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1.
Lancet ; 400(10359): 1213-1222, 2022 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the real-world effectiveness of oral antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of two oral antiviral drugs among community-dwelling COVID-19 outpatients in Hong Kong. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to identify an unselected, territory-wide cohort of non-hospitalised patients with an officially registered diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 26 and June 26, 2022, during the period in which the omicron subvariant BA.2.2 was dominant in Hong Kong. We used a retrospective cohort design as primary analysis, and a case-control design as sensitivity analysis. We identified patients with COVID-19 who received either molnupiravir (800 mg twice daily for 5 days) or nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily for 5 days, or nirmatrelvir 150 mg and ritonavir 100 mg if estimated glomerular filtration rate was 30-59 mL/min per 1·73 m2). Outpatient oral antiviral users were matched with controls using propensity score (1:10) according to age, sex, date of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and vaccination status. Study outcomes were death, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, and in-hospital disease progression (in-hospital death, invasive mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression for the primary analysis, and odds ratios in oral antiviral users compared with non-users by logistic regression for the sensitivity analysis. FINDINGS: Among 1 074 856 non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, 5383 received molnupiravir and 6464 received nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir in the community setting. Patients were followed up for a median of 103 days in the molnupiravir group and 99 days in the nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir group. Compared with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir users, those on molnupiravir were older (4758 [85·9%] vs 4418 [88.7%] aged >60 years) and less likely to have been fully vaccinated (1850 [33·4%] vs 800 [16·1%]). Molnupiravir use was associated with lower risks of death (HR 0·76 [95% CI 0·61-0·95]) and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·43-0·76]) than non-use was, whereas risk of hospitalisation was similar in both groups (0·98 [0·89-1·06]). Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was associated with lower risks of death (0·34 [0·22-0·52]), hospitalisation (0·76 [0·67-0·86]), and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·38-0·87]) than non-use was. We consistently found reduced risks of mortality and hospitalisation associated with early oral antiviral use among older patients. The findings from the case-control analysis broadly supported those from the primary analysis. INTERPRETATION: During Hong Kong's wave of SARS-CoV-2 omicron subvariant BA.2.2, among non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, early initiation of novel oral antivirals was associated with reduced risks of mortality and in-hospital disease progression. Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was additionally associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation. FUNDING: Health and Medical Research Fund, Health Bureau, Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Disease Progression , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Independent Living , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
2.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(10): 798-805, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151803

ABSTRACT

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake continues to increase across sub-Saharan Africa and emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutations poses significant challenges to management of treatment-experienced patients with virologic failure. In Zambia, new third-line ART (TLART) guidelines including use of dolutegravir (DTG) were introduced in 2018. We assessed virologic suppression, immunologic response, and HIV drug-resistant mutations (DRMs) among patients on TLART at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. We conducted a retrospective review of patients enrolled at UTH on TLART for >6 months between January 2010 and June 30, 2021. CD4 and HIV viral load (VL) at TLART initiation and post-initiation were assessed to determine virologic and immunologic outcomes. Regression analysis using bivariate and multivariate methods to describe baseline characteristics, virologic, and immunologic response to TLART was performed. A total of 345 patients met inclusion criteria; women comprised 57.6% (199/345) of the cohort. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 30 (interquartile range: 17.3-36.8). In 255 (73.8%) patients with at least two VLs, VL decreased from mean of 3.45 log10 copies/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 2.02) to 1.68 log10 copies/mL (SD: 1.79). Common ARVs prescribed included DTG (89.9%), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (68.7%), and darunavir boosted with ritonavir (66.4%); 170 (49.3%) patients had genotypes; mutations consisted of 88.8% nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, 86.5% non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and 55.9% protease inhibitor. VL suppression to <1,000 copies/mL was achieved in 225 (78.9%) patients. DRM frequency ranged from 56% to 89% depending on drug class. Treatment-experienced patients receiving TLART in Zambia achieved high rates of suppression despite high proportions of HIV mutations illustrating TLART effectiveness in the DTG era.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Male , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Universities , Zambia , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Hospitals, Teaching , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
5.
J Infect Dis ; 226(10): 1683-1687, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117632

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of bebtelovimab in real-world settings has not been assessed. In this retrospective cohort study of 3607 high-risk patients, bebtelovimab was used more commonly than nirmatrelvir-ritonavir for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among older patients, immunosuppressed patients, and those with multiple comorbid conditions. Despite its use in patients with multiple comorbid conditions, the rate of progression to severe disease after bebtelovimab (1.4% [95% confidence interval, 1.2%-1.7%]) was not significantly different from that for nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment (1.2% [.8%-1.5%]). Our findings support the emergency use authorization of bebtelovimab for treatment of COVID-19 during the Omicron epoch dominated by BA.2 and subvariants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2242140, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116969

ABSTRACT

This cohort study examines the prevalence of contraindications to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Contraindications
7.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115935

ABSTRACT

Despite the rapid development of efficient and safe vaccines against COVID-19, the need to confine the pandemic and treat infected individuals on an outpatient basis has led to the approval of oral antiviral agents. Taking into account the viral kinetic pattern of SARS-CoV-2, it is of high importance to intervene at the early stages of the disease. A protease inhibitor called nirmatrelvir coupled with ritonavir (NMV/r), which acts as a CYP3A inhibitor, delivered as an oral formulation, has shown much promise in preventing disease progression in high-risk patients with no need for supplemental oxygen administration. Real-world data seem to confirm the drug combination's efficacy and safety against all viral variants of concern in adult populations. Although, not fully clarified, viral rebound and recurrence of COVID-19 symptoms have been described following treatment; however, more data on potential resistance issues concerning the Mpro gene, which acts as the drug's therapeutic target, are needed. NMV/r has been a gamechanger in the fight against the pandemic by preventing hospitalizations and halting disease severity; therefore, more research on future development and greater awareness on its use are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Adult , Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1168-1171, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099942

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the application experience and the therapeutic effect of Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir (trade name: Paxlovid) for COVID-19 in children. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data, including collecting the clinical manifestations and clinical outcomes, dynamically monitoring the blood routine, hepatic and renal function and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid results, and observing the related side effects during the treatment, etc, of 3 cases with COVID-19 treated with Paxlovid admitted to Shanghai Children's Hospital (designated referral hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai) from May 1st to June 1st, 2022. Results: The 3 cases were 12, 14, 17 years of age, among which 2 cases were males, 1 case was female. All 3 cases were mild cases with underlying diseases and risk of developing into severe COVID-19, with symptoms of high fever, sore throat and dry cough. The treatment of Paxlovid at 3rd day of symptom onset contributed to the symptom-free after 1-2 days and negative results of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid after 2-4 days. All patients had no adverse manifestations of gastrointestinal tract and nervous system but a case had little skin rashes, which recovered after the withdrawal of Paxlovid. Three cases had normal hepatic and renal function during the Paxlovid treatment. At 3 months after discharge, no clinical manifestations of post-COVID syndrome were found in all 3 cases. Conclusion: Paxlovid was effective and relatively safe in the treatment of 3 children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Child , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , China
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18186, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096799

ABSTRACT

Animal and human data indicate variable effects of interferons in treating coronavirus infections according to inflammatory status and timing of therapy. In this sub-study of the MIRACLE trial (MERS-CoV Infection Treated with a Combination of Lopinavir-Ritonavir and Interferon ß-1b), we evaluated the heterogeneity of treatment effect of interferon-ß1b and lopinavir-ritonavir versus placebo among hospitalized patients with MERS on 90-day mortality, according to cytokine levels and timing of therapy. We measured plasma levels of 17 cytokines at enrollment and tested the treatment effect on 90-day mortality according to cytokine levels (higher versus lower levels using the upper tertile (67%) as a cutoff point) and time to treatment (≤ 7 days versus > 7 days of symptom onset) using interaction tests. Among 70 included patients, 32 received interferon-ß1b and lopinavir-ritonavir and 38 received placebo. Interferon-ß1b and lopinavir-ritonavir reduced mortality in patients with lower IL-2, IL-8 and IL-13 plasma concentrations but not in patients with higher levels (p-value for interaction = 0.09, 0.07, and 0.05, respectively) and with early but not late therapy (p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant heterogeneity of treatment effect according to other cytokine levels. Further work is needed to evaluate whether the assessment of inflammatory status can help in identifying patients with MERS who may benefit from interferon-ß1b and lopinavir-ritonavir. Trial registration: This is a sub-study of the MIRACLE trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02845843).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Ritonavir , Animals , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
10.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35 Suppl 3: 10-15, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091722

ABSTRACT

The use of antiviral drugs represents an important progress in the therapeutic management of COVID-19, leading to a substantial reduction of SARS-CoV-2-related complications and mortality. In immunocompetent host, peak viral replication occurs around the symptom's onset, and it prolongs for 5 to 7 days that is the window of opportunity for giving an antiviral. Accordingly, early and rapid diagnostic of the infection in the outpatient clinic is essential as well as the availability of oral agents that can be easily prescribe. Remdesivir has demonstrated its efficacy in hospitalized patients requiring oxygen support and in mild/moderate cases to avoid the hospitalization, however, the intravenous administration limits its use among outpatients. Molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir are potent oral antiviral agents. In the present review we discuss the potential targets against SARS-CoV-2, and an overview of the main characteristics and clinical results with the available antiviral agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Oxygen
11.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(11): e0122922, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088397

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is an effective antiviral therapy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Use is not recommended in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESDR) due to a lack of data. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (150 mg/100 mg twice a day) in four patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis. Nirmatrelvir peak concentrations ranged from 4,563 to 7,898 ng/mL and declined after hemodialysis. Concentrations were up to 4-fold higher but still within the range known from patients without ESRD, without accumulation of nirmatrelvir after the end of treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Kidney Failure, Chronic/drug therapy , Renal Dialysis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
13.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1004120, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early antiviral treatment is effective for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) but currently available agents are expensive. Favipiravir is routinely used in many countries, but efficacy is unproven. Antiviral combinations have not been systematically studied. We aimed to evaluate the effect of favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir or the combination of both agents on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load trajectory when administered early. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a Phase 2, proof of principle, randomised, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind trial of ambulatory outpatients with early COVID-19 (within 7 days of symptom onset) at 2 sites in the United Kingdom. Participants were randomised using a centralised online process to receive: favipiravir (1,800 mg twice daily on Day 1 followed by 400 mg 4 times daily on Days 2 to 7) plus lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg/100 mg twice daily on Day 1, followed by 200 mg/50 mg 4 times daily on Days 2 to 7), favipiravir plus lopinavir-ritonavir placebo, lopinavir-ritonavir plus favipiravir placebo, or both placebos. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 viral load at Day 5, accounting for baseline viral load. Between 6 October 2020 and 4 November 2021, we recruited 240 participants. For the favipiravir+lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir+placebo, lopinavir-ritonavir+placebo, and placebo-only arms, we recruited 61, 59, 60, and 60 participants and analysed 55, 56, 55, and 58 participants, respectively, who provided viral load measures at Day 1 and Day 5. In the primary analysis, the mean viral load in the favipiravir+placebo arm had changed by -0.57 log10 (95% CI -1.21 to 0.07, p = 0.08) and in the lopinavir-ritonavir+placebo arm by -0.18 log10 (95% CI -0.82 to 0.46, p = 0.58) compared to the placebo arm at Day 5. There was no significant interaction between favipiravir and lopinavir-ritonavir (interaction coefficient term: 0.59 log10, 95% CI -0.32 to 1.50, p = 0.20). More participants had undetectable virus at Day 5 in the favipiravir+placebo arm compared to placebo only (46.3% versus 26.9%, odds ratio (OR): 2.47, 95% CI 1.08 to 5.65; p = 0.03). Adverse events were observed more frequently with lopinavir-ritonavir, mainly gastrointestinal disturbance. Favipiravir drug levels were lower in the combination arm than the favipiravir monotherapy arm, possibly due to poor absorption. The major limitation was that the study population was relatively young and healthy compared to those most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: At the current doses, no treatment significantly reduced viral load in the primary analysis. Favipiravir requires further evaluation with consideration of dose escalation. Lopinavir-ritonavir administration was associated with lower plasma favipiravir concentrations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04499677 EudraCT: 2020-002106-68.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e30998, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there has been little agreement on what drug is the "best" drug for treating severe COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different medications available at present for severe COVID-19. METHODS: We searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 28, 2022, with no language restrictions, of medications recommended for patients (aged 16 years or older) with severe COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on trials and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (ACM), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). RESULTS: We identified 4021 abstracts and of these included 48 RCTs comprising 9147 participants through database searches and other sources. For decrease in ACM, we found that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG (i.e., a hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 intravenous immunoglobulin), methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/standard-of-care (SOC), interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, high dosage sarilumab (HS), auxora, and imatinib were effective when compared with placebo or SOC group. We found that colchicine and interferon-beta/SOC were only associated with the TEAEs of severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG, methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/SOC, interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma (CP), remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, HS, auxora, and imatinib were efficacious for treating severe COVID-19 patients. We found that most medications were safe in treating severe COVID-19. More large-scale RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
15.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1212: 123510, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069270

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir is an antiviral agent active against SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing the pandemic disease COVID-19. It is administrated in combination with the protease inhibitor ritonavir, which acts in case of COVID-19 mainly as enzyme blocking agent preventing the premature metabolic elimination of nirmatrelvir. The combination of the two drugs in separate tablets is marketed under the brand name Paxlovid® and shows good effectivity in preventing the progression of COVID-19 to severe disease state. In this work, we described a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of nirmatrelvir and ritonavir in human plasma of patients treated for COVID-19 with Paxlovid®. After addition of D6-ritonavir as internal standard, plasma proteins were precipitated by the addition of methanol. The analytes were separated by gradient elution on a C18-column and were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration functions were linear in the ranges of 10 - 10000 ng/mL for nirmatrelvir and 2 - 2000 ng/mL for ritonavir. Inter-day and intra-day precision and accuracy was better than 15 % in the quality control samples and better than 20 % at the LLOQ. The method was successfully applied on samples of hospitalized patients treated for COVID-19 and proved to be capable in supporting therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Humans , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 80(20): 1912-1924, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069219

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (NMVr) is used to treat symptomatic, nonhospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who are at high risk of progression to severe disease. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease are at a high risk of developing adverse events from COVID-19 and as a result have a higher likelihood of receiving NMVr. Ritonavir, the pharmaceutical enhancer used in NMVr, is an inhibitor of the enzymes of CYP450 pathway, particularly CYP3A4 and to a lesser degree CYP2D6, and affects the P-glycoprotein pump. Co-administration of NMVr with medications commonly used to manage cardiovascular conditions can potentially cause significant drug-drug interactions and may lead to severe adverse effects. It is crucial to be aware of such interactions and take appropriate measures to avoid them. In this review, we discuss potential drug-drug interactions between NMVr and commonly used cardiovascular medications based on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Drug Interactions , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e938532, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056393

ABSTRACT

One of the most recently described clinical associations with SARS-CoV-2 infection is rebound COVID-19, which occurs between five and eight days following the cessation of antiviral treatment. Most case reports of rebound COVID-19 have been associated with cessation of treatment with the combined oral antiviral agent nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid). On 24 May 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory update for patients, healthcare providers, and public health departments on COVID-19 rebound or recurrence of COVID-19. However, population data from the US showed no significant differences in the risk of developing rebound COVID-19 between patients treated with Paxlovid and Molnupiravir. The mechanisms of rebound COVID-19 remain unclear but may involve the development of resistance to the antiviral drug, impaired immunity to the virus, or insufficient drug dosing. A further explanation may be the persistence of a high viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals who are no longer symptomatic. This Editorial aims to provide an update on what is known about rebound COVID-19 and the current public health implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Proline , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
18.
Med J Aust ; 217(7): 368-378, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056152

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Australian National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce was established in March 2020 to maintain up-to-date recommendations for the treatment of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The original guideline (April 2020) has been continuously updated and expanded from nine to 176 recommendations, facilitated by the rapid identification, appraisal, and analysis of clinical trial findings and subsequent review by expert panels. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: In this article, we describe the recommendations for treating non-pregnant adults with COVID-19, as current on 1 August 2022 (version 61.0). The Taskforce has made specific recommendations for adults with severe/critical or mild disease, including definitions of disease severity, recommendations for therapy, COVID-19 prophylaxis, respiratory support, and supportive care. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THE GUIDELINE: The Taskforce currently recommends eight drug treatments for people with COVID-19 who do not require supplemental oxygen (inhaled corticosteroids, casirivimab/imdevimab, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, regdanvimab, remdesivir, sotrovimab, tixagevimab/cilgavimab) and six for those who require supplemental oxygen (systemic corticosteroids, remdesivir, tocilizumab, sarilumab, baricitinib, casirivimab/imdevimab). Based on evidence of their achieving no or only limited benefit, ten drug treatments or treatment combinations are not recommended; an additional 42 drug treatments should only be used in the context of randomised trials. Additional recommendations include support for the use of continuous positive airway pressure, prone positioning, and endotracheal intubation in patients whose condition is deteriorating, and prophylactic anticoagulation for preventing venous thromboembolism. The latest updates and full recommendations are available at www.covid19evidence.net.au.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Anticoagulants , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Oxygen , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD015395, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oral nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid®) aims to avoid severe COVID-19 in asymptomatic people or those with mild symptoms, thereby decreasing hospitalization and death. Due to its novelty, there are currently few published study results. It remains to be evaluated for which indications and patient populations the drug is suitable.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid®) plus standard of care compared to standard of care with or without placebo, or any other intervention for treating COVID-19 and for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. To explore equity aspects in subgroup analyses. To keep up to date with the evolving evidence base using a living systematic review (LSR) approach and make new relevant studies available to readers in-between publication of review updates. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Scopus, and WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease database, identifying completed and ongoing studies without language restrictions and incorporating studies up to 11 July 2022.  This is a LSR. We conduct monthly update searches that are being made publicly available on the open science framework (OSF) platform. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus standard of care with standard of care with or without placebo, or any other intervention for treatment of people with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, irrespective of disease severity or treatment setting, and for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We screened all studies for research integrity. Studies were ineligible if they had been retracted, or if they were not prospectively registered including appropriate ethics approval. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology and used the Cochrane risk of bias 2 tool. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach for the following outcomes: 1. to treat outpatients with mild COVID-19; 2. to treat inpatients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19: mortality, clinical worsening or improvement, quality of life, (serious) adverse events, and viral clearance; 3. to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP); and 4. pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) scenarios: SARS-CoV-2 infection, development of COVID-19 symptoms, mortality, admission to hospital, quality of life, and (serious) adverse events. We explored inequity by subgroup analysis for elderly people, socially-disadvantaged people with comorbidities, populations from LICs and LMICs, and people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds. MAIN RESULTS: As of 11 July 2022, we included one RCT with 2246 participants in outpatient settings with mild symptomatic COVID-19 comparing nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus standard of care with standard of care plus placebo. Trial participants were unvaccinated, without previous confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, had a symptom onset of no more than five days before randomization, and were at high risk for progression to severe disease. Prohibited prior or concomitant therapies included medications highly dependent on CYP3A4 for clearance and CYP3A4 inducers.  We identified eight ongoing studies. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for treating COVID-19 in outpatient settings with asymptomatic or mild disease For the specific population of unvaccinated, high-risk patients nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus standard of care compared to standard of care plus placebo may reduce all-cause mortality at 28 days (risk ratio (RR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00 to 0.68; 1 study, 2224 participants; estimated absolute effect: 11 deaths per 1000 people receiving placebo compared to 0 deaths per 1000 people receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir; low-certainty evidence, and admission to hospital or death within 28 days (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.27; 1 study, 2224 participants; estimated absolute effect: 61 admissions or deaths per 1000 people receiving placebo compared to eight admissions or deaths per 1000 people receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir; low-certainty evidence). Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus standard of care may reduce serious adverse events during the study period compared to standard of care plus placebo (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41; 1 study, 2224 participants; low-certainty evidence). Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus standard of care probably has little or no effect on treatment-emergent adverse events (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.10; 1 study, 2224 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and probably increases treatment-related adverse events such as dysgeusia and diarrhoea during the study period compared to standard of care plus placebo (RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.95; 1 study, 2224 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus standard of care probably decreases discontinuation of study drug due to adverse events compared to standard of care plus placebo (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.80; 1 study, 2224 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). No study results were identified for improvement of clinical status, quality of life, and viral clearance.  Subgroup analyses for equity Most study participants were younger than 65 years (87.1% of the : modified intention to treat (mITT1) population with 2085 participants), of white ethnicity (71.5%), and were from UMICs or HICs (92.1% of study centres). Data on comorbidities were insufficient.  The outcome 'admission to hospital or death' was investigated for equity: age (< 65 years versus ≥ 65 years) and ethnicity (Asian versus Black versus White versus others). There was no difference between subgroups of age. The effects favoured treatment with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for the White ethnic group. Estimated effects in the other ethnic groups included the line of no effect (RR = 1). No subgroups were reported for comorbidity status and World Bank country classification by income level. No subgroups were reported for other outcomes. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for treating COVID-19 in inpatient settings with moderate to severe disease No studies available. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (PrEP and PEP) No studies available. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is low-certainty evidence that nirmatrelvir/ritonavir reduces the risk of all-cause mortality and hospital admission or death based on one trial investigating unvaccinated COVID-19 participants without previous infection that were at high risk and with symptom onset of no more than five days. There is low- to moderate-certainty evidence that nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is safe in people without prior or concomitant therapies including medications highly dependent on CYP3A4. Regarding equity aspects, except for ethnicity, no differences in effect size and direction were identified. No evidence is available on nirmatrelvir/ritonavir to treat hospitalized people with COVID-19 and to prevent a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We will continually update our search and make search results available on OSF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers , Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(3): 447-449, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018210

ABSTRACT

This is a descriptive study of pregnant patients who received nirmatrelvir-ritonavir therapy from April 16, 2022, through May 18, 2022. Patients were eligible to receive nirmatrelvir-ritonavir if they were diagnosed with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with symptom onset within 5 days, did not require oxygen therapy or hospital admission, and had no contraindications to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. During the study time frame, 11 patients were identified as candidates for nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment. All patients agreed to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment after a telehealth consultation; seven patients completed the treatment. All patients who received nirmatrelvir-ritonavir experienced symptom resolution without the need for additional care. All but one patient tolerated nirmatrelvir-ritonavir without immediate adverse effects, and no adverse fetal or neonatal effects were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Outcome , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy
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