features consistent with mucormycosis along with demonstration of the fungus in tissue via KOH mount/culture/histopathological examination (HPE). Data pertaining to epidemiology, risk factors, clinico-radiological features were analysed using percentage of total cases. RESULTS: Middle aged, diabetic males with recent COVID-19 infection were most affected. New onset upper jaw toothache was a striking observation in several cases. Among neurological manifestations headache, proptosis, vision loss, extraocular movement restriction; cavernous sinus, meningeal and parenchymal involvement were common. Stroke in ROCM followed a definitive pattern with watershed infarction. CONCLUSIONS: New onset upper jaw toothache and loosening of teeth should prompt an immediate search for mucormycosis in backdrop of diabetic patients with recent COVID-19 disease, aiding earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation. Neuroaxis involvement was characterized by a multitude of features pertaining to involvement of optic nerve, extraocular muscles, meninges, brain parenchyma and internal carotid artery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Orbit/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Prevalence , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 449-453, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371040

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since that time, the frequency of bacterial and fungal coinfections has been continuously increasing. Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is being increasingly recognized in association with COVID-19, there is limited information regarding COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. We describe a 50-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes who received systemic corticosteroids and remdesevir during her admission for COVID-19. A few days after discharge, the patient was readmitted because of facial swelling and numbness, and a diagnosis of COVID-19-associated rhinosinusitis mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus (formerly called Rhizopus oryzae) was confirmed with sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. This report aimed to address the importance of short-term follow-up for COVID-19 patients who have received systemic corticosteroids, particularly those with predisposing conditions, because early detection and prompt, aggressive treatment are essential for the management of invasive fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhizopus oryzae/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sinusitis/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/etiology , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Rhinitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology
18.
Mycoses ; 64(11): 1366-1377, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients, especially the patients requiring hospitalisation, have a high risk of several complications such as opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections. Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic fungal infection that mainly affects diabetic and immunocompromised patients. An increase has been observed in the number of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19 admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, since October 2020. This is a report of the frequency, risk factors, clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis of COVID-19 associated with mucormycosis infection. METHODS: The medical records of COVID-19 patients with rhino-orbital mucormycosis who were diagnosed in an educational therapeutic hospital in Kermanshah, west of Iran were surveyed. Several parameters were analysed including demographic, clinical, therapeutic and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: Twelve patients with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis were identified from 12 October to 18 November 2020. All cases reported as proven mucormycosis had a history of hospitalisation due to COVID-19. Comorbidities mainly included diabetes mellitus (83.33%) and hypertension (58.33%). Seventy-five per cent of patients received corticosteroids for COVID- 19 treatment. The sites of involvement were rhino-sino-orbital (83%) and rhino-sino (17%). Amphotericin B/liposomal amphotericin B alone or in combination with surgical debridement or orbital exenteration was used as the first-line therapy. The overall mortality rate was 66.7% (8/12). CONCLUSIONS: We found a high incidence of mucormycosis among COVID-19 patients. Diabetes mellitus and corticosteroid use were the dominant predisposing factor of mucormycosis. Mucormycosis is a life-threatening and opportunistic infection; therefore, physicians should know the signs and symptoms of the disease so that a timely diagnosis and therapy can be performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis/complications , Rhinitis/diagnostic imaging
19.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 254(2): 71-80, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262562

ABSTRACT

Olfactory disorders are one of the characteristic symptoms of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which causes infection and inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract. To our knowledge, there are no treatments for COVID-19-related olfactory disorder. Here, we report five olfactory disorder cases in COVID-19, treated using the Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. We treated five patients with mild COVID-19 at an isolation facility using Kampo medicine, depending on their symptoms. Patients with the olfactory disorder presented with a blocked nose, nasal discharge or taste impairment. Physical examination using Kampo medicine showed similar findings, such as a red tongue with red spots and sublingual vein congestion, which presented as blood stasis and inflammation; thus, we prescribed the Kampo medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. After administration, the numeric rating scale scores of the smell impairment improved within 3 days from 9 to 3 in case 1, from 10 to 0 in case 2, from 9 to 0 in case 3, from 5 to 0 in case 4, and from 9 to 0 within 5 days in case 5. Following the treatment, other common cold symptoms were also alleviated. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i can be used for treating nasal congestion, rhinitis, and inflammation in the nasal mucosa. The olfactory disorder in COVID-19 has been reportedly associated with inflammation and congestion, especially in the olfactory bulb and olfactory cleft. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i may be one of the treatment alternatives for the olfactory disorder with rhinitis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Kampo/methods , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Rhinitis/complications , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smell/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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