Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 122
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21654, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504870

ABSTRACT

To slow the spread of infectious disease, it is crucial to understand the engagement of protective behavior among individuals. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine individuals' protective behaviors and the associated factors across countries during COVID-19. This causal-comparative study used a self-developed online survey to assess individuals' level of engagement with six protective behaviors. Analysis of variance and McNemar's test were employed for data analysis. Three hundred and eighty-four responses were analyzed. The majority of participants lived in three areas: Taiwan, Japan, and North America. Overall, the participants reported a high level of engagement in protective behaviors. However, engagement levels varied according to several demographic variables. Hand hygiene and cleaning/ventilation are two independent behaviors that differ from almost all other protective behaviors. There is a need to target the population at risk, which demonstrates low compliance. Different strategies are needed to promote specific protective behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adult , Female , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21700, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504478

ABSTRACT

With recurring waves of the Covid-19 pandemic, a dilemma facing public health leadership is whether to provide public advice that is medically optimal (e.g., most protective against infection if followed), but unlikely to be adhered to, or advice that is less protective but is more likely to be followed. To provide insight about this dilemma, we examined and quantified public perceptions about the tradeoff between (a) the stand-alone value of health behavior advice, and (b) the advice's adherence likelihood. In a series of studies about preference for public health leadership advice, we asked 1061 participants to choose between (5) strict advice that is medically optimal if adhered to but which is less likely to be broadly followed, and (2) relaxed advice, which is less medically effective but more likely to gain adherence-given varying infection expectancies. Participants' preference was consistent with risk aversion. Offering an informed choice alternative that shifts volition to advice recipients only strengthened risk aversion, but also demonstrated that informed choice was preferred as much or more than the risk-averse strict advice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/trends , Information Dissemination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/trends , Public Policy/trends , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Can J Public Health ; 112(5): 957-964, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485587

ABSTRACT

SETTING: The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction promotes an "all-of-society" approach to disaster risk reduction (DRR). Since 2013, the EnRiCH Research Lab has implemented a community-based, participatory program to promote youth development and engagement in DRR in Ottawa-Gatineau. The EnRiCH Youth Research Team used an existing community education program called the Enrichment Mini-Course Program as a framework to engage youth in DRR. We aim to share the implementation process and lessons learned from this innovative "all-of-society" approach to DRR. INTERVENTION: The EnRiCH Youth Research Team provides high school and university students with a platform to be heard on disaster and climate change issues. Youth are given opportunities to design and lead knowledge dissemination projects intended to educate members of the community about disaster prevention and preparedness. Students have opportunities to connect with academics, governmental and non-governmental organizations, and public health practitioners to share their ideas on youth participation in DRR in Canada. OUTCOMES: To date, this public health intervention has produced DRR training modules that can be used as curriculum support by teachers, a children's book on earthquake preparedness, an educational video about youth participation in DRR, and several conference presentations. Members of the team have become well versed in disaster preparedness strategies. IMPLICATIONS: This program has demonstrated that youth can contribute to DRR through knowledge mobilization, and support public education about disaster preparedness. Offering this opportunity at a grassroots level can support participation by youth by allowing flexibility in design and adaptation to individual environmental and social contexts.


Subject(s)
Community-Based Participatory Research , Disasters , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Community-Based Participatory Research/organization & administration , Disasters/prevention & control , Humans , Program Evaluation , Public Opinion
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463314

ABSTRACT

In the absence of widespread vaccination for COVID-19, governments and public health officials have advocated for the public to wear masks during the pandemic. The decision to wear a mask in public is likely affected by both beliefs about its efficacy and the prevalence of the behavior. Greater mask use in the community may encourage others to follow this norm, but it also creates an incentive for individuals to free ride on the protection afforded to them by others. We report the results of two vignette-based experiments conducted in the United States (n = 3,100) and Italy (n = 2,659) to examine the causal relationship between beliefs, social norms, and reported intentions to engage in mask promoting behavior. In both countries, survey respondents were quota sampled to be representative of the country's population on key demographics. We find that providing information about how masks protect others increases the likelihood that someone would wear a mask or encourage others to do so in the United States, but not in Italy. There is no effect of providing information about how masks protect the wearer in either country. Additionally, greater mask use increases intentions to wear a mask and encourage someone else to wear theirs properly in both the United States and Italy. Thus, community mask use may be self-reinforcing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Norms , Trust/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Intention , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Public Health/methods , Random Allocation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 200, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evolving pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a severe threat to public health, and the workplace presents high risks in terms of spreading the disease. Few studies have focused on the relationship between workplace policy and individual behaviours. This study aimed to identify inequalities of workplace policy across occupation groups, examine the relationship of workplace guidelines and measures with employees' behaviours regarding COVID-19 prevention. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted to gather employees' access to workplace guidelines and measures as well as their personal protection behaviours. Statistical associations between these two factors in different occupations were examined using multiple ordinal logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 1048 valid responses across five occupational groups were analysed. Manual labourers reported lower availability of workplace guidelines and measures (76.9% vs. 89.9% for all, P = 0.003). Employees with available workplace guidelines and measures had higher compliance of hand hygiene, wearing masks, and social distancing, and this association was more significant among managers/administrators and manual labourers. CONCLUSIONS: Protection of the quantity and quality of employment is important. Awareness about the disease and its prevention among employers and administrators should be promoted, and resources should be allocated to publish guidelines and implement measures in the workplace during the pandemic. Both work-from-home arrangement and other policies and responses for those who cannot work from home including guidelines encouraging the health behaviours, information transparency, and provision of infection control materials by employers should be established to reduce inequality. Manual labourers may require specific attention regarding accessibility of relevant information and availability of medical benefits and compensation for income loss due to the sickness, given their poorer experience of workplace policy and the nature of their work. Further studies are needed to test the effectiveness of specific workplace policies on COVID-19 prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupations , Policy , Workplace , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Risk Reduction Behavior
8.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 73-76, 2020 10 30.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384010

ABSTRACT

Amid the global pandemic crisis, international concern has centered on the control and prevention measures aimed at reducing the speed of the virus transmission while a more radical sanitary measure, such as vaccines, is achieved. Governmental and social efforts have had great impact on various sectors of society and their consequences have exceeded the sphere of health. This essay discusses the scope of specific measures in the sense of the appropriation of risk control measures and proposes the epidemiological method as an alternative that goes beyond the quantification of risks and the attribution of responsibilities. To conclude, the emphasis is placed on the need to promote information about socialization processes to better understand the consequences of individual acts favoring alternatives other than pandemic control based on the use of coercive measures.


En medio de la crisis pandémica a nivel global, la preocupación internacional ha girado en torno a la adopción de medidas de control y prevención orientadas a la reducción de la velocidad de propagación del virus en espera de que se disponga de una medida sanitaria radical como la vacuna. El esfuerzo gubernamental y social ha tenido un gran impacto en diversos sectores de la sociedad y las consecuencias han superado el ámbito sanitario. En este ensayo se discute su alcance en el sentido de la apropiación de las medidas de control del riesgo y se propone el método epidemiológico como una alternativa que va más allá de la cuantificación de los riesgos y la atribución de responsabilidades. Por último, se plantea la necesidad de fomentar procesos de socialización de la información que ayuden a la comprensión de las consecuencias de los actos individuales y favorezcan la superación de la expectativa de control pandémico únicamente basada en el uso de medidas coercitivas.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Self Care , Social Change , Social Responsibility , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , Public Policy , Risk Reduction Behavior , Social Determinants of Health , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1569-1575, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential of SARS-CoV-2 spread during air travel and the risk of in-flight transmission. METHODS: We enrolled all passengers and crew suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, who bounded for Beijing on international flights. We specified the characteristics of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection and utilised Wells-Riley equation to estimate the infectivity of COVID-19 during air travel. RESULTS: We screened 4492 passengers and crew with suspected COVID-19 infection, verified 161 confirmed cases (mean age 28.6 years), and traced two confirmed cases who may have been infected in the aircraft. The estimated infectivity was 375 quanta/h (range 274-476), while the effective infectivity was only 4 quanta/h (range 2-5). The risk of per-person infection during a 13 h air travel in economy class was 0.56‰ (95% CI 0.41‰-0.72‰). CONCLUSION: We found that the universal use of face masks on the flight, together with the plane's ventilation system, significantly decreased the infectivity of COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESThe COVID-19 pandemic is changing the lifestyle in the world, especially air travel which has the potential to spread SARS-CoV-2.The universal use of face masks on the flight, together with the plane's ventilation system, significantly decreased the infectivity of COVID-19 on an aircraft.Our findings suggest that the risk of infection in aircraft was negligible.


Subject(s)
Air Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Theoretical , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 73(9): 1322-1331, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand medication, lifestyle, and clinical care changes of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the first months (March 2020 through May 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. METHODS: Data were collected from adults with RA participating in FORWARD, The National Databank for Rheumatic Diseases observational registry, who answered COVID-19 web-based surveys in May 2020 and previously provided baseline characteristics and medication use prior to the US COVID-19 pandemic. We compared medication changes by disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) exposure in logistic models that were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities including pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, education level, health insurance status, RA disease activity, fatigue, and polysymptomatic distress. RESULTS: Of 734 respondents, 221 (30%) reported medication changes. Among respondents who experienced a medication change, i.e., "medication changers/changers," glucocorticoids (GCs) were more commonly used compared to respondents who did not experience a medication change ("non-changers") (33% versus 18%). Non-hydroxychloroquine conventional DMARDs were less commonly used in changers compared to non-changers pre-COVID-19 (49% versus 62%), and changers reported more economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to non-changers (23% versus 15%). While JAK inhibitor use was associated with the likelihood of a medication change, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.0, 3.4), only pre-COVID GC use remained a strong predictor for medication change in multivariable models (OR 3.0 [95% CI 1.9, 4.9]). Change in care was observed to have a significant association with pulmonary disease (OR 2.9 [95% CI 1.3, 6.5]), worse RA disease activity (OR 1.1 [95% CI 1.0, 1.1]), and GC use (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.0, 2.5]). While the incidence of medication changes was the same before and after the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidance for the management of rheumatic disease in adult patients during the COVID-19 pandemic were first published in April 2020, self-imposed changes in medication were approximately twice as likely before publication of the guidelines, and physician-guided changes were more likely after publication. CONCLUSION: Persons with RA in the US made substantial medication changes during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic, and changes among persons with RA after publication of the ACR guidance in April 2020 were made with increased physician guidance.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Drug Substitution/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Risk Reduction Behavior , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Healthy Lifestyle , Obesity/therapy , Risk Reduction Behavior , Weight Loss , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Female , France/epidemiology , Habits , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Smoking Cessation , Time Factors , Weight Gain
15.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328087

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 is the most challenging public health crisis in decades in the United States. It is imperative to enforce social distancing rules before any safe and effective vaccines are widely available. Policies without public support are destined to fail. This study aims to reveal factors that determine the American public support for six mitigation measures (e.g., cancel gatherings, close schools, restrict non-essential travel). Methods: Based on a nationally representative survey, this study uses Structural Equation Modelling to reveal the relationships between various factors and public support for COVID-19 mitigation. Results: 1). Democrats are more likely than Republicans to support mitigation measures; 2).Favorability towards the political leader (Biden or Trump) can slant public support for COVID-19 mitigation measures among different segments of the public.; 3). Indirect experience, rather than direct experience with COVID-19 can motivate people to support mitigation; 4). Concern for COVID-19 is a strong motivator of support for mitigation. Conclusion: Political polarization poses an enormous challenge to societal well-being during a pandemic. Indirect experience renders COVID-19 an imminent threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Public Opinion , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 639405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278466

ABSTRACT

The drivers of high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) among migrants are well-documented. Health literacy is regarded as a potential tool to reduce health inequalities and improve migrant's access to and quality of health care. Yet, little is known about the health literacy needs among these groups and how to address them. This paper outlines the protocol for a migrant community-based co-design project that seeks to optimize health literacy, health promotion, and social cohesion in support of prevention of NCDs among migrants in Lisbon using the OPtismizing HEalth LIteracy and Access (Ophelia) process. This participatory implementation research project starts with a mixed-methods needs assessment covering health literacy strengths, weaknesses and needs of migrants, and local data about determinants of health behaviors, service engagement, and organizational responsiveness. Diverse migrant groups will be engaged and surveyed using the Health Literacy Questionnaire and questions on sociodemographic and economic characteristics, health status, use of health services, and perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured interviews with migrants will also be conducted. Based on data collected, vignettes will be developed representing typical persons with diverse health literacy profiles. Migrants and stakeholders will participate in ideas generation workshops for depth co-creation discussions in simulated real-world situations based on the vignettes, to design health literacy-based multisectoral interventions. Selected interventions will be piloted through quality improvement cycles to ensure ongoing local refinements and ownership development. Through a genuine engagement, the project will evaluate the uptake, effectiveness and sustainability of the interventions. This protocol takes a grounded approach to produce evidence on real health literacy needs from the perspective of key stakeholders, especially migrants, and embodies strong potential for effective knowledge translation into innovative, locally relevant, culturally and context congruent solutions for prevention of NCDs among migrants. Given the diverse communities engaged, this protocol will likely be adaptable to other migrant groups in a wide range of contexts, particularly in European countries. The scale-up of interventions to similar contexts and populations will provide much needed evidence on how health literacy interventions can be developed and applied to reduce health inequality and improve health in diverse communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Noncommunicable Diseases , Transients and Migrants , Europe , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(7): 345-360, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269471

ABSTRACT

First responders may have high SARS-CoV-2 infection risks due to working with potentially infected patients in enclosed spaces. The study objective was to estimate infection risks per transport for first responders and quantify how first responder use of N95 respirators and patient use of cloth masks can reduce these risks. A model was developed for two Scenarios: an ambulance transport with a patient actively emitting a virus in small aerosols that could lead to airborne transmission (Scenario 1) and a subsequent transport with the same respirator or mask use conditions, an uninfected patient; and remaining airborne SARS-CoV-2 and contaminated surfaces due to aerosol deposition from the previous transport (Scenario 2). A compartmental Monte Carlo simulation model was used to estimate the dispersion and deposition of SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent infection risks for first responders, accounting for variability and uncertainty in input parameters (i.e., transport duration, transfer efficiencies, SARS-CoV-2 emission rates from infected patients, etc.). Infection risk distributions and changes in concentration on hands and surfaces over time were estimated across sub-Scenarios of first responder respirator use and patient cloth mask use. For Scenario 1, predicted mean infection risks were reduced by 69%, 48%, and 85% from a baseline risk (no respirators or face masks used) of 2.9 × 10-2 ± 3.4 × 10-2 when simulated first responders wore respirators, the patient wore a cloth mask, and when first responders and the patient wore respirators or a cloth mask, respectively. For Scenario 2, infection risk reductions for these same Scenarios were 69%, 50%, and 85%, respectively (baseline risk of 7.2 × 10-3 ± 1.0 × 10-2). While aerosol transmission routes contributed more to viral dose in Scenario 1, our simulations demonstrate the ability of face masks worn by patients to additionally reduce surface transmission by reducing viral deposition on surfaces. Based on these simulations, we recommend the patient wear a face mask and first responders wear respirators, when possible, and disinfection should prioritize high use equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Ambulances , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Emergency Responders , Equipment Contamination , Humans , Monte Carlo Method , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Transportation of Patients
18.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 68(9): 597-607, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268421

ABSTRACT

Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic spread rapidly across the globe during the first half of 2020. In Japan, a state of emergency was declared on April 7, 2020, which had a significant impact on the life of citizens. This study focused on behaviors like avoiding going out or coming in contact with others and frequent hand-washing to prevent the infection and the spread of COVID-19 among people living in Tokyo. We also examined the factors associated with these behaviors during the declaration of emergency.Methods An online survey was conducted from April 26 to 29, 2020, approximately 20 days after the declaration of the emergency, among men and women aged 20-69 years living in Tokyo. The study framework was based on the protection motivation theory, which explains the risk-reducing behaviors, and focus theory of normative conduct, which explains the effect of others' behavior on one's own behavior. The frequency of behaviors like avoiding going out or coming in contact with others and frequent hand-washing, as well as the perception of the risk of COVID-19 during the week preceding the survey, were assessed. Each preventive action was evaluated based on the following factors: perceived effectiveness (response efficacy), perceived practicability (self-efficacy), necessary cost (response cost), and perceptions of how much should be done (injunctive norm) and how well others are doing it (descriptive norm). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with these behaviors as outcomes were performed.Results This study included 1,034 participants (50.3% male, mean age 44.82 years, standard deviation 14.00 years). The analyses of the frequency of avoiding going out or coming in contact with others showed that the injunctive norm was positively associated with the behavior (standardized partial regression coefficient (ß)=0.343, P<0.001), while the descriptive norm was negatively associated with the behavior (ß=-0.074, P=0.010). Furthermore, the two-way interaction between risk perception, response efficacy, and self-efficacy was significant (ß=0.129, P<0.001), indicating that risk perception was positively associated with the behavior only when either response efficacy or self-efficacy was low. A similar analysis conducted for hand-washing behavior revealed that injunctive norm (ß=0.256, P<0.001) and response efficacy (ß=0.132, P<0.001) were positively associated with the behavior, while the response cost (ß=-0.193, P<0.001) was negatively associated with the behavior.Conclusion Some variables in the protection motivation theory and the focus theory of normative conduct were related to the behavior for the prevention of COVID-19. The results suggest that the application of these theories is useful in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Public Health , Risk Reduction Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Tokyo , Young Adult
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e23976, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diverse Asian American population has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but due to limited data and other factors, disparities experienced by this population are hidden. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the Asian American community's experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California, and to better inform a Federally Qualified Health Center's (FQHC) health care services and response to challenges faced by the community. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey between May 20 and June 23, 2020, using a multipronged recruitment approach, including word-of-mouth, FQHC patient appointments, and social media posts. The survey was self-administered online or administered over the phone by FQHC staff in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, and Vietnamese. Survey question topics included COVID-19 testing and preventative behaviors, economic impacts of COVID-19, experience with perceived mistreatment due to their race/ethnicity, and mental health challenges. RESULTS: Among 1297 Asian American respondents, only 3.1% (39/1273) had previously been tested for COVID-19, and 46.6% (392/841) stated that they could not find a place to get tested. In addition, about two-thirds of respondents (477/707) reported feeling stressed, and 22.6% (160/707) reported feeling depressed. Furthermore, 5.6% (72/1275) of respondents reported being treated unfairly because of their race/ethnicity. Among respondents who experienced economic impacts from COVID-19, 32.2% (246/763) had lost their regular jobs and 22.5% (172/763) had reduced hours or reduced income. Additionally, 70.1% (890/1269) of respondents shared that they avoid leaving their home to go to public places (eg, grocery stores, church, and school). CONCLUSIONS: We found that Asian Americans had lower levels of COVID-19 testing and limited access to testing, a high prevalence of mental health issues and economic impacts, and a high prevalence of risk-avoidant behaviors (eg, not leaving the house) in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings provide preliminary insights into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Asian American communities served by an FQHC and underscore the longstanding need for culturally and linguistically appropriate approaches to providing mental health, outreach, and education services. These findings led to the establishment of the first Asian multilingual and multicultural COVID-19 testing sites in the local area where the study was conducted, and laid the groundwork for subsequent COVID-19 programs, specifically contact tracing and vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Disorders/ethnology , Pandemics , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , San Francisco/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(9): 637-648, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238002

ABSTRACT

Sedentary behaviour - put simply, too much sitting, as a distinct concept from too little exercise - is a novel determinant of cardiovascular risk. This definition provides a perspective that is complementary to the well-understood detrimental effects of physical inactivity. Sitting occupies the majority of the daily waking hours in most adults and has become even more pervasive owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. The potential for a broad cardiovascular health benefit exists through an integrated approach that involves 'sitting less and moving more'. In this Review, we first consider observational and experimental evidence on the adverse effects of prolonged, uninterrupted sitting and the evidence identifying the possible mechanisms underlying the associated risk. We summarize the results of randomized controlled trials demonstrating the feasibility of changing sedentary behaviour. We also highlight evidence on the deleterious synergies between sedentary behaviour and physical inactivity as the underpinnings of our case for addressing them jointly in mitigating cardiovascular risk. This integrated approach should not only reduce the specific risks of too much sitting but also have a positive effect on the total amount of physical activity, with the potential to more broadly benefit the health of individuals living with or at risk of developing cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Risk Reduction Behavior , Sedentary Behavior , Sitting Position , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...