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1.
J Med Life ; 15(3): 350-358, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811951

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is an RNA virus similar to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the replication process. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir is an approved drug to treat HCV infection. This study investigates the efficacy of Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir as a treatment for patients with moderate COVID-19 infection. This is a single-blinded parallel-randomized controlled trial. The participants were randomized equally into the intervention group that received Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (S.L. group), and the control group received Oseltamivir, Hydroxychloroquine, and Azithromycin (OCH group). The primary outcomes were the cure rate over time and the incidence of serious adverse events. The secondary outcomes included the laboratory findings. 250 patients were divided equally into each group. Both groups were similar regarding gender, but age was higher in the S.L. group (p=0.001). In the S.L. group, 89 (71.2%) patients were cured, while only 51 (40.8%) patients were cured in the OCH group. The cure rate was significantly higher in the S.L. group (RR=1.75, p<0.001). Kaplan-Meir plot showed a considerably higher cure over time in the S.L. group (Log-rank test, p=0.032). There were no deaths in the S.L. group, but there were six deaths (4.8%) in the OCH group (RR=0.08, p=0.013). Seven patients (5.6%) in the S.L. group and six patients (4.8%) in the OCH group were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (RR=1.17, P=0.776). There were no significant differences between treatment groups regarding total leukocyte and neutrophils count, lymph, and urea. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir is suggestive of being effective in treating patients with moderate COVID-19 infection. Further studies are needed to compare Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir with new treatment protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Egypt , Fluorenes , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Ribavirin/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/pharmacology , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Uridine Monophosphate/adverse effects
2.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 63(1): 37-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620131

ABSTRACT

This review considers antiviral nucleoside analog drugs, including ribavirin, favipiravir, and molnupiravir, which induce genome error catastrophe in SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 via lethal mutagenesis as a mode of action. In vitro data indicate that molnupiravir may be 100 times more potent as an antiviral agent than ribavirin or favipiravir. Molnupiravir has recently demonstrated efficacy in a phase 3 clinical trial. Because of its anticipated global use, its relative potency, and the reported in vitro "host" cell mutagenicity of its active principle, ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine, we have reviewed the development of molnupiravir and its genotoxicity safety evaluation, as well as the genotoxicity profiles of three congeners, that is, ribavirin, favipiravir, and 5-(2-chloroethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine. We consider the potential genetic risks of molnupiravir on the basis of all available information and focus on the need for additional human genotoxicity data and follow-up in patients treated with molnupiravir and similar drugs. Such human data are especially relevant for antiviral NAs that have the potential of permanently modifying the genomes of treated patients and/or causing human teratogenicity or embryotoxicity. We conclude that the results of preclinical genotoxicity studies and phase 1 human clinical safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics are critical components of drug safety assessments and sentinels of unanticipated adverse health effects. We provide our rationale for performing more thorough genotoxicity testing prior to and within phase 1 clinical trials, including human PIG-A and error corrected next generation sequencing (duplex sequencing) studies in DNA and mitochondrial DNA of patients treated with antiviral NAs that induce genome error catastrophe via lethal mutagenesis.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , DNA Damage/drug effects , Hydroxylamines/adverse effects , Nucleosides/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytidine/adverse effects , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Deoxyuridine/adverse effects , Deoxyuridine/analogs & derivatives , Deoxyuridine/therapeutic use , Genome, Human/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19998, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462031

ABSTRACT

Understanding the effects of metabolism on the rational design of novel and more effective drugs is still a considerable challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no entirely computational strategies that make it possible to predict these effects. From this perspective, the development of such methodologies could contribute to significantly reduce the side effects of medicines, leading to the emergence of more effective and safer drugs. Thereby, in this study, our strategy is based on simulating the electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) fragmentation of the drug molecules and combined with molecular docking and ADMET models in two different situations. In the first model, the drug is docked without considering the possible metabolic effects. In the second model, each of the intermediates from the EI-MS results is docked, and metabolism occurs before the drug accesses the biological target. As a proof of concept, in this work, we investigate the main antiviral drugs used in clinical research to treat COVID-19. As a result, our strategy made it possible to assess the biological activity and toxicity of all potential by-products. We believed that our findings provide new chemical insights that can benefit the rational development of novel drugs in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Design , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitro Compounds/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/adverse effects , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/metabolism , Ribavirin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/pharmacology
4.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(5): 416-437, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449937

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacologic management of patients with COVID-19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immunomodulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS-CoV-2. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunomodulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Nelfinavir/administration & dosage , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds , Pandemics , Purines , Pyrazoles , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/adverse effects
5.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(9): 794-799, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093468

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of ribavirin-associated severe hyperuricemia in an immunocompromised patient treated for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. SUMMARY: A 21-year-old male with a past medical history of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was in full remission after allogenic bone marrow transplantation complicated with chronic graft-versus-host disease. He was hospitalized due to fever, malaise, and respiratory symptoms. A diagnosis of RSV upper respiratory tract infection complicated by secondary pneumonia was made, and oral ribavirin (600 mg in 3 divided doses daily) and intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) were initiated. On day 2 of the hospital admission, the patient's uric acid levels had increased from a baseline of 4 to 6 mg/dL to 19.3 and 22.2 mg/dL after the fourth and fifth doses of ribavirin, respectively, and his serum creatinine steadily had increased from a baseline of 0.7 to 0.8 mg/dL to 1.6 mg/dL. Ribavirin was discontinued after the sixth dose, and a single dose of intravenous rasburicase (7.5 mg) was administered. On day 3, the patient's serum uric and creatinine concentrations had decreased to 4.7 mg/dL and 1.1 mg/dL, respectively. He continued to recover on antibiotics and was discharged with normal uric acid and serum creatinine levels. CONCLUSION: We report a case of severe hyperuricemia and acute kidney injury that developed early after initiation of ribavirin for RSV infection and suspected bacterial pneumonia in an immunocompromised patient without hepatitis C, requiring ribavirin discontinuation and rasburicase administration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe hyperuricemia in a patient treated with ribavirin for RSV infection rather than chronic hepatitis C. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of acute and severe hyperuricemia following ribavirin administration.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Hyperuricemia , Adult , Creatinine , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Male , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Uric Acid , Young Adult
6.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(1): 53-55, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073191

ABSTRACT

Infection outbreak has been prevalent since previous decades. The impact of infection outbreak not merely limited to physical suffering but grounded for massive mental health issues. The fear of getting contagion and persistent exposure to diverse medication and vaccination contribute enormously to develop mental health issues among people. During previous infection treatment with diverse vaccination and antiviral agent, the common mental health issues found to be a mood disorder, delirium, schizophrenia, and psychotic symptoms. Cumbersomely, it is almost impossible to treat mental health issues during the pandemic with the help of only pharmacological availability. Hence psychological intervention is also important to ameliorate better consequences. The current study highlights the impact of CoViD-19 related diverse medication and vaccination on the mental health of the people.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/adverse effects , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Fear , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Mental Disorders/psychology , Oseltamivir/adverse effects , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects
7.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 1391583, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831314

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze and evaluate the safety signals of ribavirin-interferon combination through data mining of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), so as to provide reference for the rationale use of these agents in the management of relevant toxicities emerging in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). METHODS: Reports to the FAERS from 1 January 2004 to 8 March 2020 were analyzed. The proportion of report ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and Bayesian confidence interval progressive neural network (BCPNN) method were used to detect the safety signals. RESULTS: A total of 55 safety signals were detected from the top 250 adverse event reactions in 2200 reports, but 19 signals were not included in the drug labels. All the detected adverse event reactions were associated with 13 System Organ Classes (SOC), such as gastrointestinal, blood and lymph, hepatobiliary, endocrine, and various nervous systems. The most frequent adverse events were analyzed, and the results showed that females were more likely to suffer from anemia, vomiting, neutropenia, diarrhea, and insomnia. CONCLUSION: The ADE (adverse drug event) signal detection based on FAERS is helpful to clarify the potential adverse events related to ribavirin-interferon combination for novel coronavirus therapy; clinicians should pay attention to the adverse reactions of gastrointestinal and blood systems, closely monitor the fluctuations of the platelet count, and carry out necessary mental health interventions to avoid serious adverse events.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferons/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Algorithms , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19 , Data Mining , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Interferons/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Neural Networks, Computer , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Young Adult
8.
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1145): 180-184, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725512

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), has been rapidly escalating, becoming a relevant threat to global health. Being a recent virus outbreak, there are still no available therapeutic regimens that have been approved in large randomised trials and so patients are currently being treated with multiple drugs. This raises concerns regarding drug interaction and their implication in arrhythmic burden. In fact, two of the actually used drugs against SARS-CoV2, such as chloroquine and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir, might determine a QT (the time from the start of the Q wave to the end of the T wave) interval prolongation and they show several interactions with antiarrhythmic drugs and antipsychotic medications, making them prone to an increased risk of developing arrhythmias. This brief review focuses the attention on the most relevant drug interactions involving the currently used COVID-19 medications and their possible association with cardiac rhythm disorders, taking into account also pre-existing condition and precipitating factors that might additionally increase this risk. Furthermore, based on the available evidence and based on the knowledge of drug interaction, we propose a quick and simple algorithm that might help both cardiologists and non-cardiologists in the management of the arrhythmic risk before and during the treatment with the specific drugs used against SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hypoxia , Inflammation , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Myocarditis , Myocardium , Precipitating Factors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance
9.
Gut ; 70(4): 733-742, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Data on serial liver biochemistries of patients infected by different human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are lacking. The impact of liver injury on adverse clinical outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remains unclear. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from a territory-wide database in Hong Kong. COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other HCoV patients were identified by diagnosis codes and/or virological results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation was defined as ALT/AST ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ie, 80 U/L). The primary end point was a composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or death. RESULTS: We identified 1040 COVID-19 patients (mean age 38 years, 54% men), 1670 SARS patients (mean age 44 years, 44% men) and 675 other HCoV patients (mean age 20 years, 57% men). ALT/AST elevation occurred in 50.3% SARS patients, 22.5% COVID-19 patients and 36.0% other HCoV patients. For COVID-19 patients, 53 (5.1%) were admitted to ICU, 22 (2.1%) received invasive mechanical ventilation and 4 (0.4%) died. ALT/AST elevation was independently associated with primary end point (adjusted OR (aOR) 7.92, 95% CI 4.14 to 15.14, p<0.001) after adjusted for albumin, diabetes and hypertension. Use of lopinavir-ritonavir ±ribavirin + interferon beta (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.13, p=0.006) and corticosteroids (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 2.14 to 7.16, p<0.001) was independently associated with ALT/AST elevation. CONCLUSION: ALT/AST elevation was common and independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Use of lopinavir-ritonavir, with or without ribavirin, interferon beta and/or corticosteroids was independently associated with ALT/AST elevation.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antiviral Agents , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19 , Liver , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/virology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
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