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1.
Elife ; 92020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155740

ABSTRACT

We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic staff at a UK teaching hospital using naso-/oro-pharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays for IgG antibodies. 1128/10,034 (11.2%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time. Using questionnaire data provided on potential risk-factors, staff with a confirmed household contact were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.82 [95%CI 3.45-6.72]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (22.6% vs. 8.6% elsewhere) (aOR 2.47 [1.99-3.08]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.52 [1.07-2.16]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit staff were relatively protected (0.44 [0.28-0.69]), likely by a bundle of PPE-related measures. Positive results were more likely in Black (1.66 [1.25-2.21]) and Asian (1.51 [1.28-1.77]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (2.06 [1.34-3.15]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 876691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119660

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 continues to impact the United States and the world at large it is becoming increasingly necessary to develop methods which predict local scale spread of the disease. This is especially important as newer variants of the virus are likely to emerge and threaten community spread. We develop a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) to predict community-level relative risk of COVID-19 infection at the census tract scale in the U.S. state of Indiana. The model incorporates measures of social and environmental vulnerability-including environmental determinants of COVID-19 infection-into a spatial temporal prediction of infection relative risk 1-month into the future. The DBN significantly outperforms five other modeling techniques used for comparison and which are typically applied in spatial epidemiological applications. The logic behind the DBN also makes it very well-suited for spatial-temporal prediction and for "what-if" analysis. The research results also highlight the need for further research using DBN-type approaches that incorporate methods of artificial intelligence into modeling dynamic processes, especially prominent within spatial epidemiologic applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Risk , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Artificial Intelligence , Indiana/epidemiology
3.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 43(8): 464-471, 2020 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095369

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is leading to high mortality and a global health crisis. The primary involvement is respiratory; however, the virus can also affect other organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and liver. The most common symptoms are anorexia and diarrhea. In about half of the cases, viral RNA could be detected in the stool, which is another line of transmission and diagnosis. covid19 has a worse prognosis in patients with comorbidities, although there is not enough evidence in case of previous digestive diseases. Digestive endoscopies may give rise to aerosols, which make them techniques with a high risk of infection. Experts and scientific organizations worldwide have developed guidelines for preventive measures. The available evidence on gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement, the impact on patients with previous digestive diseases and operating guidelines for Endoscopy Units during the pandemic are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Digestive System/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aerosols , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anorexia/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diarrhea/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Endoscopy, Digestive System/adverse effects , Feces/virology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Intestines/chemistry , Intestines/virology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Receptors, Virus/analysis , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Precautions
6.
Reprod Toxicol ; 114: 33-43, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083105

ABSTRACT

The rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an upsurge of scientific productivity to help address the global health crisis. One area of active research is the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy. Here, we provide an epidemiological overview about what is known about the effects of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination on maternal-fetal outcomes, and identify gaps in knowledge. Pregnant people are at increased risk for severe COVID-19, and maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the risk of negative maternal-fetal outcomes. Despite this elevated risk, there have been high rates of vaccine hesitancy, heightened by the initial lack of safety and efficacy data for COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy. In response, retrospective cohort studies were performed to examine the impact of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. Here, we report the vaccine's efficacy during pregnancy and its impact on maternal-fetal outcomes, as well as an overview of initial studies on booster shots in pregnancy. We found that pregnant people are at risk for more severe COVID-19 outcomes, maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with worse birth outcomes, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy remains prevalent in the pregnant population, and COVID-19 vaccination and boosters promote better maternal-fetal outcomes. The results should help reduce vaccine hesitancy by alleviating concerns about the safety and efficacy of administering the COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy. Overall, this review provides an introduction to COVID-19 during pregnancy. It is expected to help consolidate current knowledge, accelerate research of COVID-19 during pregnancy and inform clinical, policy, and research decisions regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Vaccine Efficacy , Immunization, Secondary , Risk
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071401

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a prevalent health issue. Evidence suggests that the availability of urban nature may reduce the risks of obesity. However, several knowledge gaps remain. This study explores the relationships between the dose (distance, duration and frequency) of urban nature and demographic factors towards obesity risks among people in Thailand. A total of 111 participants in three urban and peri-urban nature locations answered a survey regarding their distance from green spaces, frequency of visits, and duration of their typical stay, as well as their socio-demographics, and waist-hip ratio (WHR). The results suggested that at least 1-2 h per typical visit to nature predicted low-risk WHR in women. Male participants are more likely to have a high-risk WHR. Increasing age predicted low-risk WHR. Spending more time in green spaces predicted lower odds of high-risk WHR, while distance did not predict the odds. This research is one of the first to study the relationship between time spent in nature and obesity, and one of the first nature and health studies conducted in Thailand. Given that Thailand is one of the countries most affected by obesity in Southeast Asia, this study is relevant and essential. Future research should explore the quality factors of the park with longer duration of stay.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk , Risk Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Waist-Hip Ratio
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2213525119, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050731

ABSTRACT

Behavioral responses influence the trajectories of epidemics. During the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduced pathogen transmission and mortality worldwide. However, despite the global pandemic threat, there was substantial cross-country variation in the adoption of protective behaviors that is not explained by disease prevalence alone. In particular, many countries show a pattern of slow initial mask adoption followed by sharp transitions to high acceptance rates. These patterns are characteristic of behaviors that depend on social norms or peer influence. We develop a game-theoretic model of mask wearing where the utility of wearing a mask depends on the perceived risk of infection, social norms, and mandates from formal institutions. In this model, increasing pathogen transmission or policy stringency can trigger social tipping points in collective mask wearing. We show that complex social dynamics can emerge from simple individual interactions and that sociocultural variables and local policies are important for recovering cross-country variation in the speed and breadth of mask adoption. These results have implications for public health policy and data collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Conditions
9.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 158(5): 570-573, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A possible association between blood group systems (ABO and Rh) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity has recently been investigated by various studies with conflicting results. However, due to variations in the prevalence of the ABO and Rh blood groups in different populations, their association with COVID-19 might be varied as well. Therefore, we conducted this study on Libyan participants to further investigate this association and make population-based data available to the worldwide scientific community. METHODS: In this case-control study, ABO and Rh blood groups in 419 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Zawia, Libya, and 271 healthy controls were compared using descriptive statistics and χ 2 tests. RESULTS: Blood group A was significantly more prevalent in patients with severe COVID-19 (64/125; 51.2%) than in patients with nonsevere COVID-19 (108/294, 36.7%) (P < .034), whereas the O blood group prevalence was higher in nonsevere COVID-19 cases (131/294, 44.5%) compared with severe cases (43/125, 34.4%) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a significant association between blood group A and the severity of COVID-19, whereas patients with blood group O showed a low risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. No significant association was found between Rh and susceptibility/severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Case-Control Studies , Risk
11.
JAMA ; 328(7): 637-651, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013212

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of arterial thromboembolism and venous thromboembolism in persons with COVID-19 remains unclear. Objective: To measure the 90-day risk of arterial thromboembolism and venous thromboembolism in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 before or during COVID-19 vaccine availability vs patients hospitalized with influenza. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 41 443 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (April-November 2020), 44 194 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (December 2020-May 2021), and 8269 patients hospitalized with influenza (October 2018-April 2019) in the US Food and Drug Administration Sentinel System (data from 2 national health insurers and 4 regional integrated health systems). Exposures: COVID-19 or influenza (identified by hospital diagnosis or nucleic acid test). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital diagnosis of arterial thromboembolism (acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke) and venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) within 90 days. Outcomes were ascertained through July 2019 for patients with influenza and through August 2021 for patients with COVID-19. Propensity scores with fine stratification were developed to account for differences between the influenza and COVID-19 cohorts. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes during each COVID-19 vaccine availability period vs the influenza period. Results: A total of 85 637 patients with COVID-19 (mean age, 72 [SD, 13.0] years; 50.5% were male) and 8269 with influenza (mean age, 72 [SD, 13.3] years; 45.0% were male) were included. The 90-day absolute risk of arterial thromboembolism was 14.4% (95% CI, 13.6%-15.2%) in patients with influenza vs 15.8% (95% CI, 15.5%-16.2%) in patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (risk difference, 1.4% [95% CI, 1.0%-2.3%]) and 16.3% (95% CI, 16.0%-16.6%) in patients with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (risk difference, 1.9% [95% CI, 1.1%-2.7%]). Compared with patients with influenza, the risk of arterial thromboembolism was not significantly higher among patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.97-1.11]) or during vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00-1.14]). The 90-day absolute risk of venous thromboembolism was 5.3% (95% CI, 4.9%-5.8%) in patients with influenza vs 9.5% (95% CI, 9.2%-9.7%) in patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (risk difference, 4.1% [95% CI, 3.6%-4.7%]) and 10.9% (95% CI, 10.6%-11.1%) in patients with COVID-19 during vaccine availability (risk difference, 5.5% [95% CI, 5.0%-6.1%]). Compared with patients with influenza, the risk of venous thromboembolism was significantly higher among patients with COVID-19 before vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.43-1.79]) and during vaccine availability (adjusted HR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.68-2.12]). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on data from a US public health surveillance system, hospitalization with COVID-19 before and during vaccine availability, vs hospitalization with influenza in 2018-2019, was significantly associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism within 90 days, but there was no significant difference in the risk of arterial thromboembolism within 90 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Risk Assessment , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
12.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 18(9): 525-539, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996865

ABSTRACT

The traditional complications of diabetes mellitus are well known and continue to pose a considerable burden on millions of people living with diabetes mellitus. However, advances in the management of diabetes mellitus and, consequently, longer life expectancies, have resulted in the emergence of evidence of the existence of a different set of lesser-acknowledged diabetes mellitus complications. With declining mortality from vascular disease, which once accounted for more than 50% of deaths amongst people with diabetes mellitus, cancer and dementia now comprise the leading causes of death in people with diabetes mellitus in some countries or regions. Additionally, studies have demonstrated notable links between diabetes mellitus and a broad range of comorbidities, including cognitive decline, functional disability, affective disorders, obstructive sleep apnoea and liver disease, and have refined our understanding of the association between diabetes mellitus and infection. However, no published review currently synthesizes this evidence to provide an in-depth discussion of the burden and risks of these emerging complications. This Review summarizes information from systematic reviews and major cohort studies regarding emerging complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify and quantify associations, highlight gaps and discrepancies in the evidence, and consider implications for the future management of diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Risk
14.
Science ; 377(6605): 475-477, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973778

ABSTRACT

An evidence-based treaty must balance prevention, preparedness, response, and repair.


Subject(s)
International Cooperation , Pandemics , Zoonoses , Animals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269097, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One common way to share health data for secondary analysis while meeting increasingly strict privacy regulations is to de-identify it. To demonstrate that the risk of re-identification is acceptably low, re-identification risk metrics are used. There is a dearth of good risk estimators modeling the attack scenario where an adversary selects a record from the microdata sample and attempts to match it with individuals in the population. OBJECTIVES: Develop an accurate risk estimator for the sample-to-population attack. METHODS: A type of estimator based on creating a synthetic variant of a population dataset was developed to estimate the re-identification risk for an adversary performing a sample-to-population attack. The accuracy of the estimator was evaluated through a simulation on four different datasets in terms of estimation error. Two estimators were considered, a Gaussian copula and a d-vine copula. They were compared against three other estimators proposed in the literature. RESULTS: Taking the average of the two copula estimates consistently had a median error below 0.05 across all sampling fractions and true risk values. This was significantly more accurate than existing methods. A sensitivity analysis of the estimator accuracy based on variation in input parameter accuracy provides further application guidance. The estimator was then used to assess re-identification risk and de-identify a large Ontario COVID-19 behavioral survey dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The average of two copula estimators consistently provides the most accurate re-identification risk estimate and can serve as a good basis for managing privacy risks when data are de-identified and shared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Information Dissemination , Privacy , Probability , Risk
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953340

ABSTRACT

One-third of the Spanish population over 15 years of age did not achieve a reasonable amount of physical activity (PA) before the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to analyse the associations between the PA level (PAL) and self-perceived health (SPH) in the Spanish population aged 15-69 years during the pre-pandemic period. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 (ENSE 2017) data, with 17,777 participants. We carried out a descriptive analysis, analysed intergroup differences with non-parametric statistical tests, and calculated the Odds Ratio (OR) and Relative Risk (RR) of having a negative SPH according to PAL. In addition, correlations between PAL and SPH were studied, finding associations between them (p < 0.001). Thus, performing moderate and intense PA was related to better SPH than just walking or inactive. Weak and moderate correlations were found between PAL and SPH (p < 0.001). We also found high ORs and RRs of negative SPH as PAL decreased. Moderate and intense PA were related to positive SPH, while the risk of negative perception in inactive people was higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise/physiology , Health Status , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Risk , Self Concept , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the course of recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to determine its predictors, including patients' pre-COVID-19 physical and mental health status. METHODS: This prospective and longitudinal cohort study recruited patients with MS who reported COVID-19 from March 17, 2020, to March 19, 2021, as part of the United Kingdom MS Register (UKMSR) COVID-19 study. Participants used online questionnaires to regularly update their COVID-19 symptoms, recovery status, and duration of symptoms for those who fully recovered. Questionnaires were date stamped for estimation of COVID-19 symptom duration for those who had not recovered at their last follow-up. The UKMSR holds demographic and up-to-date clinical data on participants as well as their web-based Expanded Disability Status Scale (web-EDSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores. The association between these factors and recovery from COVID-19 was assessed using multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 7,977 patients with MS who participated in the UKMSR COVID-19 study, 599 reported COVID-19 and prospectively updated their recovery status. Twenty-eight hospitalized participants were excluded. At least 165 participants (29.7%) had long-standing COVID-19 symptoms for ≥4 weeks and 69 (12.4%) for ≥12 weeks. Participants with pre-COVID-19 web-EDSS scores ≥7, participants with probable anxiety and/or depression (HADS scores ≥11) before COVID-19 onset, and women were less likely to report recovery from COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Patients with MS are affected by postacute sequelae of COVID-19. Preexisting severe neurologic impairment or mental health problems appear to increase this risk. These findings can have implications in tailoring their post-COVID-19 rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Registries , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk , Time Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
BMJ ; 376: e068414, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the risk of persistent and new clinical sequelae in adults aged ≥65 years after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UnitedHealth Group Clinical Research Database: deidentified administrative claims and outpatient laboratory test results. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged ≥65 years who were continuously enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan with coverage of prescription drugs from January 2019 to the date of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, matched by propensity score to three comparison groups that did not have covid-19: 2020 comparison group (n=87 337), historical 2019 comparison group (n=88 070), and historical comparison group with viral lower respiratory tract illness (n=73 490). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of persistent and new sequelae at 21 or more days after a diagnosis of covid-19 was determined with ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) codes. Excess risk for sequelae caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 was estimated for the 120 days after the acute phase of the illness with risk difference and hazard ratios, calculated with 95% Bonferroni corrected confidence intervals. The incidence of sequelae after the acute infection was analyzed by age, race, sex, and whether patients were admitted to hospital for covid-19. RESULTS: Among individuals who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2, 32% (27 698 of 87 337) sought medical attention in the post-acute period for one or more new or persistent clinical sequelae, which was 11% higher than the 2020 comparison group. Respiratory failure (risk difference 7.55, 95% confidence interval 7.18 to 8.01), fatigue (5.66, 5.03 to 6.27), hypertension (4.43, 2.27 to 6.37), memory difficulties (2.63, 2.23 to 3.13), kidney injury (2.59, 2.03 to 3.12), mental health diagnoses (2.50, 2.04 to 3.04), hypercoagulability 1.47 (1.2 to 1.73), and cardiac rhythm disorders (2.19, 1.76 to 2.57) had the greatest risk differences compared with the 2020 comparison group, with similar findings to the 2019 comparison group. Compared with the group with viral lower respiratory tract illness, however, only respiratory failure, dementia, and post-viral fatigue had increased risk differences of 2.39 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.94), 0.71 (0.3 to 1.08), and 0.18 (0.11 to 0.26) per 100 patients, respectively. Individuals with severe covid-19 disease requiring admission to hospital had a markedly increased risk for most but not all clinical sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm an excess risk for persistent and new sequelae in adults aged ≥65 years after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Other than respiratory failure, dementia, and post-viral fatigue, the sequelae resembled those of viral lower respiratory tract illness in older adults. These findings further highlight the wide range of important sequelae after acute infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , International Classification of Diseases , Male , Medicare Part C , Patient Acuity , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk , United States/epidemiology
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