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1.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 26(4): 167-175, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On March 11, 2020 the WHO announced a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Lockdown restrictions, compromised access to medical care and fear of potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 have forced patients with non-COVID-19 illnesses such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) to stay home. This situation can lead to delay in T1D diagnosis and insulin treatment resulting in rapid progression to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and therefore increased risk of complications and death.  . AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of DKA at the onset of T1D in children diagnosed in our department during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from March 2020 till May 2020 in comparison to corresponding period of the previous year. . MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data of children with newly diagnosed T1D. DKA was defined according to ISPAD guidelines. . RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 34 children in group 2020 and 52 in group 2019 with an average age 9.90 ±4.9 vs. 9.59±4.7 years with mean HbA1c 12.9 ±2.4 vs. 11.5 ±2.2%, respectively. The incidence of DKA was higher by 12% in group 2020 vs. 2019 (52.94% vs 40.38%; p = 0.276).  Regarding the DKA severity (2020 vs. 2019) 32.35% vs. 11.54% were severe (p = 0.026), 17.65 vs. 13% were moderate (p = 0.759), and 2.94 vs. 15.38% were mild (p = 0.081). None of the analyzed patients were COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown changes in society and health care system, the DKA rate has increased by 12 percentage points with more severe cases noted in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Regular education of the whole society about the symptoms of diabetes could contribute to faster diagnosis of T1D and reduction of DKA prevalence. .


Subject(s)
/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quarantine/trends , Risk Factors
2.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(2)2021 02 02.
Article in English, No | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and cancer have been described as possible risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer affects the risk of dying after a COVID-19 diagnosis in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Data were compiled from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases, the Norwegian Cardiovascular Disease Registry and the Cancer Registry of Norway. Univariable and multivariable regression models were used to calculate both relative and absolute risk. RESULTS: In the first half of 2020, 8 809 people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 260 COVID-19-associated deaths were registered. Increasing age, male sex (relative risk (RR): 1.5; confidence interval (CI): 1.2-2.0), prior stroke (RR: 1.5; CI: 1.0-2.1) and cancer with distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis (RR: 3.0; CI: 1.1-8.2) were independent risk factors for death after a diagnosis of COVID-19. After adjusting for age and sex, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, hypertension, and non-metastatic cancer were no longer statistically significant risk factors for death. INTERPRETATION: The leading risk factor for death among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 was age. Male sex, and a previous diagnosis of stroke or cancer with distant metastasis were also associated with an increased risk of death after a COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Norway/epidemiology , Risk Factors
3.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(2): 79-87, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109364

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mineworkers in South Africa experience a triple burden of disease due to their distinct work experience. Silicosis increases their risk of tuberculosis (TB), exacerbated by the HIV epidemic. Work-related factors are likely to increase transmission, severity, and post infection sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Understanding these relationships is important to control the impact of the epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 infection rates among mineworkers exceed the population rates in the provinces in which those mines are located. Migrant work, living in crowded hostels, working in narrow poorly ventilated shafts mainly underground constitute important factors that increase transmission risk. Mineworkers continue to experience high levels of silica exposure. The prevalences of silicosis, HIV and pulmonary TB, remain high. Interstitial lung disease, pulmonary TB, and HIV have all been associated with poorer outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Mineworkers with post infection respiratory sequelae are likely to lose their jobs or lose income, due to the physically demanding nature of underground minework. SUMMARY: Further research into the unique work-related risk factors in mining that influence the COVID-19 epidemic is crucial for optimizing current interventions. Reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection transmission, health monitoring of infected and vulnerable workers, and following up of postinfection outcomes is essential to protect the respiratory health of miners.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Miners , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Risk Factors , Silicosis/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
4.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e8, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101609

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic, Spain was one of the countries with the highest number of infections and a high mortality rate. The threat of the virus and consequences of the pandemic have a discernible impact on the mental health of citizens. This study aims to (a) evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and well-being in a large Spanish sample during the confinement, (b) identify potential predictor variables associated to experiencing both clinical levels of distress and well-being in a sample of 2,122 Spanish people. By using descriptive analyses and logistic regression results revealed high rates of depression, anxiety and well-being. Specifically, our findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about COVID-19, increased substance use and loneliness as the strongest predictors of distress, while gross annual incomes and loneliness were strongest predictors of well-being. Finding of the present study provide a better insight about psychological adjustment to a pandemic and allows us to identify which population groups are at risk of experiencing higher levels of distress and which factors contribute to greater well-being, which could help in the treatments and prevention in similar stressful and traumatic situations.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Income , Internet , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Quality of Life/psychology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(2): 56-57, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099286
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044384, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe evolution, epidemiology and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in subjects tested at or admitted to hospitals in North West London. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: London North West Healthcare NHS Trust (LNWH). PARTICIPANTS: Patients tested and/or admitted for COVID-19 at LNWH during March and April 2020 MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive and analytical epidemiology of demographic and clinical outcomes (intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality) of those who tested positive for COVID-19. RESULTS: The outbreak began in the first week of March 2020 and reached a peak by the end of March and first week of April. In the study period, 6183 tests were performed in on 4981 people. Of the 2086 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases, 1901 were admitted to hospital. Older age group, men and those of black or Asian minority ethnic (BAME) group were predominantly affected (p<0.05). These groups also had more severe infection resulting in ICU admission and need for mechanical ventilation (p<0.05). However, in a multivariate analysis, only increasing age was independently associated with increased risk of death (p<0.05). Mortality rate was 26.9% in hospitalised patients. CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that men, BAME and older population were most commonly and severely affected groups. Only older age was independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Young Adult
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044606, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused a global public health crisis affecting most countries, including Ethiopia, in various ways. This study maps the vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death from COVID-19 in Ethiopia. METHODS: Thirty-eight potential indicators of vulnerability to COVID-19 infection, case severity and likelihood of death, identified based on a literature review and the availability of nationally representative data at a low geographic scale, were assembled from multiple sources for geospatial analysis. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to produce maps showing the vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death in Ethiopia at a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. RESULTS: This study showed that vulnerability to COVID-19 infection is likely to be high across most parts of Ethiopia, particularly in the Somali, Afar, Amhara, Oromia and Tigray regions. The number of severe cases of COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalisation and intensive care unit admission is likely to be high across Amhara, most parts of Oromia and some parts of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region. The risk of COVID-19-related death is high in the country's border regions, where public health preparedness for responding to COVID-19 is limited. CONCLUSION: This study revealed geographical differences in vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death from COVID-19 in Ethiopia. The study offers maps that can guide the targeted interventions necessary to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Ethiopia.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Geography, Medical , /mortality , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044618, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive evidence on risk factors for transmission, disease severity and COVID-19 related deaths in Africa. DESIGN: A systematic review has been conducted to synthesise existing evidence on risk factors affecting COVID-19 outcomes across Africa. DATA SOURCES: Data were systematically searched from MEDLINE, Scopus, MedRxiv and BioRxiv. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies for review were included if they were published in English and reported at least one risk factor and/or one health outcome. We included all relevant literature published up until 11 August 2020. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We performed a systematic narrative synthesis to describe the available studies for each outcome. Data were extracted using a standardised Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction form. RESULTS: Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria of which four were exclusively on Africa and the remaining 11 papers had a global focus with some data from Africa. Higher rates of infection in Africa are associated with high population density, urbanisation, transport connectivity, high volume of tourism and international trade, and high level of economic and political openness. Limited or poor access to healthcare are also associated with higher COVID-19 infection rates. Older people and individuals with chronic conditions such as HIV, tuberculosis and anaemia experience severe forms COVID-19 leading to hospitalisation and death. Similarly, high burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high prevalence of tobacco consumption and low levels of expenditure on health and low levels of global health security score contribute to COVID-19 related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic, institutional, ecological, health system and politico-economic factors influenced the spectrum of COVID-19 infection, severity and death. We recommend multidisciplinary and integrated approaches to mitigate the identified factors and strengthen effective prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Africa/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 153, 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic halted non-emergency surgery across Scotland. Measures to mitigate the risks of transmitting COVID-19 are creating significant challenges to restarting all surgical services safely. We describe the development of a risk stratification tool to prioritise patients for cataract surgery taking account both specific risk factors for poor outcome from COVID-19 infection as well as surgical 'need'. In addition we report the demographics and comorbidities of patients on our waiting list. METHODS: A prospective case review of electronic records was performed. A risk stratification tool was developed based on review of available literature on systemic risk factors for poor outcome from COVID-19 infection as well as a surgical 'need' score. Scores derived from the tool were used to generate 6 risk profile groups to allow prioritised allocation of surgery. RESULTS: There were 744 patients awaiting cataract surgery of which 66 (8.9 %) patients were 'shielding'. One hundred and thirty-two (19.5 %) patients had no systemic comorbidities, 218 (32.1 %) patients had 1 relevant systemic comorbidity and 316 (46.5 %) patients had 2 or more comorbidities. Five hundred and ninety patients (88.7 %) did not have significant ocular comorbidities. Using the risk stratification tool, 171 (23 %) patients were allocated in the highest 3 priority stages. Given an aging cohort with associated increase in number of systemic comorbidities, the majority of patients were in the lower priority stages 4 to 6. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has created an urgent challenge to deal safely with cataract surgery waiting lists. This has driven the need for a prompt and pragmatic change to the way we assess risks and benefits of a previously regarded as low-risk intervention. This is further complicated by the majority of patients awaiting cataract surgery being elderly with comorbidities and at higher risk of mortality related to COVID-19. We present a pragmatic method of risk stratifying patients on waiting lists, blending an evidence-based objective assessment of risk and patient need combined with an element of shared decision-making. This has facilitated safe and successful restarting of our cataract service.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction , Cataract/epidemiology , Pandemics , Waiting Lists , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Scotland/epidemiology
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 368, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic, declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization, which could have negative consequences for pregnant and postpartum women. The scarce evidence published to date suggests that perinatal mental health has deteriorated since the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the few studies published so far have some limitations, such as a cross-sectional design and the omission of important factors for the understanding of perinatal mental health, including governmental restriction measures and healthcare practices implemented at the maternity hospitals. Within the Riseup-PPD COST Action, a study is underway to assess the impact of COVID-19 in perinatal mental health. The primary objectives are to (1) evaluate changes in perinatal mental health outcomes; and (2) determine the risk and protective factors for perinatal mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we will compare the results between the countries participating in the study. METHODS: This is an international prospective cohort study, with a baseline and three follow-up assessments over a six-month period. It is being carried out in 11 European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), Argentina, Brazil and Chile. The sample consists of adult pregnant and postpartum women (with infants up to 6 months of age). The assessment includes measures on COVID-19 epidemiology and public health measures (Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker dataset), Coronavirus Perinatal Experiences (COPE questionnaires), psychological distress (BSI-18), depression (EPDS), anxiety (GAD-7) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSD checklist for DSM-V). DISCUSSION: This study will provide important information for understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health and well-being, including the identification of potential risk and protective factors by implementing predictive models using machine learning techniques. The findings will help policymakers develop suitable guidelines and prevention strategies for perinatal mental health and contribute to designing tailored mental health interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04595123 .


Subject(s)
/psychology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Protective Factors , Research Design , Risk Factors
12.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(2): L257-L265, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088310

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which is responsible for COVID-19 disease, was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December of 2019. The virus rapidly spread, and the World Health Organization declared a pandemic by March 2020. With millions of confirmed cases worldwide, there is growing concern and considerable debate regarding the potential for coronavirus infection to contribute to an appreciable burden of chronic respiratory symptoms or fibrotic disease among recovered individuals. Because the first case of COVID-19 was documented less than one year ago, data regarding long-term clinical outcomes are not yet available, and predictions for long-term outcome are speculative at best. However, due to the staggering number of cases and the severity of disease in many individuals, there is a critical need to consider the potential long-term implications of COVID-19. This review examines current basic and clinical data regarding fibrogenic mechanisms of viral injury in the context of SARS-CoV-2. Several intersecting mechanisms between coronavirus infection and fibrotic pathways are discussed to highlight factors and processes that may be targetable to improve patient outcome. Reports of post-infection sequelae from previous coronavirus outbreaks are presented toward the goal of improved recognition of potential contributing risk factors for fibrotic disease.


Subject(s)
/complications , Pandemics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /virology , Cytokines/physiology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , /etiology , Risk Factors , /physiology , Signal Transduction , Survivors
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044486, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088261

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The risks associated with diabetes, obesity and hypertension for severe COVID-19 may be confounded and differ by sociodemographic background. We assessed the risks associated with cardiometabolic factors for severe COVID-19 when accounting for socioeconomic factors and in subgroups by age, sex and region of birth. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this nationwide case-control study, 1.086 patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation (cases), and 10.860 population-based controls matched for age, sex and district of residency were included from mandatory national registries. ORs with 95% CIs for associations between severe COVID-19 and exposures with adjustment for confounders were estimated using logistic regression. The median age was 62 years (IQR 52-70), and 3003 (24.9%) were women. Type 2 diabetes (OR, 2.3 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.7)), hypertension (OR, 1.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.0)), obesity (OR, 3.1 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.0)) and chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.5 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.7)) were all associated with severe COVID-19. In the younger subgroup (below 57 years), ORs were significantly higher for all cardiometabolic risk factors. The risk associated with type 2 diabetes was higher in women (p=0.001) and in patients with a region of birth outside European Union(EU) (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Diabetes, obesity and hypertension were all independently associated with severe COVID-19 with stronger associations in the younger population. Type 2 diabetes implied a greater risk among women and in non-EU immigrants. These findings, originating from high-quality Swedish registries, may be important to direct preventive measures such as vaccination to susceptible patient groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinicaltrial.gov (NCT04426084).


Subject(s)
/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041726, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence about the impact of systematic nursing surveillance on risk of acute deterioration of patients with COVID-19 and the effects of care complexity factors on inpatient outcomes is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association between acute deterioration risk, care complexity factors and unfavourable outcomes in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A multicentre cohort study was conducted from 1 to 31 March 2020 at seven hospitals in Catalonia. All adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals and with a complete minimum data set were recruited retrospectively. Patients were classified based on the presence or absence of a composite unfavourable outcome (in-hospital mortality and adverse events). The main measures included risk of acute deterioration (as measured using the VIDA early warning system) and care complexity factors. All data were obtained blinded from electronic health records. Multivariate logistic analysis was performed to identify the VIDA score and complexity factors associated with unfavourable outcomes. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1176 patients with COVID-19, 506 (43%) experienced an unfavourable outcome during hospitalisation. The frequency of unfavourable outcomes rose with increasing risk of acute deterioration as measured by the VIDA score. Risk factors independently associated with unfavourable outcomes were chronic underlying disease (OR: 1.90, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.72; p<0.001), mental status impairment (OR: 2.31, 95% CI 1.45 to 23.66; p<0.001), length of hospital stay (OR: 1.16, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.21; p<0.001) and high risk of acute deterioration (OR: 4.32, 95% CI 2.83 to 6.60; p<0.001). High-tech hospital admission was a protective factor against unfavourable outcomes (OR: 0.57, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89; p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The systematic nursing surveillance of the status and evolution of COVID-19 inpatients, including the careful monitoring of acute deterioration risk and care complexity factors, may help reduce deleterious health outcomes in COVID-19 inpatients.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
15.
BMJ ; 372: n334, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To directly measure the fatal impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in an urban African population. DESIGN: Prospective systematic postmortem surveillance study. SETTING: Zambia's largest tertiary care referral hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Deceased people of all ages at the University Teaching Hospital morgue in Lusaka, Zambia, enrolled within 48 hours of death. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Postmortem nasopharyngeal swabs were tested via reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Deaths were stratified by covis-19 status, location, age, sex, and underlying risk factors. RESULTS: 372 participants were enrolled between June and September 2020; PCR results were available for 364 (97.8%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 58/364 (15.9%) according to the recommended cycle threshold value of <40 and in 70/364 (19.2%) when expanded to any level of PCR detection. The median age at death among people with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 was 48 (interquartile range 36-72) years, and 69% (n=48) were male. Most deaths in people with covid-19 (51/70; 73%) occurred in the community; none had been tested for SARS-CoV-2 before death. Among the 19/70 people who died in hospital, six were tested before death. Among the 52/70 people with data on symptoms, 44/52 had typical symptoms of covid-19 (cough, fever, shortness of breath), of whom only five were tested before death. Covid-19 was identified in seven children, only one of whom had been tested before death. The proportion of deaths with covid-19 increased with age, but 76% (n=53) of people who died were aged under 60 years. The five most common comorbidities among people who died with covid-19 were tuberculosis (22; 31%), hypertension (19; 27%), HIV/AIDS (16; 23%), alcohol misuse (12; 17%), and diabetes (9; 13%). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, deaths with covid-19 were common in Lusaka. Most occurred in the community, where testing capacity is lacking. However, few people who died at facilities were tested, despite presenting with typical symptoms of covid-19. Therefore, cases of covid-19 were under-reported because testing was rarely done not because covid-19 was rare. If these data are generalizable, the impact of covid-19 in Africa has been vastly underestimated.


Subject(s)
/mortality , /isolation & purification , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Autopsy , /virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Zambia/epidemiology
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24332, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087854

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) becomes a global pandemic in 2020. Early identification of severe ill patients is a top priority for clinicians. We aimed to describe clinical features and risk factors of severe-critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Jiangsu Province.This multi-centered retrospective study collected the information of 631 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized at 28 authorized hospitals in Jiangsu province from January 23, 2019 to March 13, 2020.A total of 583 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled for final analysis, including 84 severe-critically ill patients and 499 mild-moderate patients. Median age of the severe-critically ill patients was 57.0 years old (interquartile range, 49.0-65.8), and 50 (59.5%) were males. Multisystemic laboratory abnormalities were observed on admission for severe-critically ill patients. These patients showed more noticeable radiologic abnormalities and more coexisting health issues as compared to the mild-moderate patients. Most of the severe-critically ill COVID-19 patients became deteriorated in 2 weeks after diagnosis. Age, D-dimer, and lymphocytes were independently associated with the progression of severe-critically illness.Older age, higher D-dimer levels and less lymphocyte counts on admission are potential risk factors for COVID-19 patients to develop into severe and critically illness.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Lymphocyte Count , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , /physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lymphocyte Count/methods , Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , /pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Discov Med ; 30(161): 155-161, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085799

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus responsible for the global coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19), which started in early 2020 and is still ongoing today. COVID-19 has caused more than 1 million deaths worldwide and about 50 million infected. COVID-19 not only causes lung injury, but there may also be an involvement of other organs, including the cardiovascular system. SARS-CoV-2 penetrates host cells through the angiotensin 2 conversion enzyme (ACE-2). ACE-2 is expressed in the lungs, heart, testicles, liver, gastrointestinal tract, etc. Several studies have found that a sizeable percentage of patients with severe COVID-19 also have cardiac lesions, including myocardial fibrosis, edema, and pericarditis. Pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix caused by SARS-CoV-2 leads to fibrotic lesions of myocardial tissue. These fibrotic lesions can cause cardiac dysfunction, reducing the ejection fraction caused by the presence of stiffened myocardial matrix and leading to heart failure, or cause an alteration in electrical conductance by creating cardiac arrhythmias. These cardiac dysfunctions can be fatal if left untreated and managed. It is therefore essential to identify cardiac involvement early in order to act with appropriate treatments to preserve the integrity of the heart. In this review, we describe what is known about cardiac damage from COVID-19, including the scientific rationale for effective therapeutic solutions to combat cardiac injury, and reduce or avoid cardiac damage from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/complications , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/etiology , Myocardium/pathology , /physiology , /virology , Humans , Models, Biological , Risk Factors
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 175, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While hypertension is the most common comorbid condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, there is a lack of studies investigating risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension in Korea. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects risk factors in hypertensive Korean COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We selected patients from the database of the project #OpenData4Covid19. This information was linked to their 3-year historical healthcare data. The severity of the disease was classified into five levels. We also clustered the levels into two grades. RESULTS: The risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity were old age, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, and renal replacement therapy. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) both before and after a diagnosis of COVID-19 were not associated with COVID-19 severity. A multivariate analysis revealed that old age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that in hypertensive patients with COVID-19, older age, male sex, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for a severe clinical course. In addition, the use of ARBs and ACEIs before or after COVID-19 infection did not affect a patient's risk of contracting COVID-19 nor did it contribute to a worse prognosis for the disease. These results highlighted that precautions should be considered for hypertensive patients with those risk factors and do not support discontinuation of ARBs and ACEIs during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , /pathology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , /epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/pathology , Male , Medical History Taking , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , /physiology
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 176, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical features of patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were well delineated. However, no researches described the patients complicated with pleural effusion (PE). In the present study, we aimed to clinically characterize the COVID-19 patients complicated with PE and to create a predictive model on the basis of PE and other clinical features to identify COVID-19 patients who may progress to critical condition. METHODS: This retrospective study examined 476 COVID-19 inpatients, involving 153 patients with PE and 323 without PE. The data on patients' past history, clinical features, physical checkup findings, laboratory results and chest computed tomography (CT) findings were collected and analyzed. LASSO regression analysis was employed to identify risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Laboratory findings showed that patients with PE had higher levels of white blood cells, neutrophils, lactic dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein and D-dimer, and lower levels of lymphocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen saturation. Meanwhile, patients with PE had higher incidence of severe or critical illness and mortality rate, and longer hospital stay time compared to their counterparts without pleural effusion. Moreover, LASSO regression analysis exhibited that pleural effusion, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and total bilirubin (TBIL) might be risk factors for critical COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural effusion could serve as an indicator for severe inflammation and poor clinical outcomes, and might be a complementary risk factor for critical type of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/pathology , Pleural Effusion/pathology , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , /physiopathology , China , Exudates and Transudates , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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