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1.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928660

ABSTRACT

Urban environments represent unique ecosystems where dense human populations may come into contact with wildlife species, some of which are established or potential reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens that cause human diseases. Finding practical ways to monitor the presence and/or abundance of zoonotic pathogens is important to estimate the risk of spillover to humans in cities. As brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are ubiquitous in urban habitats, and are hosts of several zoonotic viruses, we conducted longitudinal sampling of brown rats in Vienna, Austria, a large population center in Central Europe. We investigated rat tissues for the presence of several zoonotic viruses, including flaviviruses, hantaviruses, coronaviruses, poxviruses, hepatitis E virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, and influenza A virus. Although we found no evidence of active infections (all were negative for viral nucleic acids) among 96 rats captured between 2016 and 2018, our study supports the findings of others, suggesting that monitoring urban rats may be an efficient way to estimate the activity of zoonotic viruses in urban environments.


Subject(s)
Rodent Diseases , Viruses , Animals , Cities/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Humans , Rats , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology
3.
Vet Rec ; 190 Suppl 1: 12, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877689

ABSTRACT

The immediate crisis of the UK's Covid-19 pandemic may be over but many in the veterinary professions find themselves still working in crisis mode. Carolyne Crowe will be encouraging vets at BVA Live to take a step back and reassess what they want from their 'new normal'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rodent Diseases , Veterinarians , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae , Humans , Occupations , Pandemics
4.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869831

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented pandemic COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with bats as original reservoirs, has once again highlighted the importance of exploring the interface of wildlife diseases and human health. In this study, we identified a novel Betacoronavirus from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in Grimsö, Sweden, and this virus is designated as Grimso virus. Repeated detection over three years and an overall prevalence of 3.4% suggest that the virus commonly occurs in bank voles. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Grimso virus belongs to a highly divergent Embecovirus lineage predominantly associated with bank voles. Given that bank voles are one of the most common rodent species in Sweden and Europe, our findings indicate that Grimso virus might be circulating widely in bank voles and further point out the importance of sentinel surveillance of coronaviruses in wild small mammalian animals, especially in wild rodents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Arvicolinae , COVID-19/veterinary , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sweden/epidemiology
5.
Zool Res ; 43(3): 457-468, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836354

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the combination of anti-inflammatory and antiviral therapy is predicted to provide clinical benefits. We recently demonstrated that mast cells (MCs) are an essential mediator of SARS-CoV-2-initiated hyperinflammation. We also showed that spike protein-induced MC degranulation initiates alveolar epithelial inflammation for barrier disruption and suggested an off-label use of antihistamines as MC stabilizers to block degranulation and consequently suppress inflammation and prevent lung injury. In this study, we emphasized the essential role of MCs in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung lesions in vivo, and demonstrated the benefits of co-administration of antihistamines and antiviral drug remdesivir in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice. Specifically, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced MC degranulation resulted in alveolar-capillary injury, while pretreatment of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells with antihistamines prevented adhesion junction disruption; predictably, the combination of antiviral drug remdesivir with the antihistamine loratadine, a histamine receptor 1 (HR1) antagonist, dampened viral replication and inflammation, thereby greatly reducing lung injury. Our findings emphasize the crucial role of MCs in SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation and lung injury and provide a feasible combination antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Rodent Diseases , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/veterinary , Endothelial Cells , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/veterinary , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung Injury/veterinary , Mice , Rodent Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 648-660, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832989

ABSTRACT

There is a need to standardize pathologic endpoints in animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection to help benchmark study quality, improve cross-institutional comparison of data, and assess therapeutic efficacy so that potential drugs and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly advance. The Syrian hamster model is a tractable small animal model for COVID-19 that models clinical disease in humans. Using the hamster model, the authors used traditional pathologic assessment with quantitative image analysis to assess disease outcomes in hamsters administered polyclonal immune sera from previously challenged rhesus macaques. The authors then used quantitative image analysis to assess pathologic endpoints across studies performed at different institutions using different tissue processing protocols. The authors detail pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection longitudinally and use immunohistochemistry to quantify myeloid cells and T lymphocyte infiltrates during SARS-CoV-2 infection. High-dose immune sera protected hamsters from weight loss and diminished viral replication in tissues and reduced lung lesions. Cumulative pathology scoring correlated with weight loss and was robust in distinguishing IgG efficacy. In formalin-infused lungs, quantitative measurement of percent area affected also correlated with weight loss but was less robust in non-formalin-infused lungs. Longitudinal immunohistochemical assessment of interstitial macrophage infiltrates showed that peak infiltration corresponded to weight loss, yet quantitative assessment of macrophage, neutrophil, and CD3+ T lymphocyte numbers did not distinguish IgG treatment effects. Here, the authors show that quantitative image analysis was a useful adjunct tool for assessing SARS-CoV-2 treatment outcomes in the hamster model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rodent Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immune Sera , Immunoglobulin G , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Mesocricetus , Rodent Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 124, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses have the potential to cross species barriers. To learn the molecular intersections among the most common coronaviruses of domestic and close-contact animals, we analyzed representative coronavirus genera infecting mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, cat, cattle, white-tailed deer, swine, ferret, mink, alpaca, Rhinolophus bat, dolphin, whale, chicken, duck and turkey hosts; reference or complete genome sequences were available for most of these coronavirus genera. Protein sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees were built for the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. The host receptors and enzymes aminopeptidase N (APN), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), sialic acid synthase (SAS), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), cathepsin L (and its analogs) and furin were also compared. RESULTS: Overall, the S, E, M, and N proteins segregated according to their viral genera (α, ß, or γ), but the S proteins of alphacoronaviruses lacked conservation of phylogeny. Interestingly, the unique polybasic furin cleavage motif found in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) but not in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) exists in several ß-coronaviruses and a few α- or γ-coronaviruses. Receptors and enzymes retained host species-dependent relationships with one another. Among the hosts, critical ACE2 residues essential for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding were most conserved in white-tailed deer and cattle. CONCLUSION: The polybasic furin cleavage motif found in several ß- and other coronaviruses of animals points to the existence of an intermediate host for SARS-CoV-2, and it also offers a counternarrative to the theory of a laboratory-engineered virus. Generally, the S proteins of coronaviruses show crossovers of phylogenies indicative of recombination events. Additionally, the consistency in the segregation of viral proteins of the MERS-like coronavirus (NC_034440.1) from pipistrelle bat supports its classification as a ß-coronavirus. Finally, similarities in host enzymes and receptors did not always explain natural cross-infections. More studies are therefore needed to identify factors that determine the cross-species infectivity of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Deer , Dog Diseases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Rodent Diseases , Swine Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Dogs , Ferrets , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Rabbits , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Swine
8.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 565-577, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673724

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inspired rapid research efforts targeting the host range, pathogenesis and transmission mechanisms, and the development of antiviral strategies. Genetically modified mice, rhesus macaques, ferrets, and Syrian golden hamsters have been frequently used in studies of pathogenesis and efficacy of antiviral compounds and vaccines. However, alternatives to in vivo experiments, such as immortalized cell lines, primary respiratory epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface, stem/progenitor cell-derived organoids, or tissue explants, have also been used for isolation of SARS-CoV-2, investigation of cytopathic effects, and pathogen-host interactions. Moreover, initial proof-of-concept studies for testing therapeutic agents can be performed with these tools, showing that animal-sparing cell culture methods could significantly reduce the need for animal models in the future, following the 3R principles of replace, reduce, and refine. So far, only few studies using animal-derived primary cells or tissues have been conducted in SARS-CoV-2 research, although natural infection has been shown to occur in several animal species. Therefore, the need for in-depth investigations on possible interspecies transmission routes and differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is urgent. This review gives an overview of studies employing alternative culture systems like primary cell cultures, tissue explants, or organoids for investigations of the pathophysiology and reverse zoonotic potential of SARS-CoV-2 in animals. In addition, future possibilities of SARS-CoV-2 research in animals, including previously neglected methods like the use of precision-cut lung slices, will be outlined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Rodent Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 602-612, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662392

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes severe viral pneumonia and is associated with a high fatality rate. A substantial proportion of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 suffer from mild hyposmia to complete loss of olfactory function, resulting in anosmia. However, the pathogenesis of the olfactory dysfunction and comparative pathology of upper respiratory infections with SARS-CoV-2 are unknown. We describe the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization findings from rodent models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The main histopathological findings in the olfactory epithelia of K8-hACE2 Tg mice, hACE2 Tg mice, and hamsters were varying degrees of inflammatory lesions, including disordered arrangement, necrosis, exfoliation, and macrophage infiltration of the olfactory epithelia, and inflammatory exudation. On the basis of these observations, the nasal epithelia of these rodent models appeared to develop moderate, mild, and severe rhinitis, respectively. Correspondingly, SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and antigen were mainly identified in the olfactory epithelia and lamina propria. Moreover, viral RNA was abundant in the cerebrum of K18-hACE2 Tg mice, including the olfactory bulb. The K8-hACE2 Tg mouse, hACE2 Tg mouse, and hamster models could be used to investigate the pathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper respiratory tract and central nervous system. These models could help to provide a better understanding of the pathogenic process of this virus and to develop effective medications and prophylactic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rodent Diseases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Melphalan , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nasal Mucosa , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , RNA, Viral , Rodent Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , gamma-Globulins
10.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 661-672, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613175

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in an ongoing pandemic with millions of deaths worldwide. Infection of humans can be asymptomatic or result in fever, fatigue, dry cough, dyspnea, and acute respiratory distress syndrome with multiorgan failure in severe cases. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not fully understood, and various models employing different species are currently applied. Ferrets can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and efficiently transmit the virus to contact animals. In contrast to hamsters, ferrets usually show mild disease and viral replication restricted to the upper airways. Most reports have used the intranasal inoculation route, while the intratracheal infection model is not well characterized. Herein, we present clinical, virological, and pathological data from young ferrets intratracheally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Infected animals showed no significant clinical signs, and had transient infection with peak viral RNA loads at 4 days postinfection, mild to moderate rhinitis, and pulmonary endothelialitis/vasculitis. Viral antigen was exclusively found in the respiratory epithelium of the nasal cavity, indicating a particular tropism for cells in this location. Viral antigen was associated with epithelial damage and influx of inflammatory cells, including activated neutrophils releasing neutrophil extracellular traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the nasal respiratory mucosa revealed loss of cilia, shedding, and rupture of epithelial cells. The currently established ferret SARS-CoV-2 infection models are comparatively discussed with SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in mink, and the advantages and disadvantages of both species as research models for zoonotic betacoronaviruses are highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Respiratory Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 613-626, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582698

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes respiratory disease, but it can also affect other organs including the central nervous system. Several animal models have been developed to address different key questions related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Wild-type mice are minimally susceptible to certain SARS-CoV-2 lineages (beta and gamma variants), whereas hACE2-transgenic mice succumb to SARS-CoV-2 and develop a fatal neurological disease. In this article, we aimed to chronologically characterize SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and neuropathology. Necropsies were performed at different time points, and the brain and olfactory mucosa were processed for histopathological analysis. SARS-CoV-2 virological assays including immunohistochemistry were performed along with a panel of antibodies to assess neuroinflammation. At 6 to 7 days post inoculation (dpi), brain lesions were characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis and diffuse astrogliosis and microgliosis. Vasculitis and thrombosis were also present and associated with occasional microhemorrhages and spongiosis. Moreover, there was vacuolar degeneration of virus-infected neurons. At 2 dpi, SARS-CoV-2 immunolabeling was only found in the olfactory mucosa, but at 4 dpi intraneuronal virus immunolabeling had already reached most of the brain areas. Maximal distribution of the virus was observed throughout the brain at 6 to 7 dpi except for the cerebellum, which was mostly spared. Our results suggest an early entry of the virus through the olfactory mucosa and a rapid interneuronal spread of the virus leading to acute encephalitis and neuronal damage in this mouse model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Rodent Diseases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/veterinary , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/veterinary , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rodent Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3180-3186, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532922

ABSTRACT

The first human case of zoonotic A(H7N4) avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was reported in early 2018 in China. Two months after this case, novel A(H7N4) viruses phylogenetically related to the Jiangsu isolate emerged in ducks from live bird markets in Cambodia. During active surveillance in Cambodia, a novel A(H7N6) reassortant of the zoonotic low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) A(H7N4) was detected in domestic ducks at a slaughterhouse. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel A(H7N6) AIV is a reassortant, in which four gene segments originated from Cambodia A(H7N4) viruses and four gene segments originated from LPAIVs in Eurasia. Animal infection experiments revealed that chickens transmitted the A(H7N6) virus via low-level direct contacts, but ducks did not. Although avian-origin A(H7Nx) LPAIVs do not contain the critical mammalian-adaptive substitution (E627K) in PB2, the lethality and morbidity of the A(H7N6) virus in BALB/c mice were similar to those of A(H7N9) viruses, suggesting potential for interspecies transmission. Our study reports the emergence of a new reassortant of zoonotic A(H7N4) AIVs with novel viral characteristics and emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance of avian-origin A(H7Nx) viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chickens , China , Ducks , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phylogeny , Reassortant Viruses/genetics
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260038, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528722

ABSTRACT

At present, global immunity to SARS-CoV-2 resides within a heterogeneous combination of susceptible, naturally infected and vaccinated individuals. The extent to which viral shedding and transmission occurs on re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is an important determinant of the rate at which COVID-19 achieves endemic stability. We used Sialodacryoadenitis Virus (SDAV) in rats to model the extent to which immune protection afforded by prior natural infection via high risk (inoculation; direct contact) or low risk (fomite) exposure, or by vaccination, influenced viral shedding and transmission on re-exposure. On initial infection, we confirmed that amount, duration and consistency of viral shedding, and seroconversion rates were correlated with exposure risk. Animals were reinfected after 3.7-5.5 months using the same exposure paradigm. 59% of seropositive animals shed virus, although at lower amounts. Previously exposed seropositive reinfected animals were able to transmit virus to 25% of naive recipient rats after 24-hour exposure by direct contact. Rats vaccinated intranasally with a related virus (Parker's Rat Coronavirus) were able to transmit SDAV to only 4.7% of naive animals after a 7-day direct contact exposure, despite comparable viral shedding. Cycle threshold values associated with transmission in both groups ranged from 29-36 cycles. Observed shedding was not a prerequisite for transmission. Results indicate that low-level shedding in both naturally infected and vaccinated seropositive animals can propagate infection in susceptible individuals. Extrapolated to COVID-19, our results suggest that continued propagation of SARS-CoV-2 by seropositive previously infected or vaccinated individuals is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Rat/physiology , Models, Biological , Models, Statistical , Rodent Diseases/transmission , Virus Shedding , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Coronaviridae Infections/transmission , Female , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroconversion
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 1995-2004, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331772

ABSTRACT

This study reports outbreak of a new disease caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) in raccoon dogs. The disease occurred in a breeding farm of raccoon dogs in Guan County of Shandong Province in China in August of 2019. 47% (425/896) of the raccoon dogs showed some abnormal symptoms; 17.6% (75/425) of which had severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), dyspnoea and severe pathological lesions in lungs, livers, etc; and 4.2% (18/425) of which died within 4 weeks. The pathogen of the disease was identified as S. pseudintermedius by mass spectrometer detection, animal pathogenicity tests, microscopic examination and biochemical reaction tests. Its nucleotide homology of 16S rRNA gene was 100% with that of other published strains, and its genotype was between the American and Brazilian strains from other animals. The isolated S. pseudintermedius strain from the diseased raccoon dogs could cause ulceration and suppuration in the skins and severe pathological lesions not only in raccoon dogs, but also in mice; and it is confirmed as a methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strain by the amplification of mecA gene; and 12 sensitive drugs were screened by drug sensitivity tests. Full attention should be paid to the great economic loss and the potential zoonotic risk caused by the S. pseudintermedius in raccoon dogs, and this study can provide a reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this new disease.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Raccoon Dogs , Staphylococcal Infections , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Mice , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Rodent Diseases , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/veterinary , Staphylococcus
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(5): e1009585, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234597

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) emerged in late 2019 in China and rapidly became pandemic. As with other coronaviruses, a preponderance of evidence suggests the virus originated in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.) and may have infected an intermediate host prior to spillover into humans. A significant concern is that SARS-CoV-2 could become established in secondary reservoir hosts outside of Asia. To assess this potential, we challenged deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) with SARS-CoV-2 and found robust virus replication in the upper respiratory tract, lungs and intestines, with detectable viral RNA for up to 21 days in oral swabs and 6 days in lungs. Virus entry into the brain also occurred, likely via gustatory-olfactory-trigeminal pathway with eventual compromise to the blood-brain barrier. Despite this, no conspicuous signs of disease were observed, and no deer mice succumbed to infection. Expression of several innate immune response genes were elevated in the lungs, including IFNα, IFNß, Cxcl10, Oas2, Tbk1 and Pycard. Elevated CD4 and CD8ß expression in the lungs was concomitant with Tbx21, IFNγ and IL-21 expression, suggesting a type I inflammatory immune response. Contact transmission occurred from infected to naive deer mice through two passages, showing sustained natural transmission and localization into the olfactory bulb, recapitulating human neuropathology. In the second deer mouse passage, an insertion of 4 amino acids occurred to fixation in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein that is predicted to form a solvent-accessible loop. Subsequent examination of the source virus from BEI Resources determined the mutation was present at very low levels, demonstrating potent purifying selection for the insert during in vivo passage. Collectively, this work has determined that deer mice are a suitable animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 respiratory disease and neuropathogenesis, and that they have the potential to serve as secondary reservoir hosts in North America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Peromyscus/virology , Rodent Diseases/transmission , Animals , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Reservoirs , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Male , Rodent Diseases/pathology , Rodent Diseases/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1193-1195, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146550

ABSTRACT

After experimental inoculation, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was confirmed in bank voles by seroconversion within 8 days and detection of viral RNA in nasal tissue for up to 21 days. However, transmission to contact animals was not detected. Thus, bank voles are unlikely to establish effective transmission cycles in nature.


Subject(s)
Arvicolinae , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Rodent Diseases , Seroconversion , Virus Shedding , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Rodent Diseases/immunology , Rodent Diseases/transmission , Rodent Diseases/virology
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 1779-1785, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944802

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic with millions of infected humans and hundreds of thousands of fatalities. As the novel disease - referred to as COVID-19 - unfolded, occasional anthropozoonotic infections of animals by owners or caretakers were reported in dogs, felid species and farmed mink. Further species were shown to be susceptible under experimental conditions. The extent of natural infections of animals, however, is still largely unknown. Serological methods will be useful tools for tracing SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals once test systems are evaluated for use in different species. Here, we developed an indirect multi-species ELISA based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. The newly established ELISA was evaluated using 59 sera of infected or vaccinated animals, including ferrets, raccoon dogs, hamsters, rabbits, chickens, cattle and a cat, and a total of 220 antibody-negative sera of the same animal species. Overall, a diagnostic specificity of 100.0% and sensitivity of 98.31% were achieved, and the functionality with every species included in this study could be demonstrated. Hence, a versatile and reliable ELISA protocol was established that enables high-throughput antibody detection in a broad range of animal species, which may be used for outbreak investigations, to assess the seroprevalence in susceptible species or to screen for reservoir or intermediate hosts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Cattle Diseases , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Chickens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Ferrets , Humans , Mice , Rabbits , Rodent Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Reservoirs , Host Specificity , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Prevalence , Primate Diseases/epidemiology , Primate Diseases/virology , Primates/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodent Diseases/virology , Rodentia/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , Serologic Tests , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Zoonoses
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