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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323264


The human paranasal sinuses are the major source of intrinsic nitric oxide (NO) production in the human airway. NO plays several roles in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and the regulation of airway inflammation through the expression of three NO synthase (NOS) isoforms. Measuring NO levels can contribute to the diagnosis and assessment of allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In symptomatic AR patients, pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulate the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) in the inferior turbinate. Excessive amounts of NO cause oxidative damage to cellular components, leading to the deposition of cytotoxic substances. CRS phenotype and endotype classifications have provided insights into modern treatment strategies. Analyses of the production of sinus NO and its metabolites revealed pathobiological diversity that can be exploited for useful biomarkers. Measuring nasal NO based on different NOS activities is a potent tool for specific interventions targeting molecular pathways underlying CRS endotype-specific inflammation. We provide a comprehensive review of the functional diversity of NOS isoforms in the human sinonasal system in relation to these two major nasal disorders' pathologies. The regulatory mechanisms of NOS expression associated with the substrate bioavailability indicate the involvement of both type 1 and type 2 immune responses.

Nasal Mucosa/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Paranasal Sinuses/enzymology , Rhinitis, Allergic/physiopathology , Sinusitis/physiopathology , Animals , Chronic Disease , Humans , Isoenzymes , Rhinitis, Allergic/metabolism , Sinusitis/metabolism
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(4): 481-483, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716534