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1.
Circulation ; 147(25): 1891-1901, 2023 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is associated with heightened risks of venous and arterial thrombosis and hospitalization due to respiratory failure. To assess whether prophylactic anticoagulation can safely reduce the frequency of venous and arterial thrombosis, hospitalization, and death in nonhospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 and at least one thrombosis risk factor, we conducted the PREVENT-HD double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial (A Study of Rivaroxaban to Reduce the Risk of Major Venous and Arterial Thrombotic Events, Hospitalization and Death in Medically Ill Outpatients With Acute, Symptomatic COVID-19] Infection). METHODS: PREVENT-HD was conducted between August 2020 and April 2022 at 14 US integrated health care delivery networks. A virtual trial design used remote informed consent and clinical monitoring and facilitated data collection through electronic health record integration with a cloud-based research platform. Nonhospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 and at least one thrombosis risk factor were enrolled and randomly assigned to either 10 mg of oral rivaroxaban or placebo daily for 35 days. The primary efficacy outcome was time to first occurrence of a composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute limb ischemia, non-central nervous system systemic arterial embolism, hospitalization, or death through day 35. The principal safety end point was International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis critical-site or fatal bleeding. The last study visit was on day 49. RESULTS: The study was terminated prematurely because of enrollment challenges and a lower-than-expected blinded pooled event rate. A total of 1284 patients underwent randomization with complete accrual of primary events through May 2022. No patients were lost to follow-up. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 22 of 641 in the rivaroxaban group and 19 of 643 in the placebo group (3.4% versus 3.0%; hazard ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.63-2.15]; P=0.63). No patient in either group experienced critical-site or fatal bleeding. One patient receiving rivaroxaban had a major bleed. CONCLUSIONS: The study was terminated prematurely after enrollment of 32% of planned accrual because of recruitment challenges and lower-than-expected event rate. Rivaroxaban prescribed for 35 days in nonhospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 at risk for thrombosis did not appear to reduce a composite end point of venous and arterial thrombotic events, hospitalization, and death. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT04508023.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Outpatients , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e066846, 2022 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work is to evaluate if there is an increase in the risk of thromboembolic events (TEEs) due to concomitant exposure to dexamethasone and apixaban or rivaroxaban. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), as well as corticosteroid dexamethasone, are commonly used to treat individuals hospitalised with COVID-19. Dexamethasone induces cytochrome P450-3A4 enzyme that also metabolises DOACs apixaban and rivaroxaban. This raises a concern about possible interaction between dexamethasone and DOACs that may reduce the efficacy of the DOACs and result in an increased risk of TEE. DESIGN: We used nested case-control study design. SETTING: This study was conducted in the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), the largest electronic health records repository for COVID-19 in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants were adults over 18 years who were exposed to a DOAC for 10 or more consecutive days. Exposure to dexamethasone was at least 5 or more consecutive days. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Our primary exposure variable was concomitant exposure to dexamethasone for 5 or more days after exposure to either rivaroxaban or apixaban for 5 or more consecutive days. We used McNemar's Χ2 test and adjusted logistic regression to evaluate association between concomitant use of dexamethasone with either apixaban or rivaroxaban. RESULTS: McNemar's Χ2 test did not find a discernible association of TEE in patients concomitantly exposed to dexamethasone and a DOAC (χ2=0.5, df=1, p=0.48). In addition, a conditional logistic regression model did not find an increase in the risk of TEE (adjusted OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.32 to 4.18). CONCLUSION: This nested case-control study did not find evidence of an association between concomitant exposure to dexamethasone and a DOAC with an increase in risk of TEE. Due to small sample size, an association cannot be completely ruled out.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pyridones/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Administration, Oral , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(12): 1169-1177, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease is accompanied by a dysregulated immune response and hypercoagulability. The Anti-Coronavirus Therapies (ACT) inpatient trial aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory therapy with colchicine and antithrombotic therapy with the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin for prevention of disease progression in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: The ACT inpatient, open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised, controlled trial was done at 62 clinical centres in 11 countries. Patients aged at least 18 years with symptomatic, laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who were within 72 h of hospitalisation or worsening clinically if already hospitalised were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive colchicine 1·2 mg followed by 0·6 mg 2 h later and then 0·6 mg twice daily for 28 days versus usual care; and in a second (1:1) randomisation, to the combination of rivaroxaban 2·5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg once daily for 28 days versus usual care. Investigators and patients were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome, assessed at 45 days in the intention-to-treat population, for the colchicine randomisation was the composite of the need for high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or death; and for the rivaroxaban plus aspirin randomisation was the composite of major thrombosis (myocardial infarction, stroke, acute limb ischaemia, or pulmonary embolism), the need for high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or death. The trial is registered at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov, NCT04324463 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Oct 2, 2020, and Feb 10, 2022, at 62 sites in 11 countries, 2749 patients were randomly assigned to colchicine or control and the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin or to the control. 2611 patients were included in the analysis of colchicine (n=1304) versus control (n=1307); 2119 patients were included in the analysis of rivaroxaban and aspirin (n=1063) versus control (n=1056). Follow-up was more than 98% complete. Overall, 368 (28·2%) of 1304 patients allocated to colchicine and 356 (27·2%) of 1307 allocated to control had a primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 1·04, 95% CI 0·90-1·21, p=0·58); and 281 (26·4%) of 1063 patients allocated to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin and 300 (28·4%) of 1056 allocated to control had a primary outcome (HR 0·92, 95% CI 0·78-1·09, p=0·32). Results were consistent in subgroups defined by vaccination status, disease severity at baseline, and timing of randomisation in relation to onset of symptoms. There was no increase in the number of patients who had at least one serious adverse event for colchicine versus control groups (87 [6·7%] of 1304 vs 90 [6·9%] of 1307) or with rivaroxaban and aspirin versus control groups (85 [8·0%] vs 91 [8·6%]). Among patients assigned to colchicine, 8 (0·61%) had adverse events that led to discontinuation of study drug, mostly gastrointestinal in nature. 17 (1·6%) patients assigned to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin had bleeding compared with seven (0·66%) of those allocated to control (p=0·042); the number of serious bleeding events was two (0·19%) versus six (0·57%), respectively (p=0·18). No patients assigned to rivaroxaban and aspirin had serious adverse events that led to discontinuation of study drug. INTERPRETATION: Among patients hospitalised with COVID-19, neither colchicine nor the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin prevent disease progression or death. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Bayer, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences Research Institute, Thistledown Foundation. TRANSLATIONS: For the Portuguese, Russian and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Rivaroxaban , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Colchicine/adverse effects , Canada , Disease Progression , Oxygen , Treatment Outcome
5.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(7): 1081-1092, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were developed as an alternative to warfarin to treat and prevent thromboembolism, including stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients. The COVID-19 pandemic could increase the risk of stroke and/or the risk of bleeding in patients due to nonadherence or sub/supra-optimal dosing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate DOAC prescription trends in England's community settings during the complete first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Descriptive and interrupted time series (ITS) analyses were conducted to examine the prescription patterns of DOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and warfarin for primary care patients in the English Prescribing Dataset from January 2019 to February 2021, with March 2020 as the cut-off point. RESULTS: A 19% increase in mean DOAC's accompanied with 20% warfarin prescriptions decline was observed. ITS modelling showed an increase in DOAC prescription volume in March 2020 (+7 million items, p = 0.008). The pre-existing upward trend in DOAC prescriptions slowed during the period (-427,000 items, p = 0.007). Apixaban was the most frequently used DOAC and had the largest step-change in March 2020 (+5 million items, p = 0.010). The mean monthly combined cost of DOACs and warfarin was higher during the period. DOAC prescription trends were consistent across England's regions. Conclusion: The overall oral anticoagulants use in this period was lower than expected, indicating a medical needs gap, possibly due to adherence issues. The potential clinical and logistical consequences warrant further study to identify contributing factors and mitigate avoidable risks.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Dabigatran/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Pyridones/adverse effects , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Vitamin K , Warfarin/adverse effects
7.
Am Heart J ; 242: 115-122, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The devastating Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with a high prothrombotic state. It is unclear if the coagulation abnormalities occur because of the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 or indirectly by the cytokine storm and endothelial damage or by a combination of mechanisms. There is a clear indication of in-hospital pharmacological thromboprophylaxis for every patient with COVID-19 after bleed risk assessment. However, there is much debate regarding the best dosage regimen, and there is no consensus on the role of extended thromboprophylaxis. DESIGN: This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily for 35 ± 4 days versus no intervention after hospital discharge in COVID-19 patients who were at increased risk for VTE and have received standard parenteral VTE prophylaxis during hospitalization. The composite efficacy endpoint is a combination of symptomatic VTE, VTE-related death, VTE detected by bilateral lower limbs venous duplex scan and computed tomography pulmonary angiogram on day 35 ± 4 posthospital discharge and symptomatic arterial thromboembolism (myocardial infarction, nonhemorrhagic stroke, major adverse limb events, and cardiovascular death) up to day 35 ± 4 posthospital discharge. The key safety outcome is the incidence of major bleeding according to ISTH criteria. SUMMARY: The MICHELLE trial is expected to provide high-quality evidence around the role of extended thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 and will help guide medical decisions in clinical practice.1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Brazil , Drug Administration Schedule , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
9.
Am Heart J ; 238: 1-11, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested a higher risk of thrombotic events in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, elevated D-dimer levels have been identified as an important prognostic marker in COVID-19 directly associated with disease severity and progression. Prophylactic anticoagulation for hospitalized COVID-19 patients might not be enough to prevent thrombotic events; therefore, therapeutic anticoagulation regimens deserve clinical investigation. DESIGN: ACTION is an academic-led, pragmatic, multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase IV clinical trial that aims to enroll around 600 patients at 40 sites participating in the Coalition COVID-19 Brazil initiative. Eligible patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 with symptoms up to 14 days and elevated D-dimer levels will be randomized to a strategy of full-dose anticoagulation for 30 days with rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (or full-dose heparin if oral administration is not feasible) vs standard of care with any approved venous thromboembolism prophylaxis regimen during hospitalization. A confirmation of COVID-19 was mandatory for study entry, based on specific tests used in clinical practice (RT-PCR, antigen test, IgM test) collected before randomization, regardless of in the outpatient setting or not. Randomization will be stratified by clinical stability at presentation. The primary outcome is a hierarchical analysis of mortality, length of hospital stay, or duration of oxygen therapy at the end of 30 days. Secondary outcomes include the World Health Organization's 8-point ordinal scale at 30 days and the following efficacy outcomes: incidence of venous thromboembolism , acute myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic embolism, major adverse limb events, duration of oxygen therapy, disease progression, and biomarkers. The primary safety outcomes are major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. SUMMARY: The ACTION trial will evaluate whether in-hospital therapeutic anticoagulation with rivaroxaban for stable patients, or enoxaparin for unstable patients, followed by rivaroxaban through 30 days compared with standard prophylactic anticoagulation improves clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimer levels.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Administration Schedule , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thrombosis/etiology , Time Factors
10.
Lancet ; 397(10291): 2253-2263, 2021 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with a prothrombotic state leading to adverse clinical outcomes. Whether therapeutic anticoagulation improves outcomes in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 is unknown. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of therapeutic versus prophylactic anticoagulation in this population. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, open-label (with blinded adjudication), multicentre, randomised, controlled trial, at 31 sites in Brazil. Patients (aged ≥18 years) hospitalised with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimer concentration, and who had COVID-19 symptoms for up to 14 days before randomisation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either therapeutic or prophylactic anticoagulation. Therapeutic anticoagulation was in-hospital oral rivaroxaban (20 mg or 15 mg daily) for stable patients, or initial subcutaneous enoxaparin (1 mg/kg twice per day) or intravenous unfractionated heparin (to achieve a 0·3-0·7 IU/mL anti-Xa concentration) for clinically unstable patients, followed by rivaroxaban to day 30. Prophylactic anticoagulation was standard in-hospital enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin. The primary efficacy outcome was a hierarchical analysis of time to death, duration of hospitalisation, or duration of supplemental oxygen to day 30, analysed with the win ratio method (a ratio >1 reflects a better outcome in the therapeutic anticoagulation group) in the intention-to-treat population. The primary safety outcome was major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding through 30 days. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04394377) and is completed. FINDINGS: From June 24, 2020, to Feb 26, 2021, 3331 patients were screened and 615 were randomly allocated (311 [50%] to the therapeutic anticoagulation group and 304 [50%] to the prophylactic anticoagulation group). 576 (94%) were clinically stable and 39 (6%) clinically unstable. One patient, in the therapeutic group, was lost to follow-up because of withdrawal of consent and was not included in the primary analysis. The primary efficacy outcome was not different between patients assigned therapeutic or prophylactic anticoagulation, with 28 899 (34·8%) wins in the therapeutic group and 34 288 (41·3%) in the prophylactic group (win ratio 0·86 [95% CI 0·59-1·22], p=0·40). Consistent results were seen in clinically stable and clinically unstable patients. The primary safety outcome of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding occurred in 26 (8%) patients assigned therapeutic anticoagulation and seven (2%) assigned prophylactic anticoagulation (relative risk 3·64 [95% CI 1·61-8·27], p=0·0010). Allergic reaction to the study medication occurred in two (1%) patients in the therapeutic anticoagulation group and three (1%) in the prophylactic anticoagulation group. INTERPRETATION: In patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimer concentration, in-hospital therapeutic anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin followed by rivaroxaban to day 30 did not improve clinical outcomes and increased bleeding compared with prophylactic anticoagulation. Therefore, use of therapeutic-dose rivaroxaban, and other direct oral anticoagulants, should be avoided in these patients in the absence of an evidence-based indication for oral anticoagulation. FUNDING: Coalition COVID-19 Brazil, Bayer SA.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/blood , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Endpoint Determination , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 43(2): 251-254, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080494

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic disease. So-me authors recommend anticoagulation at therapeutic doses for, at least, the most severely ill patients; this practice is not free of risks, which is why only thromboembolic prophylaxis is recommended by other consensuses. In the case of previously anticoagulated patients, changing the oral anticoagulant for a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is generally recommended. We present the cases of two patients admitted due to COVID-19, without serious clinical data, in whom anticoagulation (acenocoumarol and rivaroxaban, respectively) was replaced by LMWH at therapeutic doses, both presenting abdominal bleeding. This type of bleeding is an infrequent complication in anticoagulated patients, but the concurrence of two cases in a short period of time in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic leads us to consider that there is not yet any clear evidence on therapeutic anticoagulation in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hematoma/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Abdomen , Acenocoumarol/adverse effects , Acenocoumarol/therapeutic use , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Female , Hematoma/diagnosis , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
12.
Am Heart J ; 235: 12-23, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with both venous and arterial thrombotic complications. While prophylactic anticoagulation is now widely recommended for hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in outpatients with COVID-19 has not been established. STUDY DESIGN: PREVENT-HD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pragmatic, event-driven phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in symptomatic outpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at risk for thrombotic events, hospitalization, and death. Several challenges posed by the pandemic have necessitated innovative approaches to clinical trial design, start-up, and conduct. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by time from COVID-19 confirmation, to either rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or placebo for 35 days. The primary efficacy end point is a composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute limb ischemia, non-central nervous system systemic embolization, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. The primary safety end point is fatal and critical site bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition. Enrollment began in August 2020 and is expected to enroll approximately 4,000 participants to yield the required number of end point events. CONCLUSIONS: PREVENT-HD is a pragmatic trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in the outpatient setting to reduce major venous and arterial thrombotic events, hospitalization, and mortality associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Outpatients , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Double-Blind Method , Extremities/blood supply , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Placebos/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
13.
Neuroradiol J ; 34(2): 147-150, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975845

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a fatal cerebral haemorrhage in an 82-year-old male patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who was taking prophylactic oral anticoagulation because of atrial fibrillation (rivaroxaban 20 mg q.d. for two years). On admission, the patient was deeply comatose, mechanically ventilated, with tachycardia up to 150 bpm, high blood pressure >210/120 mmHg and a body temperature >39°C. A computed tomography scan of the head showed a large intracerebral haemorrhage located in the deep structures of the right hemisphere, with a mass effect and bleeding to the ventricles. Rivaroxaban was discontinued at admission. The patient tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but he did not have typical symptoms of pneumonia. In the following days, the patient's neurological condition did not improve, and a fever of up to 40°C and abnormal coagulation parameters remained resistant to pharmacotherapy. The patient developed multi-system organ failure and died on day 8. Here, we review the recent literature and discuss the possible association of SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial injury and cardiovascular disorders with cerebrovascular complications. We postulate that anti-inflammatory treatment in COVID-19 and the stabilisation of endothelium functions can be particularly important in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hypertension/complications , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Stroke/prevention & control , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Tachycardia/etiology
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