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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1346-1357, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20244894

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Relatar a experiência da construção e utilização de um instrumento de estratificação de risco para vacinação de idosos contra a COVID-19. Métodos: Relato da experiência desenvolvida no município de Massapê ­ Ceará, durante o ano de 2021, a partir do início da campanha de vacinação de idosos contra a COVID-19. Descrição da Experiência: Por conta da escassez de imunobiológicos, na fase inicial da vacinação contra a COVID-19, a Secretaria da Saúde do município de Massapê, estado do Ceará, criou um instrumento para estratificação de riscos sanitários, epidemiológicos e sociais dos idosos, contendo seus dados sociodemográficos e as comorbidades. Após o estabelecimento das variáveis, foram estabelecidos escores para os estratos de risco, que foram classificados em baixo (um a três pontos), médio (quatro a seis pontos), alto (sete a nove pontos) e muito alto (dez pontos e mais). Considerações Finais: O estudo mostra que, apesar da pandemia de COVID-19, uma crise sanitária global sem precedentes como já dito, ações pontuais, mesmo que localizadas, podem ter efeito em cadeia e ser replicadas em outros cenários e momentos.


Objective: To report the experience of building and using a risk stratification instrument for vaccinating the elderly against COVID-19. Methods: Report of the experience developed in the municipality of Massapê - Ceará, during the year 2021, from the beginning of the vaccination campaign for the elderly against COVID-19. Experience Description: Due to the scarcity of immunobiologicals, in the initial phase of vaccination against COVID-19, the Department of Health of the municipality of Massapê, state of Ceará, created an instrument to stratify the health, epidemiological and social risks of the elderly, containing sociodemographic data and comorbidities of the elderly. After establishing the variables, scores were established for the risk strata, which were classified as low (one to three points), medium (four to six points), high (seven to nine points) and very high (ten points and more). Final Considerations: The study shows that, despite the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented global health crisis as already mentioned, specific actions, even if localized, can have a chain effect and be replicated in other scenarios and times.


Objetivo: Relatar la experiencia de construcción y uso de un instrumento de estratificación de riesgo para la vacunación de ancianos contra la COVID-19. Métodos: Informe de la experiencia desarrollada en el municipio de Massapê - Ceará, durante el año 2021, desde el inicio de la campaña de vacunación de ancianos contra la COVID-19. Descripción de la Experiencia: Debido a la escasez de inmunobiológicos, en la fase inicial de la vacunación contra la COVID-19, la Secretaría de Salud del municipio de Massapê, estado de Ceará, creó un instrumento para estratificar los riesgos sanitarios, epidemiológicos y sociales de los ancianos, que contiene datos sociodemográficos y comorbilidades de los ancianos. Luego de establecer las variables, se establecieron puntajes para los estratos de riesgo, los cuales se clasificaron en bajo (uno a tres puntos), medio (cuatro a seis puntos), alto (siete a nueve puntos) y muy alto (diez puntos y más). Consideraciones finales: El estudio muestra que, a pesar de la pandemia de COVID-19, una crisis sanitaria mundial sin precedentes como ya se mencionó, las acciones específicas, aunque sean localizadas, pueden tener un efecto en cadena y replicarse en otros escenarios y tiempos.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Stratified Sampling , Immunization Programs/supply & distribution , Risk Assessment , Health Management , COVID-19
2.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 319-324, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235516

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) originated in China in December 2020 and declared pandemic by WHO. This coronavirus mainly spreads through the respiratory tract and enters cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, and fatigue. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, anorexia, and vomiting) may be present in 50% of patients and may be associated with worst prognosis. Other risk factors are older age, male gender, and underlying chronic diseases. Mitigation measures are essential to reduce the number of people infected. Hospitals are a place of increased SARS-CoV-2 exposure. This has implications in the organization of healthcare services and specifically endoscopy departments. Patients and healthcare workers safety must be optimized in this new reality. Comprehension of COVID-19 gastrointestinal manifestations and implications of SARS-CoV-2 in the management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases, under or not immunosuppressant therapies, is essential. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress and major societies recommendations regarding the implications of COVID-19 in gastroenterology, namely the adaptations that gastroenterology/endoscopy departments and professionals must do in order to optimize the provided assistance, as well as the implications that this infection will have, in particularly vulnerable patients such as those with chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease under or not immunosuppressant therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastroenterologists , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Liver Diseases/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Decision-Making , Decision Support Techniques , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/immunology , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
3.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 309-311, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232271

ABSTRACT

On 12 March 2020, the WHO declared that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) constitutes a pandemic. Cases of liver damage or dysfunction (mainly characterized by moderately elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels) have been reported among patients with COVID-19. However, it is currently uncertain whether the COVID-19 related liver damage/dysfunction is due mainly to the viral infection by itself or other coexisting conditions, such as the use of potentially hepatotoxic medications and the coexistence of systemic inflammatory response, respiratory distress syndrome-induced hypoxia, and multiple organ dysfunction. Individuals at high risk for severe COVID-19 are typical of older age and/or present with comorbid conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. This is also the same profile for those at increased risk for unrecognized underlying liver disease, especially nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This could make them more susceptible to liver injury from the virus, medications used in supportive management, or hypoxia. So the aim of this review was to illustrate the clinical implications of COVID-19 on the liver in healthy and diseased states as well as the implications of common liver disorders on the outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
5.
Hypertens Res ; 46(3): 630-637, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239393

ABSTRACT

Vascular function assessment is useful for the evaluation of atherosclerosis severity, which may provide additional information for cardiovascular risk stratification. In addition, vascular function assessment is helpful for a better understanding of pathophysiological associations between vascular dysfunction and cardiometabolic disorders. In 2020 and 2021, although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was still a worldwide challenge for health care systems, many excellent articles regarding vascular function were published in Hypertension Research and other major cardiovascular and hypertension journals. In this review, we summarize new findings on vascular function and discuss the association between vascular function and COVID-19, the importance of lifestyle modifications for the maintenance of vascular function, and the usefulness of vascular function tests for cardiovascular risk assessment. We hope this review will be helpful for the management of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Risk Factors , COVID-19/complications , Risk Assessment
6.
Occup Environ Med ; 80(7): 399-406, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239346

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on the outcomes of COVID-19 risk assessment in healthcare workers (HCWs) or the association of ethnicity, other sociodemographic and occupational factors with risk assessment outcomes. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from UK-REACH (UK Research study into Ethnicity And COVID-19 outcomes in Healthcare workers), an ethnically diverse, nationwide cohort of UK HCWs. We derived four binary outcomes: (1) offered a risk assessment; (2) completed a risk assessment; (3) working practices changed as a result of the risk assessment; (4) wanted changes to working practices after risk assessment but working practices did not change.We examined the association of ethnicity, other sociodemographic/occupational factors and actual/perceived COVID-19 risk variables on our outcomes using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 8649 HCWs were included in total. HCWs from ethnic minority groups were more likely to report being offered a risk assessment than white HCWs, and those from Asian and black ethnic groups were more likely to report having completed an assessment if offered. Ethnic minority HCWs had lower odds of reporting having their work change as a result of risk assessment. Those from Asian and black ethnic groups were more likely to report no changes to their working practices despite wanting them.Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with lower odds of being offered a risk assessment and having adjustments made to working practices. DISCUSSION: We found differences in risk assessment outcomes by ethnicity, other sociodemographic/occupational factors and actual/perceived COVID-19 risk factors. These findings are concerning and warrant further research using actual (rather than reported) risk assessment outcomes in an unselected cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Health Personnel , Risk Assessment , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286298, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237870

ABSTRACT

The need for a biological disease risk assessment method to prevent the contagion of these diseases, particularly among healthcare personnel, is crucial. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a biological risk assessment tool for biological agents among hospital personnel under COVID-19 conditions. This cross-sectional study was performed on 301 employees in two hospitals. Firstly, we identified the items affecting the contagion of biological agents. Then, we computed the weight of the items using the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method. We used the identified items and the estimated weights in the next step to develop a predictive equation. The outcome of this tool was the risk score of biological disease contagion. After that, we used the developed method to evaluate the biological risk of the participants. The ROC curve was also used to reveal accuracy of developed method. In this study, 29 items were identified and categorized into five dimensions, including environmental items, ventilation items, job items, equipment-related items, and organizational items. The weights of these dimensions were estimated at 0.172, 0.196, 0.255, 0.233, and 0.144, respectively. The final weight of items was used to develop a predictive equation. The area under ROC curves (AUC) was also calculated as 0.762 (95% CI: 0.704, 0.820) (p<0.001). The tools developed using these items had acceptable diagnostic accuracy for predicting the risk of biological diseases in health care. Therefore, one can apply it in identifying persons exposed to dangerous conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Personnel, Hospital , Biological Factors
8.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 57(3): 529-537, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231761

ABSTRACT

Clinical trial quality depends on ensuring participant safety and data integrity, which require careful management throughout the trial lifecycle, from protocol development to final data analysis and submission. Recent developments-including new regulatory requirements, emerging technologies, and trial decentralization-have increased adoption of risk-based monitoring (RBM) and its parent framework, risk-based quality management (RBQM) in clinical trials. The Association of Clinical Research Organizations (ACRO), recognizing the growing importance of these approaches, initiated an ongoing RBM/RBQM landscape survey project in 2019 to track adoption of the eight functional components of RBQM. Here we present results from the third annual survey, which included data from 4889 clinical trials ongoing in 2021. At least one RBQM component was implemented in 88% of trials in the 2021 survey, compared with 77% in 2020 and 53% in 2019. The most frequently implemented components in 2021 were initial and ongoing risk assessments (80 and 78% of trials, respectively). Only 7% of RBQM trials were Phase IV, while the proportions of Phase I-III trials ranged 27-36%. Small trials (< 300 participants) accounted for 60% of those implementing RBQM. The therapeutic areas with the largest number of RBQM trials were oncology (38%), neurology (10%), and infectious diseases (9%). The 2021 survey confirmed a pattern of increasing RBM/RBQM adoption seen in earlier surveys, with risk assessments, which have broad regulatory support, driving RBQM growth; however, one area requiring further development is implementation of centralized monitoring combined with reductions in source data verification (SDV) and source data review (SDR).


Subject(s)
Research Design , Humans , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1151888, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242487

ABSTRACT

Immunogenicity continues to pose a challenge in the development of biotherapeutics like conventional therapeutic-proteins and monoclonal antibodies as well as emerging modalities such as gene-therapy components, gene editing, and CAR T cells. The approval of any therapeutic is based on a benefit-risk evaluation. Most biotherapeutics address serious medical conditions where the standard of care has a poor outcome. Consequently, even if immunogenicity limits the utility of the therapeutic in a sub-set of patients, the benefit-risk assessment skews in favor of approval. Some cases resulted in the discontinuation of biotherapeutics due to immunogenicity during drug development processes, This special issue presents a platform for review articles offering a critical assessment of accumulated knowledge as well as novel findings related to nonclinical risks that extend our understanding of the immunogenicity of biotherapeutics. Some of the studies in this collection leveraged assays and methodologies refined over decades to support more clinically relevant biological samples. Others have applied rapidly advancing methodologies in pathway-specific analyses to immunogenicity. Similarly, the reviews address urgent issues such as the rapidly emerging cell and gene therapies which hold immense promise but could have limited reach as a significant number of the patient population could potentially not benefit due to immunogenicity. In addition to summarizing the work presented in this special issue we have endeavored to identify areas where additional studies are required to understand the risks of immunogenicity and develop appropriate mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Risk Assessment
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0255322, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230845

ABSTRACT

The susceptibility of domestic cats to infection with SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated by several experimental studies and field observations. We performed an extensive study to further characterize the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between cats, through both direct and indirect contact. To that end, we estimated the transmission rate parameter and the decay parameter for infectivity in the environment. Using four groups of pair-transmission experiment, all donor (inoculated) cats became infected, shed virus, and seroconverted, while three out of four direct contact cats got infected, shed virus, and two of those seroconverted. One out of eight cats exposed to a SARS-CoV-2-contaminated environment became infected but did not seroconvert. Statistical analysis of the transmission data gives a reproduction number R0 of 2.18 (95% CI = 0.92 to 4.08), a transmission rate parameter ß of 0.23 day-1 (95% CI = 0.06 to 0.54), and a virus decay rate parameter µ of 2.73 day-1 (95% CI = 0.77 to 15.82). These data indicate that transmission between cats is efficient and can be sustained (R0 > 1), however, the infectiousness of a contaminated environment decays rapidly (mean duration of infectiousness 1/2.73 days). Despite this, infections of cats via exposure to a SARS-CoV-2-contaminated environment cannot be discounted if cats are exposed shortly after contamination. IMPORTANCE This article provides additional insight into the risk of infection that could arise from cats infected with SARS-CoV-2 by using epidemiological models to determine transmission parameters. Considering that transmission parameters are not always provided in the literature describing transmission experiments in animals, we demonstrate that mathematical analysis of experimental data is crucial to estimate the likelihood of transmission. This article is also relevant to animal health professionals and authorities involved in risk assessments for zoonotic spill-overs of SARS-CoV-2. Last but not least, the mathematical models to calculate transmission parameters are applicable to analyze the experimental transmission of other pathogens between animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cats , COVID-19/veterinary , Models, Theoretical , Risk Assessment
14.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 28(3): 175-182, 2022-03.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-368762

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical features of confirmed COVID-19 cases cover a wide spectrum. Aims: To study the clinical, radiological and virological features of the first 150 patients with COVID-19 in Lebanon. Methods: Our university hospital was designated as the primary COVID-19 care centre in Lebanon. Between 21 February 2020, the date of the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Lebanon, and 3 April 2020, our team treated 150 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. In this prospective descriptive study, we present our experience in treating these patients, specifically the diagnostic criteria, outcome, and demographic, clinical, radiological and biological characteristics. Results: Ninety-five (63.33%) of the patients were male and 55 (36.67%) were female. Most patients (58%) were aged > 50 years, and 8 (5.33%) were healthcare workers. Diagnosis was based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and patients were classified as mild, moderate or critical. Fifteen (10%) patients had a critical presentation and fever was the most prominent symptom at presentation. One hundred and thirty-eight (92%) patients underwent radiological evaluation. The most common laboratory findings were lymphocytopenia (34.38%), followed by neutropenia (28.13%), but leukocytosis was not prevalent (1.56%). Old age and comorbidity were significant indicators in patient risk stratification. Chest computed tomography was an invaluable method of diagnosis and management. Our radiological findings were consistent with the published literature. Conclusion: Our study underlines the variable presentation of COVID-19, the difference in severity, and the diverse methods of diagnosis. This suggests the need for a tailored approach, taking into consideration the wide spectrum of presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Disease Outbreaks , Risk Assessment , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Health Personnel , Critical Care , Comorbidity , Demography
16.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e067786, 2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Older people were at particular risk of morbidity and mortality during COVID-19. Consequently, they experienced formal (externally imposed) and informal (self-imposed) periods of social isolation and quarantine. This is hypothesised to have led to physical deconditioning, new-onset disability and frailty. Disability and frailty are not routinely collated at population level but are associated with increased risk of falls and fractures, which result in hospital admissions. First, we will examine incidence of falls and fractures during COVID-19 (January 2020-March 2022), focusing on differences between incidence over time against expected rates based on historical data, to determine whether there is evidence of new-onset disability and frailty. Second, we will examine whether those with reported SARS-CoV-2 were at higher risk of falls and fractures. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study uses the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Public Health Data Asset, a linked population-level dataset combining administrative health records with sociodemographic data of the 2011 Census and National Immunisation Management System COVID-19 vaccination data for England. Administrative hospital records will be extracted based on specific fracture-centric International Classification of Diseases-10 codes in years preceding COVID-19 (2011-2020). Historical episode frequency will be used to predict expected admissions during pandemic years using time series modelling, if COVID-19 had not occurred. Those predicted admission figures will be compared with actual admissions to assess changes in hospital admissions due to public health measures comprising the pandemic response. Hospital admissions in prepandemic years will be stratified by age and geographical characteristics and averaged, then compared with pandemic year admissions to assess more granular changes. Risk modelling will assess risk of experiencing a fall, fracture or frail fall and fracture, if they have reported a positive case of COVID-19. The combination of these techniques will provide insight into changes in hospital admissions from the COVID-19 pandemic. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has approval from the National Statistician's Data Ethics Advisory Committee (NSDEC(20)12). Results will be made available to other researchers via academic publication and shared via the ONS website.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fractures, Bone , Frailty , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , COVID-19 Vaccines , Electronic Health Records , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Hospitals
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 14-24, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2318339

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The risk of sports-related sudden cardiac arrest after COVID-19 infection can be a serious problem. There is an urgent need for evidence-based criteria to ensure patient safety before resuming exercise. Objective: To estimate the pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 and to provide an easy-to-use cardiovascular risk assessment toolkit prior to resuming sports activities after COVID-19 infection. Methods: We searched the Medline and Cochrane databases for articles on the prevalence of acute myocardial injury associated with COVID-19 infection. The pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury was calculated for hospitalized patients treated in different settings (non-intensive care unit [ICU], ICU, overall hospitalization, and non-survivors). Statistical significance was accepted for p values <0.05. We propose a practical flowchart to assess the cardiovascular risk of individuals who recovered from COVID-19 before resuming sports activities. Results: A total of 20 studies (6,573 patients) were included. The overall pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury in hospitalized patients was 21.7% (95% CI 17.3-26.5%). The non-ICU setting had the lowest prevalence (9.5%, 95% CI 1.5-23.4%), followed by the ICU setting (44.9%, 95% CI 27.7-62.8%), and the cohort of non-survivors (57.7% with 95% CI 38.5-75.7%). We provide an approach to assess cardiovascular risk based on the prevalence of acute myocardial injury in each setting. Conclusions: Acute myocardial injury is frequent and associated with more severe disease and hospital admissions. Cardiac involvement could be a potential trigger for exercise-induced clinical complications after COVID-19 infection. We created a toolkit to assist with clinical decision-making prior to resuming sports activities after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Sports , Heart Disease Risk Factors , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Risk Assessment/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Athletes
18.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e58, 2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has forced governments to implement strict social mitigation strategies to reduce the morbidity and mortality from acute infections. These strategies, however, carry a significant risk for mental health, which can lead to increased short-term and long-term mortality and is currently not included in modeling the impact of the pandemic. METHODS: We used years of life lost (YLL) as the main outcome measure, applied to Switzerland as an example. We focused on suicide, depression, alcohol use disorder, childhood trauma due to domestic violence, changes in marital status, and social isolation, as these are known to increase YLL in the context of imposed restriction in social contact and freedom of movement. We stipulated a minimum duration of mitigation of 3 months based on current public health plans. RESULTS: The study projects that the average person would suffer 0.205 YLL due to psychosocial consequence of COVID-19 mitigation measures. However, this loss would be entirely borne by 2.1% of the population, who will suffer an average of 9.79 YLL. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented here are likely to underestimate the true impact of the mitigation strategies on YLL. However, they highlight the need for public health models to expand their scope in order to provide better estimates of the risks and benefits of mitigation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
J Emerg Nurs ; 49(3): 352-359.e1, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318378

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Workplace violence is a prevalent problem in health care, with mental health and emergency departments being the most at-risk settings. The aim of this evidence-based practice project was to pilot use of a violence risk assessment tool, the Broset Violence Checklist, to assess for risk of type II violence and record the interventions that nurses chose to implement to mitigate the situation. Additionally, reports made to the hospital reporting system were tracked and compared to previous reporting frequency. METHODS: Following staff education, nurses were instructed to complete checklists for all patients who have a score of 1 or higher, which indicates the presence of at least 1 high-risk behavior, and continue hourly scoring until the score returned to 0 or the patient was dispositioned. The number of incidents recorded, time of day, scores, interventions applied to mitigate violence, and change in scores after interventions were evaluated. The number of Broset Violence Checklist scoring sheets submitted and reports made via the hospital reporting system were compared. RESULTS: Incidents were most frequent from 11 am until 3 am. The highest scores occurred in the late evening and early morning hours. There were significantly more incidents captured with the use of the Broset Violence Checklist as compared to the hospital reporting system. Incidents significantly associated with higher scores included providing comfort measures, addressing concerns, and applying restraints. DISCUSSION: The Broset Violence Checklist was used successfully in the emergency department setting to identify behaviors associated with violence. Under-reporting to the hospital report system was identified in this project, consistent with reports in the literature. Specific interventions were not associated with a decrease in Broset Violence Checklist scores.


Subject(s)
Aggression , Workplace Violence , Humans , Aggression/psychology , Workplace Violence/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Emergency Service, Hospital , Health Facilities
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 890: 164070, 2023 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320865

ABSTRACT

For three years, a large amount of manufactured pollutants such as plastics, antibiotics and disinfectants has been released into the environment due to COVID-19. The accumulation of these pollutants in the environment has exacerbated the damage to the soil system. However, since the epidemic outbreak, the focus of researchers and public attention has consistently been on human health. It is noteworthy that studies conducted in conjunction with soil pollution and COVID-19 represent only 4 % of all COVID-19 studies. In order to enhance researchers' and the public awareness of the seriousness on the COVID-19 derived soil pollution, we propose the viewpoint that "pandemic COVID-19 ends but soil pollution increases" and recommend a whole-cell biosensor based new method to assess the environmental risk of COVID-19 derived pollutants. This approach is expected to provide a new way for environmental risk assessment of soils affected by contaminants produced from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Soil , Plastics , Risk Assessment
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