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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2202322119, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050721

ABSTRACT

An overarching goal of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease research is to discover effective therapeutic strategies applicable to a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the extent to which targetable pathogenic mechanisms are shared among these seemingly diverse diseases. Translational control is critical for maintaining proteostasis during aging. Gaining control of the translation machinery is also crucial in the battle between viruses and their hosts. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we show that overexpression of SARS-CoV-2-encoded nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) robustly rescued neuromuscular degeneration and behavioral phenotypes in Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These diseases share a common mechanism: the accumulation of aberrant protein species due to the stalling and collision of translating ribosomes, leading to proteostasis failure. Our genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that Nsp1 acted in a multipronged manner to resolve collided ribosomes, abort stalled translation, and remove faulty translation products causative of disease in these models, at least in part through the ribosome recycling factor ABCE1, ribosome-associated quality-control factors, autophagy, and AKT signaling. Nsp1 exhibited exquisite specificity in its action, as it did not modify other neurodegenerative conditions not known to be associated with ribosome stalling. These findings uncover a previously unrecognized mechanism of Nsp1 in manipulating host translation, which can be leveraged for combating age-related neurodegenerative diseases that are affecting millions of people worldwide and currently without effective treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Ribosomes , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Alzheimer Disease , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Drosophila , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
2.
mBio ; 13(4): e0246821, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901930

ABSTRACT

The constrained nature of viral genomes has allowed a translational sleight of hand known as -1 Programmed Ribosomal Frameshifting (-1 PRF) to flourish. Numerous studies have sought to tease apart the mechanisms and implications of -1PRF utilizing a few techniques. The dual-luciferase assay and ribosomal profiling have driven the PRF field to make great advances; however, the use of these assays means that the full impact of the genomic and cellular context on -1 PRF is often lost. Here, we discuss how the Minimal Frameshifting Element (MFE) and its constraints can hide contextual effects on -1 PRF. We review how sequence elements proximal to the traditionally defined MFE, such as the coronavirus attenuator sequence, can affect the observed rates of -1 PRF. Further, the MFE-based approach fully obscured -1 PRF in Barley yellow dwarf virus and would render the exploration of -1 PRF difficult in Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Encephalomyocarditis virus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, and Sindbis virus. Finally, we examine how the cellular context of tRNA abundance, miRNAs, and immune response elements can affect -1 PRF. The use of MFE was instrumental in establishing the basic foundations of PRF; however, it has become clear that the contextual impact on -1 PRF is no longer the exception so much as it is the rule and argues for new approaches to study -1PRF that embrace context. We therefore urge our field to expand the strategies and methods used to explore -1 PRF.


Subject(s)
Frameshifting, Ribosomal , Ribosomes , Animals , Cell Line , Genome, Viral , Mice , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , Sindbis Virus/genetics
3.
mBio ; 13(3): e0081522, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861583

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes a number of strategies to modulate viral and host mRNA translation. Here, we used ribosome profiling in SARS-CoV-2-infected model cell lines and primary airway cells grown at an air-liquid interface to gain a deeper understanding of the translationally regulated events in response to virus replication. We found that SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs dominate the cellular mRNA pool but are not more efficiently translated than cellular mRNAs. SARS-CoV-2 utilized a highly efficient ribosomal frameshifting strategy despite notable accumulation of ribosomes within the slippery sequence on the frameshifting element. In a highly permissive cell line model, although SARS-CoV-2 infection induced the transcriptional upregulation of numerous chemokine, cytokine, and interferon-stimulated genes, many of these mRNAs were not translated efficiently. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host mRNA translation was more subtle in primary cells, with marked transcriptional and translational upregulation of inflammatory and innate immune responses and downregulation of processes involved in ciliated cell function. Together, these data reveal the key role of mRNA translation in SARS-CoV-2 replication and highlight unique mechanisms for therapeutic development. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 utilizes a number of strategies to modulate host responses to ensure efficient propagation. Here, we used ribosome profiling in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells to gain a deeper understanding of the translationally regulated events in infected cells. We found that although viral mRNAs are abundantly expressed, they are not more efficiently translated than cellular mRNAs. SARS-CoV-2 utilized a highly efficient ribosomal frameshifting strategy and alternative translation initiation sites that help increase the coding potential of its RNAs. In permissive cells, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced the translational repression of numerous innate immune mediators. Though the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host mRNA translation was more subtle in primary airway cell cultures, we noted marked transcriptional and translational upregulation of inflammatory and innate immune responses and downregulation of processes involved in ciliated cell function. Together, these data provide new insight into how SARS-CoV-2 modulates innate host responses and highlight unique mechanisms for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
FEBS Lett ; 596(9): 1203-1213, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798052

ABSTRACT

Nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) of SARS-CoV-2 inhibits host cell translation through an interaction between its C-terminal domain and the 40S ribosome. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of Nsp1 is a target of recurring deletions, some of which are associated with altered COVID-19 disease progression. Here, we characterize the efficiency of translational inhibition by clinically observed Nsp1 deletion variants. We show that a frequent deletion of residues 79-89 severely reduces the ability of Nsp1 to inhibit translation while not abrogating Nsp1 binding to the 40S. Notably, while the SARS-CoV-2 5' untranslated region enhances translation of mRNA, it does not protect from Nsp1-mediated inhibition. Finally, thermal stability measurements and structure predictions reveal a correlation between stability of the NTD and the efficiency of translation inhibition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis , Ribosomes/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
5.
RNA ; 28(5): 766-779, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724734

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the ongoing global pandemic, must overcome a conundrum faced by all viruses. To achieve its own replication and spread, it simultaneously depends on and subverts cellular mechanisms. At the early stage of infection, SARS-CoV-2 expresses the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1), which inhibits host translation by blocking the mRNA entry tunnel on the ribosome; this interferes with the binding of cellular mRNAs to the ribosome. Viral mRNAs, on the other hand, overcome this blockade. We show that NSP1 enhances expression of mRNAs containing the SARS-CoV-2 leader. The first stem-loop (SL1) in the viral leader is both necessary and sufficient for this enhancement mechanism. Our analysis pinpoints specific residues within SL1 (three cytosine residues at the positions 15, 19, and 20) and another within NSP1 (R124), which are required for viral evasion, and thus might present promising drug targets. We target SL1 with the antisense oligo (ASO) to efficiently and specifically down-regulate SARS-CoV-2 mRNA. Additionally, we carried out analysis of a functional interactome of NSP1 using BioID and identified components of antiviral defense pathways. Our analysis therefore suggests a mechanism by which NSP1 inhibits the expression of host genes while enhancing that of viral RNA. This analysis helps reconcile conflicting reports in the literature regarding the mechanisms by which the virus avoids NSP1 silencing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
6.
Biophys Chem ; 285: 106780, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693833

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) serve as blueprints for protein synthesis by the molecular machine the ribosome. The ribosome relies on hydrogen bonding interactions between adaptor aminoacyl-transfer RNA molecules and mRNAs to ensure the rapid and faithful translation of the genetic code into protein. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that chemical modifications to mRNA nucleosides impact the speed and accuracy of protein synthesis by the ribosome. Modulations in translation rates have downstream effects beyond protein production, influencing protein folding and mRNA stability. Given the prevalence of such modifications in mRNA coding regions, it is imperative to understand the consequences of individual modifications on translation. In this review we present the current state of our knowledge regarding how individual mRNA modifications influence ribosome function. Our comprehensive comparison of the impacts of 16 different mRNA modifications on translation reveals that most modifications can alter the elongation step in the protein synthesis pathway. Additionally, we discuss the context dependence of these effects, highlighting the necessity of further study to uncover the rules that govern how any given chemical modification in an mRNA codon is read by the ribosome.


Subject(s)
Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational , Protein Biosynthesis , Codon/analysis , Codon/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/chemistry , Ribosomes/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism
7.
RNA Biol ; 18(sup2): 804-817, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522048

ABSTRACT

Nsp1 of SARS-CoV-2 regulates the translation of host and viral mRNAs in cells. Nsp1 inhibits host translation initiation by occluding the entry channel of the 40S ribosome subunit. The structural study of the Nsp1-ribosomal complexes reported post-termination 80S complex containing Nsp1, eRF1 and ABCE1. Considering the presence of Nsp1 in the post-termination 80S ribosomal complex, we hypothesized that Nsp1 may be involved in translation termination. Using a cell-free translation system and reconstituted in vitro translation system, we show that Nsp1 stimulates peptide release and formation of termination complexes. Detailed analysis of Nsp1 activity during translation termination stages reveals that Nsp1 facilitates stop codon recognition. We demonstrate that Nsp1 stimulation targets eRF1 and does not affect eRF3. Moreover, Nsp1 increases amount of the termination complexes at all three stop codons. The activity of Nsp1 in translation termination is provided by its N-terminal domain and the minimal required part of eRF1 is NM domain. We assume that the biological meaning of Nsp1 activity in translation termination is binding with the 80S ribosomes translating host mRNAs and remove them from the pool of the active ribosomes.


Subject(s)
Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/physiology , Animals , Cell-Free System , Codon, Terminator/metabolism , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mutation , Peptide Chain Termination, Translational , Peptide Termination Factors/chemistry , Peptide Termination Factors/metabolism , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rabbits , Ribosomes/metabolism
8.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109806, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466094

ABSTRACT

Tactical disruption of protein synthesis is an attractive therapeutic strategy, with the first-in-class eIF4A-targeting compound zotatifin in clinical evaluation for cancer and COVID-19. The full cellular impact and mechanisms of these potent molecules are undefined at a proteomic level. Here, we report mass spectrometry analysis of translational reprogramming by rocaglates, cap-dependent initiation disruptors that include zotatifin. We find effects to be far more complex than simple "translational inhibition" as currently defined. Translatome analysis by TMT-pSILAC (tandem mass tag-pulse stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture mass spectrometry) reveals myriad upregulated proteins that drive hitherto unrecognized cytotoxic mechanisms, including GEF-H1-mediated anti-survival RHOA/JNK activation. Surprisingly, these responses are not replicated by eIF4A silencing, indicating a broader translational adaptation than currently understood. Translation machinery analysis by MATRIX (mass spectrometry analysis of active translation factors using ribosome density fractionation and isotopic labeling experiments) identifies rocaglate-specific dependence on specific translation factors including eEF1ε1 that drive translatome remodeling. Our proteome-level interrogation reveals that the complete cellular response to these historical "translation inhibitors" is mediated by comprehensive translational landscape remodeling.


Subject(s)
Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/drug effects , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology , Proteomics/methods , Ribosomes/metabolism , Transcriptome/drug effects , Transcriptome/genetics , Triterpenes/pharmacology
9.
Cell Rep ; 37(3): 109841, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439922

ABSTRACT

Nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) is a coronavirus (CoV) virulence factor that restricts cellular gene expression by inhibiting translation through blocking the mRNA entry channel of the 40S ribosomal subunit and by promoting mRNA degradation. We perform a detailed structure-guided mutational analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 nsp1, revealing insights into how it coordinates these activities against host but not viral mRNA. We find that residues in the N-terminal and central regions of nsp1 not involved in docking into the 40S mRNA entry channel nonetheless stabilize its association with the ribosome and mRNA, both enhancing its restriction of host gene expression and enabling mRNA containing the SARS-CoV-2 leader sequence to escape translational repression. These data support a model in which viral mRNA binding functionally alters the association of nsp1 with the ribosome, which has implications for drug targeting and understanding how engineered or emerging mutations in SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 could attenuate the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Anisotropy , COVID-19/immunology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kinetics , Mutation , Phenotype , Point Mutation , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Domains , RNA Stability , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism
10.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 715, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387495

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 is causing modern human history's most serious health crisis and upending our way of life, clinical and basic research on the virus is advancing rapidly, leading to fascinating discoveries. Two studies have revealed how the viral virulence factor, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), binds human ribosomes to inhibit host cell translation. Here, we examine the main conclusions on the molecular activity of Nsp1 and its role in suppressing innate immune responses. We discuss different scenarios potentially explaining how the viral RNA can bypass its own translation blockage and speculate on the suitability of Nsp1 as a therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Ribosomes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , 5' Untranslated Regions , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
11.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(8): 1469-1481, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387143

ABSTRACT

The programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting element (PFSE) of SARS-CoV-2 is a well conserved structured RNA found in all coronaviruses' genomes. By adopting a pseudoknot structure in the presence of the ribosome, the PFSE promotes a ribosomal frameshifting event near the stop codon of the first open reading frame Orf1a during translation of the polyprotein pp1a. Frameshifting results in continuation of pp1a via a new open reading frame, Orf1b, that produces the longer pp1ab polyprotein. Polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab produce nonstructural proteins NSPs 1-10 and NSPs 1-16, respectively, which contribute vital functions during the viral life cycle and must be present in the proper stoichiometry. Both drugs and sequence alterations that affect the stability of the -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting element disrupt the stoichiometry of the NSPs produced, which compromise viral replication. For this reason, the -1 programmed frameshifting element is considered a promising drug target. Using chaperone assisted RNA crystallography, we successfully crystallized and solved the three-dimensional structure of the PFSE. We observe a three-stem H-type pseudoknot structure with the three stems stacked in a vertical orientation stabilized by two triple base pairs at the stem 1/stem 2 and stem 1/stem 3 junctions. This structure provides a new conformation of PFSE distinct from the bent conformations inferred from midresolution cryo-EM models and provides a high-resolution framework for mechanistic investigations and structure-based drug design.


Subject(s)
Crystallography/methods , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/physiology , Molecular Chaperones , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
12.
mBio ; 12(3): e0142321, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280400

ABSTRACT

The catalytic subunit of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) Nsp12 has a unique nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase (NiRAN) domain that transfers nucleoside monophosphates to the Nsp9 protein and the nascent RNA. The NiRAN and RdRp modules form a dynamic interface distant from their catalytic sites, and both activities are essential for viral replication. We report that codon-optimized (for the pause-free translation in bacterial cells) Nsp12 exists in an inactive state in which NiRAN-RdRp interactions are broken, whereas translation by slow ribosomes and incubation with accessory Nsp7/8 subunits or nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) partially rescue RdRp activity. Our data show that adenosine and remdesivir triphosphates promote the synthesis of A-less RNAs, as does ppGpp, while amino acid substitutions at the NiRAN-RdRp interface augment activation, suggesting that ligand binding to the NiRAN catalytic site modulates RdRp activity. The existence of allosterically linked nucleotidyl transferase sites that utilize the same substrates has important implications for understanding the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 replication and the design of its inhibitors. IMPORTANCE In vitro interrogations of the central replicative complex of SARS-CoV-2, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), by structural, biochemical, and biophysical methods yielded an unprecedented windfall of information that, in turn, instructs drug development and administration, genomic surveillance, and other aspects of the evolving pandemic response. They also illuminated the vast disparity in the methods used to produce RdRp for experimental work and the hidden impact that this has on enzyme activity and research outcomes. In this report, we elucidate the positive and negative effects of codon optimization on the activity and folding of the recombinant RdRp and detail the design of a highly sensitive in vitro assay of RdRp-dependent RNA synthesis. Using this assay, we demonstrate that RdRp is allosterically activated by nontemplating phosphorylated nucleotides, including naturally occurring alarmone ppGpp and synthetic remdesivir triphosphate.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Guanosine Tetraphosphate/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalytic Domain/physiology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Humans , Ribosomes/metabolism
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273459

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein (S protein) acquired a unique new 4 amino acid -PRRA- insertion sequence at amino acid residues (aa) 681-684 that forms a new furin cleavage site in S protein as well as several new glycosylation sites. We studied various statistical properties of the -PRRA- insertion at the RNA level (CCUCGGCGGGCA). The nucleotide composition and codon usage of this sequence are different from the rest of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. One of such features is two tandem CGG codons, although the CGG codon is the rarest codon in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. This suggests that the insertion sequence could cause ribosome pausing as the result of these rare codons. Due to population variants, the Nextstrain divergence measure of the CCU codon is extremely large. We cannot exclude that this divergence might affect host immune responses/effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, possibilities awaiting further investigation. Our experimental studies show that the expression level of original RNA sequence "wildtype" spike protein is much lower than for codon-optimized spike protein in all studied cell lines. Interestingly, the original spike sequence produces a higher titer of pseudoviral particles and a higher level of infection. Further mutagenesis experiments suggest that this dual-effect insert, comprised of a combination of overlapping translation pausing and furin sites, has allowed SARS-CoV-2 to infect its new host (human) more readily. This underlines the importance of ribosome pausing to allow efficient regulation of protein expression and also of cotranslational subdomain folding.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , COS Cells , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Codon Usage , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutagenesis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Science ; 372(6548): 1306-1313, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228853

ABSTRACT

Programmed ribosomal frameshifting is a key event during translation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA genome that allows synthesis of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and downstream proteins. Here, we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a translating mammalian ribosome primed for frameshifting on the viral RNA. The viral RNA adopts a pseudoknot structure that lodges at the entry to the ribosomal messenger RNA (mRNA) channel to generate tension in the mRNA and promote frameshifting, whereas the nascent viral polyprotein forms distinct interactions with the ribosomal tunnel. Biochemical experiments validate the structural observations and reveal mechanistic and regulatory features that influence frameshifting efficiency. Finally, we compare compounds previously shown to reduce frameshifting with respect to their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication, establishing coronavirus frameshifting as a target for antiviral intervention.


Subject(s)
Frameshifting, Ribosomal , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosomes/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/biosynthesis , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Codon, Terminator , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/biosynthesis , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/drug effects , Genome, Viral , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Open Reading Frames , Protein Folding , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/chemistry , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Nature ; 594(7862): 240-245, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225510

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-191. Coronaviruses have developed a variety of mechanisms to repress host mRNA translation to allow the translation of viral mRNA, and concomitantly block the cellular innate immune response2,3. Although several different proteins of SARS-CoV-2 have previously been implicated in shutting off host expression4-7, a comprehensive picture of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cellular gene expression is lacking. Here we combine RNA sequencing, ribosome profiling and metabolic labelling of newly synthesized RNA to comprehensively define the mechanisms that are used by SARS-CoV-2 to shut off cellular protein synthesis. We show that infection leads to a global reduction in translation, but that viral transcripts are not preferentially translated. Instead, we find that infection leads to the accelerated degradation of cytosolic cellular mRNAs, which facilitates viral takeover of the mRNA pool in infected cells. We reveal that the translation of transcripts that are induced in response to infection (including innate immune genes) is impaired. We demonstrate this impairment is probably mediated by inhibition of nuclear mRNA export, which prevents newly transcribed cellular mRNA from accessing ribosomes. Overall, our results uncover a multipronged strategy that is used by SARS-CoV-2 to take over the translation machinery and to suppress host defences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , 5' Untranslated Regions/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis/genetics , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 231-238, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729910

ABSTRACT

Ribopuromycylation enables the visualization and quantitation of translation on a cellular level by immunofluorescence or in total using standard western blotting. This technique uses ribosome catalyzed puromycylation of nascent chains followed by immobilization on the ribosome by antibiotic chain elongation inhibitor emetine. Detection of puromycylated ribosome-bound nascent chains can then be achieved using a puromycin-specific antibody.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/genetics , Puromycin/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis , Ribosomes/drug effects , Ribosomes/metabolism
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154425

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in over 2.2 million deaths. Disease outcomes range from asymptomatic to severe with, so far, minimal genotypic change to the virus so understanding the host response is paramount. Transcriptomics has become incredibly important in understanding host-pathogen interactions; however, post-transcriptional regulation plays an important role in infection and immunity through translation and mRNA stability, allowing tight control over potent host responses by both the host and the invading virus. Here, we apply ribosome profiling to assess post-transcriptional regulation of host genes during SARS-CoV-2 infection of a human lung epithelial cell line (Calu-3). We have identified numerous transcription factors (JUN, ZBTB20, ATF3, HIVEP2 and EGR1) as well as select antiviral cytokine genes, namely IFNB1, IFNL1,2 and 3, IL-6 and CCL5, that are restricted at the post-transcriptional level by SARS-CoV-2 infection and discuss the impact this would have on the host response to infection. This early phase restriction of antiviral transcripts in the lungs may allow high viral load and consequent immune dysregulation typically seen in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/genetics , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , Ribosomes/metabolism , Ribosomes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computational Biology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Ribosomes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Transcriptome , Vero Cells
18.
Pharm Res ; 38(3): 473-478, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117456

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has left scientists and clinicians no choice but a race to find solutions to save lives while controlling the rapid spreading. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines have become the front-runners because of their safety profiles, precise and reproducible immune response with more cost-effective and faster production than other types of vaccines. However, the physicochemical properties of naked mRNA necessitate innovative delivery technologies to ferry these 'messengers' to ribosomes inside cells by crossing various barriers and subsequently induce an immune response. Intracellular delivery followed by endosomal escape represents the key strategies for cytoplasmic delivery of mRNA vaccines to the target. This Perspective provides insights into how state-of-the-art nanotechnology helps break the delivery barriers and advance the development of mRNA vaccines. The challenges remaining and future perspectives are outlined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Drug Carriers , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Ribosomes/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Compounding , Humans , Nanomedicine , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(7): e40, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050155

ABSTRACT

Generation of conditional knockout (cKO) and various gene-modified cells is laborious and time-consuming. Here, we established an all-in-one cKO system, which enables highly efficient generation of cKO cells and simultaneous gene modifications, including epitope tagging and reporter gene knock-in. We applied this system to mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and generated RNA helicase Ddx1 cKO ESCs. The targeted cells displayed endogenous promoter-driven EGFP and FLAG-tagged DDX1 expression, and they were converted to Ddx1 KO via FLP recombinase. We further established TetFE ESCs, which carried a reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) expression cassette and a tetracycline response element (TRE)-regulated FLPERT2 cassette in the Gt(ROSA26)Sor locus for instant and tightly regulated induction of gene KO. By utilizing TetFE Ddx1F/F ESCs, we isolated highly pure Ddx1F/F and Ddx1-/- ESCs and found that loss of Ddx1 caused rRNA processing defects, thereby activating the ribosome stress-p53 pathway. We also demonstrated cKO of various genes in ESCs and homologous recombination-non-proficient human HT1080 cells. The frequency of cKO clones was remarkably high for both cell types and reached up to 96% when EGFP-positive clones were analyzed. This all-in-one cKO system will be a powerful tool for rapid and precise analyses of gene functions.


Subject(s)
DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Gene Knockout Techniques/methods , RNA, Ribosomal/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Embryonic Stem Cells , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , Ribosomes/metabolism
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042832

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a beta-CoV that recently emerged as a human pathogen and is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. A molecular framework of how the virus manipulates host cellular machinery to facilitate infection remains unclear. Here, we focus on SARS-CoV-2 NSP1, which is proposed to be a virulence factor that inhibits protein synthesis by directly binding the human ribosome. We demonstrate biochemically that NSP1 inhibits translation of model human and SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). NSP1 specifically binds to the small (40S) ribosomal subunit, which is required for translation inhibition. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays to monitor NSP1-40S subunit binding in real time, we determine that eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) allosterically modulate the interaction of NSP1 with ribosomal preinitiation complexes in the absence of mRNA. We further elucidate that NSP1 competes with RNA segments downstream of the start codon to bind the 40S subunit and that the protein is unable to associate rapidly with 80S ribosomes assembled on an mRNA. Collectively, our findings support a model where NSP1 proteins from viruses in at least two subgenera of beta-CoVs associate with the open head conformation of the 40S subunit to inhibit an early step of translation, by preventing accommodation of mRNA within the entry channel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factors/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosomes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
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