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1.
Arerugi ; 71(3): 186-190, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847842
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(7): 2556-2568, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, emergency department utilization and hospitalization rates for allergic diseases declined and the severity of allergies among admitted patients was low. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of allergic diseases among adolescents and the changes in trend during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with those during the preceding 11 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from the nationwide web-based self-report Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. From 2009 to 2020, adolescents aged 13-18 years participated in the survey. The survey period was divided into pre-pandemic Periods I (2009-2011), II (2012-2014), III (2015-2017), and IV (2018-2019) and the pandemic period (Period V, 2020). The current prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, allergic morbidity (having at least one of the three conditions) and changes in the prevalence before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed. RESULTS: Data of 787,043 participants were analyzed after weighting the study population (mean age, 15.1 years; males, 52.3%). The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic morbidity was 2.1%, 18.4%, 6.8%, and 23.6%, respectively. The prevalence of allergic morbidity increased between Periods I and IV but declined significantly from Periods IV to V. From Periods I to IV, the prevalence of asthma decreased, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis increased, and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis remained unchanged. During Period V, the prevalence of all three conditions decreased. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to update management measures and develop relevant policies in response to the altered prevalence of allergic diseases since the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology
3.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(6): 717-722, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) such as hyposmia, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, and cough are similar to those of chronic allergic rhinitis (AR). Such symptoms can easily lead AR patients to unnecessary anxiety, misdiagnosis, and invasive diagnostic tests in the COVID-19 pandemic. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important mediator for chronic AR and plays a crucial role in the inflammation of COVID-19. Houttuynia cordata (HC) has been shown to reduce nasal congestion and swelling by suppressing the activation of IL-6 and is used to fight COVID-19. A novel HC-based Chinese herbal formula, Zheng-Yi-Fang (ZYF), was developed to test effects on nasal symptoms of patients with AR in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants aged between 20 and 60 years with at least a 2-year history of moderate to severe perennial AR were enrolled. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (taking ZYF) or the control group (using regular western medicine) for 4 weeks. The Chinese version of the Rhinosinusitis Outcome Measures was used to evaluate impacts on quality of life and nasal symptoms of participants with AR. In addition, the effect of ZYF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 was investigated. RESULTS: Participants with AR taking ZYF improved their symptoms of nasal obstruction, nasal secretion, hyposmia, and postnasal drip in comparison with those of the control group. Meanwhile, ZYF exhibited inhibition of IL-6 secretion in the LPS-induced inflammatory model. CONCLUSION: ZYF has potential effects to relieve nasal symptoms for AR during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Houttuynia , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , Anosmia , COVID-19 , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Houttuynia/chemistry , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Young Adult
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 749388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775929

ABSTRACT

Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of adult self-reported allergic rhinitis and asthma in plain lands and hilly areas of Shenmu City in China, and analyze the differences between regions. Methods: The multi-stage stratified random sampling was applied in a cross-sectional survey of adult residents in Shenmu City, from September to December 2019. The unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to screen the influence factors of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Results: 4,706 adults participated in the survey, and 99% (4,655 in 4,706) completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 25.4%, and the prevalence of asthma was 9.4%. The prevalence of the allergic rhinitis without asthma, asthma without allergic rhinitis, and the combined allergic rhinitis with asthma were 18.9, 2.9, and 6.5%, respectively. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma existed regional differences. The prevalence of adult self-reported allergic rhinitis was 41.5% in plain lands areas and 22.1% in hilly areas. The prevalence of adult self-reported asthma was 12.8% in plain lands and 8.8% in hilly areas. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma existed seasonal differences, with the highest prevalence from July to September. The analysis of risk factors showed that higher education [middle and high school (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.42-2.07); college and above (OR 2.67, 95%CI 1.99-3.59)], comorbidities of other allergic diseases (OR 3.90, 95%CI 3.23-4.70), family history of allergies (OR 2.89, 95%CI 2.36-3.53), and plain lands areas (OR 2.51, 95%CI 2.06-3.05) were the risk factors for the allergic rhinitis without asthma. Aging [40-49 years old (OR 4.29, 95%CI 1.02-18.13); 50-59 years old (OR 5.89, 95%CI 1.40-24.76); ≥60 years old: (OR 6.14, 95%CI 1.41-26.71)], never-smokers (OR 1.66, 95%CI 0.99-2.80), comorbidities of other allergic disorders (OR 2.17, 95%CI 1.42-3.32), and family history of allergies (OR 2.20, 95%CI 1.40-3.47) were the risk factors for the asthma without allergic rhinitis. Advanced age [30-39 years (OR 2.16, 95%CI 1.23-3.82); 40-49 years (OR 2.86, 95%CI 1.56 to 5.25); 50-59 years (OR 2.95, 95%CI 1.58-5.51); ≥60 years old (OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.09-4.72)], higher education [middle and high school (OR 2.23, 95%CI 1.62-3.07); college and above (OR 4.28, 95%CI 2.72-6.74)], non-agricultural workers (OR 1.70, 95%CI 1.18-2.43),never-smokers (OR 2.26, 95%CI 1.51-3.39), comorbidities of other allergic diseases (OR 4.45, 95%CI 3.37-5.88), family history of allergies (OR 5.27, 95%CI 3.98-6.97), and plain lands areas (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.51-2.86) were the risk factors for the combined allergic rhinitis with asthma. Conclusions: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma in Shenmu City was relatively high, with regional differences. Genetic and environmental factors were the important risk factors associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Our research would provide data support for preventing and controlling allergic rhinitis and asthma in this region in the future, and appropriate prevention and control programs should be formulated according to the characteristics of different regions.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , Asthma/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Self Report
6.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 129(1): 52-61, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current literature of the psychological impacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on people with allergic diseases and to identify gaps in need of future research. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Embase Classics + Embase from 1947 to present (October 18, 2021) were searched using a search strategy that included the following keywords: allergic diseases, covid*, and psychological disorders. STUDY SELECTIONS: Primary manuscripts and abstracts using online and telephone surveys, mixed-method studies capturing patient and caregiver experiences, case studies, and published guidelines from allergic disease-specific expert groups were included. RESULTS: People with asthma and other chronic respiratory conditions are at higher risk of negative psychological outcomes, and risk factors include asthma severity, female sex, and previous history of anxiety and depression, likely owing to the perceived risk of severe disease from COVID-19. One study identified that people with allergic rhinitis had significantly high anxiety and depression scores compared with healthy controls (both, P < .001). The psychological impacts of food allergy during COVID-19 were most strongly felt by parents and caregivers. Similarly, parents of children with asthma experienced substantial psychological burden. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 had a considerable psychological impact on patients with asthma. Limited data have been published on the mental health impacts of COVID-19 on patients with allergic rhinitis and food allergy. As COVID-19 research continues to evolve and the literature captures later stages of the pandemic, it is important that physicians be aware of the potential coincidence of mental illness and chronic allergic diseases and refer these patients, and their caregivers, to appropriate resources while also continuing to manage their allergic disease(s).


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Food Hypersensitivity , Rhinitis, Allergic , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology
7.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 1, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparing the prevalence of AR and asthma symptoms between the first and second pandemic wave. METHODS: Both surveys were emailed to Italian pediatricians in April 2020 (first survey) and in March 2021 (second survey). The first one was related to the impact of COVID-19 and the most frequently reported symptoms. The second one was superimposed on the previous one, taking into account some additional aspects in the management of disease. RESULTS: A total of 99 pediatricians participated in the first survey and 267 in the second one. The first survey showed that, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was mostly between 0 and 20% throughout the country. The second survey showed a lower prevalence of both diseases nationwide in comparison to the first one. Comparing the two surveys, statistically significant differences were reported only in the distribution of asthma prevalence in Southern Italy while no differences were highlighted in the North and in the Center. Finally regarding allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence, no differences were noticed nationwide. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, if under control, did not represent risk factors for the susceptibility to SARS CoV2. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to continue therapies during COVID-19 outbreak, according to the international guidelines. However, being COVID-19 a new disease, actual knowledge will undergo continuous improvements over time.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , Child , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/complications , Humans , Italy , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 183(2): 217-224, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593643

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several statements and position papers on the management of childhood asthma and allergies during the COVID-19 pandemic have been published of late. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of pediatricians and family physicians regarding the management of asthma and allergic rhinitis during the pandemic according to recently published updated guidelines. METHOD: We conducted an online survey among pediatricians and family physicians in Turkey, using a questionnaire designed to evaluate 4 items: (1) the relationship between COVID-19 infection risk and pediatric asthma/allergic rhinitis and medications used in treatment; (2) the follow-up and management of asthma/allergic rhinitis according to published updated recommendations; (3) pediatricians' and family physicians' observations and perceptions of treatment compliance and the attitudes of their pediatric asthma patients; and (4) pediatricians and family physicians' attitudes to using telehealth in the follow-up and management of pediatric asthma patients during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 346 participants responded to the survey. The relationship between the risk of COVID-19 and asthma was known by less than 25% of the participants. More than 33% of family physicians and 20% of pediatricians were unaware that asthma medication does not lead to a susceptibility to COVID-19 infection; 55% of family physicians and 48% of pediatricians thought that patients showed better compliance with asthma controller medication; over 33% of pediatricians and approximately 50% of family physicians stated that they could not distinguish between an asthma attack and lung involvement in COVID-19 infection; of the respondents, over 75% stated that they prefer face-to-face visits with patients, even in situations that do not require a physical examination. CONCLUSION: The overall knowledge and awareness of pediatricians and, especially, family physicians regarding the management of pediatric asthma/allergic rhinitis during the pandemic is not at a satisfactory level. There is an urgent need to inform them about updated recommendations appearing in recent guidelines published by allergy organizations.


Subject(s)
Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pediatricians , Physicians, Family
9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(3): 103363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588359

ABSTRACT

The scientific quantification of symptoms in pollen-related allergic rhinitis cannot be separated from the aerobiological data of the geographical area in which the study was carried out.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Rhinitis, Allergic , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Humans , Masks/adverse effects , Nose , Pollen , Rhinitis, Allergic/etiology
10.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(6): 522-529, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533596

ABSTRACT

Background: There are conflicting data with regard to the impact of respiratory and allergic comorbidities on the course of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic diseases and COVID-19 severity in pediatric patients. Methods: Seventy-five pediatric patients with COVID-19 were classified according to clinical severity and evaluated in the allergy/immunology and pulmonology departments 1 to 3 months after the infection resolved. Blood was collected from the patients for a complete blood cell count and assessment of immunoglobulin and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and skin-prick tests and spirometry tests were performed. Results: A total of 75 patients ages 5-18 years were evaluated. COVID-19 was asymptomatic/mild in 44 patients and moderate/severe/critical in 31 patients. Based on allergy evaluation, allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 19 patients (25.3%), asthma in 10 patients (13%), and atopic dermatitis in 3 patients (4%). Aeroallergen sensitivity was detected in 26 patients (34.7%). COVID-19 infection was asymptomatic/mild in 15 patients with allergic rhinitis (78.9%) and in 21 with aeroallergen sensitivity (80.8%) (p = 0.038 and p = 0.005, respectively). There was no difference in severity between the patients with and without asthma (p = 0.550). The median (interquartile range) total IgE level was significantly higher in the asymptomatic/mild group (71.8 [30.7-211.2]) (p = 0.015). There were no differences in terms of spirometry parameters. Conclusion: Aeroallergen sensitization and allergic rhinitis in children may be associated with a milder course of COVID-19. The knowledge that atopy is associated with less-severe COVID-19 outcomes in children may guide clinical risk classification.


Subject(s)
Allergens/adverse effects , Asthma/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Skin Tests/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Male , Respiratory Function Tests , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Turkey/epidemiology
11.
Int Immunol ; 34(4): 177-188, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522225

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic causes an overwhelming number of hospitalization and deaths with a significant socioeconomic impact. The vast majority of studies indicate that asthma and allergic diseases do not represent a risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility nor cause a more severe course of disease. This raises the opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the interaction between an allergic background and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The majority of patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, food allergies and drug allergies exhibit an over-expression of type 2 immune and inflammatory pathways with the contribution of epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, dendritic cells, T cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-31. The potential impact of type 2 inflammation-related allergic diseases on susceptibility to COVID-19 and severity of its course have been reported. In this review, the prevalence of asthma and other common allergic diseases in COVID-19 patients is addressed. Moreover, the impact of allergic and non-allergic asthma with different severity and control status, currently available asthma treatments such as inhaled and oral corticosteroids, short- and long-acting ß2 agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists and biologicals on the outcome of COVID-19 patients is reviewed. In addition, possible protective mechanisms of asthma and type 2 inflammation on COVID-19 infection, such as the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, antiviral activity of eosinophils and cross-reactive T-cell epitopes, are discussed. Potential interactions of other allergic diseases with COVID-19 are postulated, including recommendations for their management.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Rhinitis, Allergic , Asthma/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1): 108-115, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly affected the lives of the global population. OBJECTIVE: To explore anxiety and stress in relation to COVID-19 among young adults, and the potential influence of asthma and allergic rhinitis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1644 participants from the population-based birth cohort BAMSE (Swedish abbreviation for Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology), participating in a follow-up at age 24 years and a COVID-19 follow-up conducted in August-November 2020 (mean age, 25.3 years). Anxiety and concern related to COVID-19 were analyzed as general anxiety, concern of own health and health of family members, and contact with online health care providers due to concern about COVID-19. Stress was measured with the perceived stress scale. RESULTS: Around half the participants reported increased anxiety due to COVID-19, and this was more common among females (57.0%, compared with 42.6% in males; P < .001). Young adults with asthma reported more concern about their own health (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12-2.02) and perceived stress (adjusted regression coefficient [adjusted ß], 1.49; 95% CI, 0.52-2.45) compared with peers without asthma, and this was more pronounced among females and those with uncontrolled asthma. Symptoms of allergic rhinitis were not associated with increased concern or anxiety in relation to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with asthma experience more COVID-19-related health concerns, compared with those without asthma, especially females and participants with uncontrolled asthma This needs to be considered in the care of young people with asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1): 124-133, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or asthma are susceptible to corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, severity, and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AR and/or asthma in COVID-19 infection, severity, and mortality, and assess whether long-term AR and/or asthma medications affected the outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of 70,557 adult participants completed SARS-CoV-2 testing between March 16 and December 31, 2020, in the UK Biobank were analyzed. The rates of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and mortality in relation to pre-existing AR and/or asthma were assessed based on adjusted generalized linear models. We further analyzed the impact of long-term AR and/or asthma medications on the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Patients with AR of all ages had lower positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 tests (relative risk [RR]: 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.81, P < .001), with lower susceptibility in males (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.65-0.85, P < .001) than females (RR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.72-0.9, P < .001). However, similar effects of asthma against COVID-19 hospitalization were only major in participants aged <65 (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1, P = .044) instead of elderlies. In contrast, patients with asthma tested positively had higher risk of hospitalization (RR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.32-1.54, P < .001). Neither AR nor asthma had an impact on COVID-19 mortality. None of conventional medications for AR or asthma, for example, antihistamines, corticosteroids, or ß2 adrenoceptor agonists, showed association with COVID-19 infection or severity. CONCLUSION: AR (all ages) and asthma (aged <65) act as protective factors against COVID-19 infection, whereas asthma increases risk for COVID-19 hospitalization. None of the long-term medications had a significant association with infection, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 among patients with AR and/or asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Allergy ; 76(12): 3659-3686, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406540

ABSTRACT

During the past years, there has been a global outbreak of allergic diseases, presenting a considerable medical and socioeconomical burden. A large fraction of allergic diseases is characterized by a type 2 immune response involving Th2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and M2 macrophages. Biomarkers are valuable parameters for precision medicine as they provide information on the disease endotypes, clusters, precision diagnoses, identification of therapeutic targets, and monitoring of treatment efficacies. The availability of powerful omics technologies, together with integrated data analysis and network-based approaches can help the identification of clinically useful biomarkers. These biomarkers need to be accurately quantified using robust and reproducible methods, such as reliable and point-of-care systems. Ideally, samples should be collected using quick, cost-efficient and noninvasive methods. In recent years, a plethora of research has been directed toward finding novel biomarkers of allergic diseases. Promising biomarkers of type 2 allergic diseases include sputum eosinophils, serum periostin and exhaled nitric oxide. Several other biomarkers, such as pro-inflammatory mediators, miRNAs, eicosanoid molecules, epithelial barrier integrity, and microbiota changes are useful for diagnosis and monitoring of allergic diseases and can be quantified in serum, body fluids and exhaled air. Herein, we review recent studies on biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, chronic urticaria, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, food allergies, anaphylaxis, drug hypersensitivity and allergen immunotherapy. In addition, we discuss COVID-19 and allergic diseases within the perspective of biomarkers and recommendations on the management of allergic and asthmatic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Rhinitis, Allergic , Biomarkers , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(6): 428-433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) had good effectiveness for children with allergic rhinitis (AR). However, no studies explored the effect of persistent allergen exposure on SLIT treatment. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restricts outdoor activities of children significantly. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of SLIT during this special period. METHODS: A total of 335 AR children who sensitize to house dust mite (HDM) undergoing SLIT were recruited in this study. The clinical effectiveness and safety were evaluated at different time points using symptom and medication scores. The serum total IgE and specific IgE (sIgE) at different time points were detected by using the Unicap system. RESULTS: The total nasal symptoms score (TNSS) and total medication score (TMS) during the epidemic of COVID-19 increased significantly compared with the same period last year (p < 0.05), despite that they were still significantly lower than baseline levels (p < 0.05). The occurrence of adverse reactions at different time points had no significant differences. We also found that the family of the good response group had more frequent bedding cleaning. Both the tIgE and sIgE levels had no significant changes during SLIT treatment. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that continuous HDM exposure reduced the effectiveness of SLIT, whereas effective reduction of HDM levels by frequent bed cleaning will be helpful during the SLIT treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhinitis, Allergic , Sublingual Immunotherapy , Allergens , Animals , Antigens, Dermatophagoides , Child , Humans , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol ; 54(2): 53-59, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404266

ABSTRACT

Summary: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common disease affecting up to 40% of the general population worldwide. In the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era, many observational studies analysing the effect of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the risk of developing COVID-19 were conducted, while data on AR are limited.In this paper, we review the risk of developing SARS-Cov-2 infection carried by AR patients, the outcomes of those with COVID-19 disease, and the COVID-19 influence on the allergic and nasal symptoms and the psychological status of AR patients, in both adult and paediatric populations.AR patients seem to be protected from COVID 19 infection. Even if data about the influence of AR on the severity of COVID-19 disease are still not conclusive, it seems that being an AR patient does not increase the risk of poor COVID-19 prognoses. The clinical manifestation of AR can be distinguished by COVID-19 symptoms. Treating AR adequately is also strongly recommended, especially during pandemic.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Allergy ; 77(3): 798-811, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370860

ABSTRACT

Allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, hymenoptera allergy, or atopic dermatitis are highly prevalent in women of childbearing age and may affect up to 30% of this age group. This review focuses on the management of allergic diseases during pregnancy. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges of counseling women with allergic diseases in the reproductive age, including considerations relevant to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. To create the optimal milieu for the unborn child, a multitude of immunological changes occur during pregnancy which may favor type 2 responses and aggravate disease phenotypes. In co-occurrence with suboptimal preconception disease control, this elevated Th2 responses may aggravate allergic disease manifestations during pregnancy and pose a risk for mother and child. Due to limitations in conducting clinical trials in pregnant women, safety data on anti-allergic drugs during pregnancy are limited. The lack of information and concerns among pregnant patients demands counseling on the benefits of anti-allergic drugs and the potential and known risks. This includes information on the risk for mother and child of disease aggravation in the absence of treatment. By doing so, informed decisions and shared decision-making can take place.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Food Hypersensitivity , Rhinitis, Allergic , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Allergy ; 76(11): 3383-3389, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352411

ABSTRACT

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a growing public health, medical and economic problem worldwide. The current review describes the major discoveries related to AR during the past 2 years, including risk factors for the prevalence of AR, the corresponding diagnostic strategy, precise underlying immunological mechanisms, and efficient therapies for AR during the ongoing global "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) pandemic. The review further attempts to highlight future research perspectives. Increasing evidence suggests that environmental exposures, climate changes, and lifestyle are important risk factors for AR. Consequently, detailed investigation of the exposome and the connection between environmental exposures and health in the future should provide better risk profiles instead of single predictors, and also help mitigate adverse health outcomes in allergic diseases. Although patients with dual AR, a newly defined AR phenotype, display perennial and seasonal allergens-related nasal symptoms, they are only allergic to seasonal allergens, indicating the importance of measuring inflammation at the local sites. Herein, we suggest that a combination of precise diagnosis in local sites and traditional diagnostic methods may enhance the precision medicine-based approach for management of AR; however, this awaits further investigations. Apart from traditional treatments, social distancing, washing hands, and disinfection are also required to better manage AR patients in the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. Despite recent advances in understanding the immune mechanisms underlying the effects of allergen immunotherapy (AIT), further understanding changes of cell profiles after AIT and accurately evaluate the efficacy of AIT are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhinitis, Allergic , Allergens , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323264

ABSTRACT

The human paranasal sinuses are the major source of intrinsic nitric oxide (NO) production in the human airway. NO plays several roles in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and the regulation of airway inflammation through the expression of three NO synthase (NOS) isoforms. Measuring NO levels can contribute to the diagnosis and assessment of allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In symptomatic AR patients, pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulate the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) in the inferior turbinate. Excessive amounts of NO cause oxidative damage to cellular components, leading to the deposition of cytotoxic substances. CRS phenotype and endotype classifications have provided insights into modern treatment strategies. Analyses of the production of sinus NO and its metabolites revealed pathobiological diversity that can be exploited for useful biomarkers. Measuring nasal NO based on different NOS activities is a potent tool for specific interventions targeting molecular pathways underlying CRS endotype-specific inflammation. We provide a comprehensive review of the functional diversity of NOS isoforms in the human sinonasal system in relation to these two major nasal disorders' pathologies. The regulatory mechanisms of NOS expression associated with the substrate bioavailability indicate the involvement of both type 1 and type 2 immune responses.


Subject(s)
Nasal Mucosa/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Paranasal Sinuses/enzymology , Rhinitis, Allergic/physiopathology , Sinusitis/physiopathology , Animals , Chronic Disease , Humans , Isoenzymes , Rhinitis, Allergic/metabolism , Sinusitis/metabolism
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