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1.
Virulence ; 13(1): 355-369, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669108

ABSTRACT

MERS-CoV infection can damage the cellular metabolic processes, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Through screening, we found non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) of MERS-CoV could inhibit cell viability, cell cycle, and cell migration through its endonuclease activity. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that MERS-CoV nsp1 specifically downregulated the mRNAs of ribosomal protein genes, oxidative phosphorylation protein genes, and antigen presentation genes, but upregulated the mRNAs of transcriptional regulatory genes. Further analysis shown nsp1 existed in a novel ribonucleosome complex formed via liquid-liquid phase separation, which did not co-localize with mitochondria, lysosomes, P-bodies, or stress granules. Interestingly, the nsp1-located granules specifically contained mRNAs of ribosomal protein genes and oxidative phosphorylation genes, which may explain why MERS-CoV nsp1 selectively degraded these mRNAs in cells. Finally, MERS-CoV nsp1 transgenic mice showed significant loss of body weight and an increased sensitivity to poly(I:C)-induced inflammatory death. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which MERS-CoV impairs cell viability, which serves as a potential novel target for preventing MERS-CoV infection-induced pathological damage.Abbreviations: (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Actinomycin D (Act D), liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), stress granules (SGs), Mass spectrometry (IP-MS), RNA Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation (RIP)).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Ribosomal Proteins , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3501, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263489

ABSTRACT

The characteristics of COVID-19 patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection are not yet well described. Here, we compare the clinical and molecular features of patients with long duration of viral shedding (LDs) with those from patients with short duration patients (SDs), and healthy donors (HDs). We find that several cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin α (LT-α) are present at lower levels in LDs than SDs. Single-cell RNA sequencing shows that natural killer (NK) cells and CD14+ monocytes are reduced, while regulatory T cells are increased in LDs; moreover, T and NK cells in LDs are less activated than in SDs. Importantly, most cells in LDs show reduced expression of ribosomal protein (RP) genes and related pathways, with this inversed correlation between RP levels and infection duration further validated in 103 independent patients. Our results thus indicate that immunosuppression and low RP expression may be related to the persistence of the viral infection in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Virus Shedding
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042832

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a beta-CoV that recently emerged as a human pathogen and is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. A molecular framework of how the virus manipulates host cellular machinery to facilitate infection remains unclear. Here, we focus on SARS-CoV-2 NSP1, which is proposed to be a virulence factor that inhibits protein synthesis by directly binding the human ribosome. We demonstrate biochemically that NSP1 inhibits translation of model human and SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). NSP1 specifically binds to the small (40S) ribosomal subunit, which is required for translation inhibition. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays to monitor NSP1-40S subunit binding in real time, we determine that eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) allosterically modulate the interaction of NSP1 with ribosomal preinitiation complexes in the absence of mRNA. We further elucidate that NSP1 competes with RNA segments downstream of the start codon to bind the 40S subunit and that the protein is unable to associate rapidly with 80S ribosomes assembled on an mRNA. Collectively, our findings support a model where NSP1 proteins from viruses in at least two subgenera of beta-CoVs associate with the open head conformation of the 40S subunit to inhibit an early step of translation, by preventing accommodation of mRNA within the entry channel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factors/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosomes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
4.
J Gen Virol ; 102(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910383

ABSTRACT

The emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused social and economic disruption worldwide, infecting over 9.0 million people and killing over 469 000 by 24 June 2020. Unfortunately, no vaccine or antiviral drug that completely eliminates the transmissible disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been developed to date. Given that coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) is a good target for attenuated vaccines, it is of great significance to explore the detailed characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1. Here, we first confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 had a conserved function similar to that of SARS-CoV nsp1 in inhibiting host-protein synthesis and showed greater inhibition efficiency, as revealed by ribopuromycylation and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter assays. Specifically, bioinformatics and biochemical experiments showed that by interacting with 40S ribosomal subunit, the lysine located at amino acid 164 (K164) was the key residue that enabled SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 to suppress host gene expression. Furthermore, as an inhibitor of host-protein expression, SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 contributed to cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, which might provide a favourable environment for virus production. Taken together, this research uncovered the detailed mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 K164 inhibited host gene expression, laying the foundation for the development of attenuated vaccines based on nsp1 modification.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Lysine/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Computational Biology/methods , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Genes, Reporter , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Mutation , Ribosomal Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Signal Transduction , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000849, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748960

ABSTRACT

Despite limited genomic diversity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown a wide range of clinical manifestations in different patient populations. The mechanisms behind these host differences are still unclear. Here, we examined host response gene expression across infection status, viral load, age, and sex among shotgun RNA sequencing profiles of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 430 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and 54 negative controls. SARS-CoV-2 induced a strong antiviral response with up-regulation of antiviral factors such as OAS1-3 and IFIT1-3 and T helper type 1 (Th1) chemokines CXCL9/10/11, as well as a reduction in transcription of ribosomal proteins. SARS-CoV-2 culture in human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures replicated the in vivo antiviral host response 7 days post infection, with no induction of interferon-stimulated genes after 3 days. Patient-matched longitudinal specimens (mean elapsed time = 6.3 days) demonstrated reduction in interferon-induced transcription, recovery of transcription of ribosomal proteins, and initiation of wound healing and humoral immune responses. Expression of interferon-responsive genes, including ACE2, increased as a function of viral load, while transcripts for B cell-specific proteins and neutrophil chemokines were elevated in patients with lower viral load. Older individuals had reduced expression of the Th1 chemokines CXCL9/10/11 and their cognate receptor CXCR3, as well as CD8A and granzyme B, suggesting deficiencies in trafficking and/or function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Relative to females, males had reduced B cell-specific and NK cell-specific transcripts and an increase in inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling, possibly inappropriately throttling antiviral responses. Collectively, our data demonstrate that host responses to SARS-CoV-2 are dependent on viral load and infection time course, with observed differences due to age and sex that may contribute to disease severity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Signal Transduction/genetics , Viral Load , Wound Healing/genetics , Young Adult
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