Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.362
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(3): 354-361, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654937

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The overarching goal of this study was to provide key information on how adolescents' substance use has changed since the corona virus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic, in addition to key contexts and correlates of substance use during social distancing. METHODS: Canadian adolescents (n = 1,054, Mage = 16.68, standard deviation = .78) completed an online survey, in which they reported on their frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, cannabis use, and vaping in the 3 weeks before and directly after social distancing practices had taken effect. RESULTS: For most substances, the percentage of users decreased; however, the frequency of both alcohol and cannabis use increased. Although the greatest percentage of adolescents was engaging in solitary substance use (49.3%), many were still using substances with peers via technology (31.6%) and, shockingly, even face to face (23.6%). Concerns for how social distancing would affect peer reputation was a significant predictor of face-to-face substance use with friends among adolescents with low self-reported popularity, and a significant predictor of solitary substance use among average and high popularity teens. Finally, adjustment predictors, including depression and fear of the infectivity of COVID-19, predicted using solitary substance use during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide preliminary evidence that adolescent substance use, including that which occurs face to face with peers, thereby putting adolescents at risk for contracting COVID-19, may be of particular concern during the pandemic. Further, solitary adolescent substance use during the pandemic, which is associated with poorer mental health and coping, may also be a notable concern worthy of further investigation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Social Distance , Vaping/epidemiology
2.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649882

ABSTRACT

Italy is currently experiencing an epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Aim of our study is to identify the best predictors of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission in patients with Covid-19. We examined 28 patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) and subsequently confirmed as cases of Covid-19. Patients received, at the admission to the ED, a diagnostic work-up including: patient history, clinical examination, an arterial blood gas analysis (whenever possible performed on room air), laboratory blood tests, including serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), lung ultrasound examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax. For each patient, as gas exchange index through the alveolocapillary membrane, we determined the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDO⁠2) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient augmentation (AaDO⁠2 augmentation). For each patient, as measurement of hypoxemia, we determined oxygen saturation (SpO2), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO⁠2), PaO⁠2 deficit and the ratio between arterial partial pressure of oxygen by blood gas analysis and fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F). Patients were assigned to ICU Group or to Non-ICU Group basing on the decision to intubate. Areas under the curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare the performance of each test in relation to prediction of ICU admission. Comparing patients of ICU Group (10 patients) with patients of Non-ICU Group (18 patients), we found that the first were older, they had more frequently a medical history of malignancy and they were more frequently admitted to ED for dyspnea. Patients of ICU Group had lower oxygen saturation, PaO⁠2, P/F and higher heart rate, respiratory rate, AaDO⁠2, AaDO⁠2 augmentation and lactate than patients of Non-ICU Group. ROC curves demonstrate that age, heart rate, respiratory rate, dyspnea, lactate, AaDO2, AaDO2 augmentation, white blood cell count, neutrophil count and percentage, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose level, international normalized ratio (INR), blood urea and IL-6 are useful predictors of ICU admission. We identified several predictors of ICU admission in patients with Covid-19. They can act as fast tools for the early identification and timely treatment of critical cases since their arrival in the ED.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Risk Factors
3.
Lancet ; 396(10243): 25-26, 2020 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648261
5.
Eur J Radiol ; 130: 109202, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: So far, only a few studies evaluated the correlation between CT features and clinical outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. PURPOSE: To evaluate CT ability in differentiating critically ill patients requiring invasive ventilation from patients with less severe disease. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from patients admitted to our institution for COVID-19 pneumonia between March 5th-24th. Patients were considered critically ill or non-critically ill, depending on the need for mechanical ventilation. CT images from both groups were analyzed for the assessment of qualitative features and disease extension, using a quantitative semiautomatic method. We evaluated the differences between the two groups for clinical, laboratory and CT data. Analyses were conducted on a per-protocol basis. RESULTS: 189 patients were analyzed. PaO2/FIO2 ratio and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were decreased in critically ill patients. At CT, mixed pattern (ground glass opacities (GGO) and consolidation) and GGO alone were more frequent respectively in critically ill and in non-critically ill patients (p < 0.05). Lung volume involvement was significantly higher in critically ill patients (38.5 % vs. 5.8 %, p < 0.05). A cut-off of 23.0 % of lung involvement showed 96 % sensitivity and 96 % specificity in distinguishing critically ill patients from patients with less severe disease. The fraction of involved lung was related to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, PaO2/FIO2 ratio and SaO2 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Lung disease extension, assessed using quantitative CT, has a significant relationship with clinical severity and may predict the need for invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Critical Illness , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(9): 1353-1360, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640396

ABSTRACT

As of June 10th 2020 about 7.2 million individuals have tested positive for, and more than 410,000 have died due to COVID-19. In this review we outline the pathophysiology that underpins the potential use of anti-rheumatic therapies for severe COVID-19 infection and summarize the current evidence regarding the risk and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. Thus far there is no convincing evidence that any disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (conventional synthetic, biologic or targeted synthetic) including hydroxychloroquine, may protect against severe COVID-19 infection; answers about their possible usefulness in the management of the cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-9 infection will only arise from ongoing randomized controlled trials. Evidence on COVID-19 risk and outcome in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases is extremely limited; thus, any conclusions would be unsafe and should be seen with great caution. At present, the risk and severity (hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and death) of COVID-19 infection in people with autoimmune diseases do not appear particularly dissimilar to the general population, with the possible exception of hospitalization in patients exposed to high glucocorticoid doses. At this stage it is impossible to draw any conclusions for differences in COVID-19 risk and outcome between different autoimmune diseases and between the various immunomodulatory therapies used for them. More research in the field is obviously required, including as a minimum careful and systematic epidemiology and appropriately controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 32(5): 322-334, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629087

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy complications. Accurate screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes are critical to treatment, and in a pandemic scenario like coronavirus disease 2019 needing a simple test that minimises prolonged hospital stay. We undertook a meta-analysis on the screening and diagnostic accuracy of the haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test in women with and without risk factors for gestational diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Unlike the oral glucose tolerance test, the HbA1c test is simple, quick and more acceptable. There is a growing body of evidence on the accuracy of HbA1c as a screening and diagnostic test for GDM. We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library and selected relevant studies. Accuracy data for different thresholds within the final 23 included studies (16 921 women) were pooled using a multiple thresholds model. Summary accuracy indices were estimated by selecting an optimal threshold that optimises either sensitivity or specificity according to different scenarios. SUMMARY: HbA1c is more useful as a specific test at a cut-off of 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) with a false positive rate of 10%, but should be supplemented by a more sensitive test to detect women with GDM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
8.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(6): e661-e663, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760077

ABSTRACT

Coronavírus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virus of mass dissemination, with an impact on international public health, leading to hospitalizations and death. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, fatigue, dry cough; however, myalgia and dyspnea and the transmission routes include direct transmission by cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation, or contact transmission with the oral, nasal, or eye mucous membranes. The dental professionals are the main risk group to COVID-19 due to the transmission routes that are directly related to the dental practice. In addition, the oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) are even more exposed, due to increased contact with the population in hospitals and emergency services. OMFS should be able to identify a suspected case of COVID-19, its symptoms, risk groups, disease severity, laboratorial and computed tomography alterations, and treatment guidelines. In the present study, the authors performed a nationwide survey with Brazilian OMFS to evaluate the knowledge of these professionals about the pandemic status of the COVID-19. A total of 142 OMFS replied the survey and the results brings light to an incomparable health public problem that the OMFS in Brazil are no able to protect itself, diagnose the suspicious and probable cases, request and interpret the correct laboratorial examinations for the treatment of the COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Tex Med ; 116(7): 38-41, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755018

ABSTRACT

Obesity causes or contributes to a range of fatal and debilitating health conditions. On top of this, obesity has emerged as one of the largest contributing factors in severe illness and death among those who contract COVID-19, according to several studies.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Pediatric Obesity , Physicians, Family , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Betacoronavirus , Causality , Child , Health Promotion/methods , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Physician's Role , Risk Factors , Texas/epidemiology
11.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e11, 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea remains a public health problem and an important cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. In Namibia, the national prevalence of diarrhoea was 17%; it was responsible for 5% of all deaths in children under 5 years old and is the second leading cause of death. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology and factors associated with acute diarrhoea amongst children less than 5 years of age in Engela district in the Ohangwena region, Namibia. SETTING: The study was conducted in Ohangwena Region in Namibia which extends east to west along the borders of the southern part of Angola. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic and epidemiological data of diarrhoea and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of diarrhoea. RESULTS: The study found a prevalence of 23.8% for diarrhoea in the 2 weeks period preceding the survey amongst children aged under 5 years. The prevalence of diarrhoea was statistically significantly associated with children (p 0.05). The strongest predictor of the prevalence of diarrhoea was the residential area 'informal settlement', with an odds ratio of 36.42. This implies that children living in the informal settlement are 36.42 times at risk of contracting diarrhoea as compared to those living in other residential areas. CONCLUSION: epidemiology; factors; diarrhoea; under-5 years children; Engela district; Ohangwena region; Namibia.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Namibia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Sep 07.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746181

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (Covid-19) has had a major impact on residents of assisted-living facilities. While it is plausible that the characteristics of these patients and their special clinical fragility have contributed to their greater vulnerability to infection, other related factors cannot be ruled out, such as the quality of management at these centers and the lack of planning for actions taken before and during the health crisis. Both aspects pertain to the field of public health, where the ethics of the common good conflicts with the autonomy of the individual.


Subject(s)
Assisted Living Facilities/ethics , Community Health Planning/ethics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/ethics , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
13.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 204, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to describe the blood lipid levels of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to analyze the correlation between blood lipid levels and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In the clinical retrospective analysis, a total of 228 adults infected with COVID-19 were enrolled between January 17, 2020 and March 14, 2020, in Changsha, China. One thousand one hundred and forty healthy participants with matched age and gender were used as control. Median with interquartile range and Mann-Whitney test were adopted to describe and analyze clinical data. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with control, COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) [median, 3.76 vs 4.65 mmol/L, P = 0.031], triglyceride [median, 1.08 vs 1.21 mmol/L, P <  0.001], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [median, 2.63 vs 2.83 mmol/L, P <  0.001], and HDL-C [median, 0.78 vs 1.37 mmol/L, P <  0.001], while compared with non-severe patients, severe COVID-19 patients only presented lower levels of HDL-C [median, 0.69 vs 0.79 mmol/L, P = 0.032]. In comparison with patients with high HDL-C, patients with low HDL-C showed a higher proportion of male (69.57% vs 45.60%, P = 0.004), higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (median, 27.83 vs 12.56 mg/L, P <  0.001) and higher proportion of severe events (36.96% vs 14.84%, P = 0.001). Moreover, patients with low HDL-C at admission showed a higher risk of developing severe events compared with those with high HDL-C (Log Rank P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, gender and underlying diseases, they still had elevated possibility of developing severe cases than those with high HDL-C (HR 2.827, 95% CI 1.190-6.714, P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: HDL-C level was lower in COVID-19 adult patients, and low HDL-C in COVID-19 patients was correlated with a higher risk of developing severe events.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Cholesterol/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 765, 2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745677

ABSTRACT

Whilst the issues around early termination of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are well documented in the literature, trials can also be temporarily suspended with the real prospect that they may subsequently restart. There is little guidance in the literature as to how to manage such a temporary suspension. In this paper, we describe the temporary suspension of a trial within our clinical trials unit because of concerns over the safety of transvaginal synthetic mesh implants. We also describe the challenges, considerations, and lessons learnt during the suspension that we are now applying in the current COVID-19 pandemic which has led to activities in many RCTs across the world undergoing a temporary suspension.There were three key phases within the temporary suspension: the decision to suspend, implementation of the suspension, and restarting. Each of these phases presented individual challenges which are discussed within this paper, along with the lessons learnt. There were obvious challenges around recruitment, delivery of the intervention, and follow-up. Additional challenges included communication between stakeholders, evolving risk assessment, updates to trial protocol and associated paperwork, maintaining site engagement, data-analysis, and workload within the trial team and Sponsor organisation.Based on our experience of managing a temporary suspension, we developed an action plan and guidance (see Additional File 1) for managing a significant trial event, such as a temporary suspension. We have used this document to help us manage the suspension of activities within our portfolio of trials during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Research Design , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Opinion , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
15.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(8): 801-804, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of seroconverted real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases at different days post-symptom onset; and also find the agreement of chemiluminescence assay used for total antibody detection using RT-PCR as a reference method. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Chughtai Institute of Pathology from April to May 2020. METHODOLOGY: Fifty pre-pandemic samples (healthy population) and 75 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients were divided into 3 equal groups (25 each), according to the days of symptom onset. The samples were analysed using electro-chemiluminescence as assay principle. Positive and negative agreement of COVID-19 antibodies was calculated using EP evaluator to find out the sensitivity of chemiluminescence assay for total antibody detection. The results were analysed using SPSS version 23.0. RESULTS: All the pre-pandemic samples tested were negative for antibodies with a negative agreement of 100%. Total agreement at day 7 post-symptom onset was 84%; whereas, it was 94% at day 14 and increased rapidly to 100% at day 21 post-symptom onset. At day 7 post-symptom onset, 68% of patients were seroconverted; and this percentage was 88% and 100% at day 14 and 21 post-symptom onset, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pre-pandemic samples were non-reactive for COVID-19 antibodies and seroconversion started within the first week post-virus exposure. There was 100% concordance between RT-PCR result and antibody positivity 21 days post-symptom onset. Key Words: COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, Seroconversion, Chemiluminescence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Luminescence , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Seroconversion
17.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 542-548, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe events of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in elderly patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of all elderly COVID- 19 patients treated in Changsha Public Health Treatment Center from January 17, 2020 to March 15, 2020, which included basic diseases, symptoms, test results, and other clinical characteristics, and prognostic indicators such as severity of illness, length of hospital stay, virus shedding time and mortality rate. The differences in clinical characteristics and prognostic indicators between elderly, middle-aged, and young COVID-19 patients were also analyzed. Logistic regression model was used to conduct univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for developing severe events in elderly COVID-19 patients; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the prediction efficacy. RESULTS: Of the 230 COVID-19 adult patients, 34 were young patients (14.8%), 136 were middle-aged patients (59.1%), and 60 were elderly (26.1%). Among the 60 elderly patients, 23 were male (38.3%) and 37 were female (61.7%), with a medium age of 66 years old. Common symptoms were fever (66.7%), cough (50.0%), and fatigue (41.7%). C reactive protein (CRP) was increased significantly. The proportion of severe cases was 31.7%, and mortality was 1.7%. The median length of hospitalization and median virus shedding time were 18.5 days and 21 days, respectively. Compared with the young and the middle-aged patients, the elderly had a higher proportion of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, more common shortness of breath, higher proportions of pneumonia and severe cases (all P<0.05), and the decreased lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage (both P<0.05), as well as higher CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels (both P<0.05). Compared with non-severe cases, severe elderly patients demonstrated higher CRP and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (all P<0.05), the reduced lymphocyte count (P<0.05), and the prolonged length of hospitalization and virus shedding duration (both P<0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the lymphocytes proportion, CRP and AST levels were significantly correlated with the risk for developing severe events in elderly COVID-19 patients (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression found that severe events in elderly patients with COVID-19 were significantly correlated with CRP level (OR=1.041, P=0.013). ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) for CRP to diagnose severe events in elderly COVID 19 patients was 0.851. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of severe cases in elderly COVID-19 patients is higher than that in young and middle-aged patients. CRP level has a good predictive value for the possibility of severe events in elderly COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(31): 4694-4702, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. We investigated the clinical characteristics and risk factors for liver injury in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan by retrospectively analyzing the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data for 218 COVID-19 patients and identifying the risk factors for liver injury by multivariate analysis. AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for liver injury in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan. METHODS: The 218 patients included 94 males (43.1%), aged 22 to 94 (50.1 ± 18.4) years. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were present in 42 (53.2%) and 36 (45.6%) cases, respectively, and 79 (36.2%) patients had abnormally elevated transaminase levels at admission. Patients with liver injury were older than those with normal liver function by a median of 12 years, with a significantly higher frequency of males (68.4% vs 28.8%, P < 0.001) and more coexisting illnesses (48.1% vs 27.3%, P = 0.002). Significantly more patients had fever and shortness of breath (87.3% vs 69.8% and 29.1% vs 14.4%, respectively) in the liver injury group. Only 12 (15.2%) patients had elevated total bilirubin. ALT and AST levels were mildly elevated [1-3 × upper limit of normal (ULN)] in 86.1% and 92.9% of cases, respectively. Only two (2.5%) patients had an ALT or AST level > 5 × ULN. Elevated γ-glutamyl transpeptidase was present in 45 (57.0%) patients, and 86.7% of these had a γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase level < 135 U/L (3 × ULN). Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were almost normal in all patients. Patients with severe liver injury had a significantly higher frequency of abnormal transaminases than non-severe patients, but only one case had very high levels of aminotransferases. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex, high D-dimer level, and high neutrophil percentage were linked to a higher risk of liver injury. The early stage of COVID-19 may be associated with mildly elevated aminotransferase levels in patients in Wuhan. Male sex and high D-dimer level and neutrophil percentage may be important predictors of liver injury in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Male sex and high D-dimer level and neutrophil percentage may be important predictors of liver injury in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(31): 4579-4588, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745191

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a newly identified ß-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a dire health problem, causing a massive crisis for global health. Primary method of transmission was firstly thought to be animal to human transmission. However, it has been observed that the virus is transmitted from human to human via respiratory droplets. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) has been isolated from patient stools, suggesting a possible gastrointestinal (GI) involvement. Most commonly reported clinical manifestations are fever, fatigue and dry cough. Interestingly, a small percentage of patients experience GI symptoms with the most common being anorexia, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. The presence of viral RNA in stools is also common and fecal tests can be positive even after negative respiratory samples. The exact incidence of digestive symptoms is a matter of debate. The distribution of Angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 receptors in multiple organs in the body provides a possible explanation for the digestive symptoms' mechanism. Cases with solely GI symptoms have been reported in both adults and children. Viral RNA has also been detected in stool and blood samples, indicating the possibility of liver damage, which has been reported in COVID-19 patients. The presence of chronic liver disease appears to be a risk factor for severe complications and a poorer prognosis, however data from these cases is lacking. The aim of this review is firstly, to briefly update what is known about the origin and the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but mainly to focus on the manifestations of the GI tract and their pathophysiological background, so that physicians on the one hand, not to underestimate or disregard digestive symptoms due to the small number of patients exhibiting exclusively this symptomatology and on the other, to have SARS-CoV-2 on their mind when the "gastroenteritis" type symptoms predominate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Global Health , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors
20.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(10): 80, 2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision Aging® is a novel concept that we have recently employed to describe how the model of precision medicine can be used to understand and define the multivariate risks that drive age-related cognitive impairment (ARCI). Hypertension and cardiovascular disease are key risk factors for both brain function and cognitive aging. In this review, we will discuss the common mechanisms underlying the risk factors for both hypertension and ARCI and how the convergence of these mechanisms may be amplified in an individual to drive changes in brain health and accelerate cognitive decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, our cognitive health span does not match our life span. Age-related cognitive impairment and preventing and treating ARCI will require an in-depth understanding of the interrelated risk factors, including individual genetic profiles, that affect brain health and brain aging. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease are important risk factors for ARCI. And, many of the risk factors for developing hypertension, such as diabetes, smoking, stress, viral infection, and age, are shared with the development of ARCI. We must first understand the mechanisms common to the converging risk factors in hypertension and ARCI and then design person-specific therapies to optimize individual brain health. The understanding of the convergence of shared risk factors between hypertension and ARCI is required to develop individualized interventions to optimize brain health across the life span. We will conclude with a discussion of possible steps that may be taken to decrease ARCI and optimize an individual's cognitive life span.


Subject(s)
Aging , Brain/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hypertension/complications , Humans , Precision Medicine , Risk Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL