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4.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 154, 2020 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331943

ABSTRACT

Electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping is increasing rapidly in the United States, as e-cigs are considered less harmful than combustible cigarettes. However, limited research has been conducted to understand the possible mechanisms that mediate toxicity and pulmonary health effects of e-cigs. We hypothesized that sub-chronic e-cig exposure induces inflammatory response and dysregulated repair/extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7). Adult wild-type (WT), nAChRα7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChRα7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to determine e-cig induced inflammatory response and ECM remodeling, respectively. Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased SARS-Cov-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor, whereas nAChRα7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor. Interestingly, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP2, MMP8 and MMP9, were altered both at the protein and mRNA transcript levels in female and male KO mice, but WT mice exposed to PG alone showed a sex-dependent phenotype. Moreover, MMP12 was increased significantly in male mice exposed to PG with or without nicotine in a nAChRα7-dependent manner. Additionally, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine altered the abundance of ECM proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin, significantly in a sex-dependent manner, but without the direct role of nAChRα7 gene. Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChRα7 in a sex-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Vaping/adverse effects , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Blood Gas Analysis , Blotting, Western , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Role , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Signal Transduction/genetics
5.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(4): 5, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211968
6.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(2)2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Newly intensified use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in emergency departments presents teamwork challenges affecting the quality and safety of care at the frontlines. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a qualitative study to categorize and describe barriers to teamwork posed by PPE and distancing in the emergency setting. METHODS: We conducted 55 semi-structured interviews between June 2020 and August 2020 with personnel from two emergency departments serving in a variety of roles. We then performed a thematic analysis to identify and construct patterns of teamwork challenges into themes. RESULTS: We discovered two types of challenges to teamwork: material barriers related to wearing masks, gowns and powered air-purifying respirators, and spatial barriers implemented to conserve PPE and limit coronavirus exposure. Both material and spatial barriers resulted in disrupted communication, roles and interpersonal relationships, but they did so in unique ways. Material barriers muffled information flow, impeded team member recognition and role/task division, and reduced belonging and cohesion while increasing interpersonal strain. Spatial barriers resulted in mediated communication and added physical and emotional distance between teammates and patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings identify specific aspects of how intensified PPE use disrupts teamwork and can inform efforts to ensure care quality and safety in emergency settings as PPE use continues during and, potentially beyond, the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Health Personnel/psychology , Patient Care Team/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , Quality of Health Care , Communication Barriers , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Qualitative Research , Role , San Francisco/epidemiology
7.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 75(1_suppl): 37-40, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140443

ABSTRACT

The responses of chaplains providing care in health services during the Covid-19 pandemic showed that they both learned new skills and taught these to others while working in environments made unfamiliar by personal protective equipment and social distancing. This paper discusses the responses of the participants as they relate to education and training as well as suggesting new content and styles of education to meet the needs of chaplains in future similar events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clergy/education , Pandemics , Pastoral Care/methods , Humans , Patient Care Team , Role , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 75(1_suppl): 30-36, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140441

ABSTRACT

Drawing from both the qualitative free-text responses and quantitative responses to an international survey of 1657 chaplains serving during the SARS-Cov-19 pandemic, we explore chaplains' emotional responses to the pandemic and how emotion connects to self-care. This paper reports on the modes of self-care practiced by chaplains, including modes reported as unavailable due to pandemic restrictions. Lastly, we explore how effective spiritual care leadership may mediate chaplain emotions and ultimately chaplain self-care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Clergy/psychology , Emotions , Pastoral Care , Self Care , Humans , Leadership , Role , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(3): E265-270, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116155

ABSTRACT

Increasing focus on health equity is placing a spotlight on health professionals' roles. Recent public health crises-the opioid epidemic, maternal mortality, and the COVID-19 pandemic-have renewed focus on racial and ethnic inequity and underscored that trust is foundational to public health and health professionalism. Organizational, system, and policy reform demand that professionalism be redefined in terms of its capacity to motivate equity in health professions education and clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Health Personnel/standards , Professionalism/ethics , Public Health/ethics , Humans , Role , Social Responsibility
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(3): 338-343, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087390

ABSTRACT

Alternate care sites (ACS) are locations that can be converted to provide either in-patient and/or out-patient health care services when existing facilities are compromised by a hazard impact or the volume of patients exceeds available capacity and/or capabilities. In March through May of 2020, Michigan Medicine (MM), the affiliated health system of the University of Michigan, planned a 500 bed ACS at an off-site location. Termed the Michigan Medicine Field Hospital (MMFH), this ACS was intended to be a step-down care facility for low-acuity COVID-19 positive MM patients who could be transitioned from the hospital setting and safely cared for prior to discharge home, while also allowing increased bed capacity in the remaining MM hospitals for additional critical patient care. The planning was organized into six units: personnel and labor, security, clinical operations, logistics and supply, planning and training, and communications. The purpose of this report is to describe the development and planning of an ACS within the MM academic medical center (AMC) to discuss anticipated barriers to success and to suggest guidance for health systems in future planning.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Planning/organization & administration , Mobile Health Units/organization & administration , Role , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Michigan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Ig ; 33(5): 410-425, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076850

ABSTRACT

Methods: We hereby provide a systematic description of the response actions in which the public health residents' workforce was pivotal, in a large tertiary hospital. Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic has posed incredible challenges to healthcare workers worldwide. The residents have been affected by an almost complete upheaval of the previous setting of activities, with a near total focus on service during the peak of the emergency. In our Institution, residents in public health were extensively involved in leading activities in the management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. Results: The key role played by residents in the response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic is highlighted by the diversity of contributions provided, from cooperation in the rearrangement of hospital paths for continuity of care, to establishing and running new services to support healthcare professionals. Overall, they constituted a workforce that turned essential in governing efficiently such a complex scenario. Conclusions: Despite the difficulties posed by the contingency and the sacrifice of many training activities, Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic turned out to be a unique opportunity of learning and measuring one's capabilities and limits in a context of absolute novelty and uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency , Pandemics , Public Health Administration , Public Health/education , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Case Management/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/supply & distribution , Health Personnel , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Italy , Mass Screening , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/organization & administration , Population Surveillance , Preoperative Care , Quarantine , Role , Self-Assessment , Software Design , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Workforce
12.
Acta Oncol ; 60(1): 4-12, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is an international public health crisis. The risk of getting an infection with COVID-19 might impact the emotional well-being in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate quality of life (QoL) for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, including questions about demographics, concerns of COVID-19 impact on cancer treatment and outpatient clinic visits, and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire was sent to patients with cancer at the Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The survey was open from 15th May to 29th May 2020, and 4.571 responded. Results were compared to the Danish 'Barometer Study' conducted by the Danish Cancer Society to elucidate experiences with the Danish healthcare system prior to COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 9% of patients with cancer had refrained from consulting a doctor or the hospital due to fear of COVID-19 infection, and 80% were concerned about contracting COVID-19 to some extent. Seventeen patients were tested positive for COVID-19. The mean global QoL and emotional functioning (EF) scores were 71.3 and 82.8, respectively. In comparison to the 'Barometer Study', no clinical significant differences in QoL and EF scores were observed. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that being 'Concerned about contracting corona-virus' was correlated with lower QoL and EF scores. Factors associated with being concerned of contracting COVID-19 were comorbid conditions, incurable cancer, receiving medical cancer treatment and female gender. CONCLUSION: Danish patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic did not have lower scores of QoL and emotional functioning compared to the Danish 'Barometer Study'. However, the study suggests that concerns of contracting COVID-19 was correlated with lower scores of QoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Psychosocial Functioning , Quality of Life , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark , Employment , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/psychology , Residence Characteristics , Role , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Interaction , Young Adult
13.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 22(12): 85, 2020 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper was to review recent literature and provide recommendations regarding the use of telemental health, with a focus on tele-consultation and tele-supervision in post-disaster and low-resource settings, including the impact of COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest research on mental health needs in low-resource settings has identified a high need for mental health services for difficult-to-reach and underserved populations. Research on tele-consultation and tele-supervision was reviewed and found that tele-consultation and tele-supervision to be an effective modality for insuring quality mental health care delivery in low-resource settings. Additionally, two case studies were included which illustrate the use of both tele-consultation and tele-supervision in low-resource low- and middle-income settings. The paper concludes that tele-consultation and tele-supervision hold the promise to narrow the gap in quality mental health services in low-resource settings so often impacted by disaster and conflict. The authors recommend that telemental health training be developed that specifically enhances consultants' and supervisors' skills in tele-consultation and tele-supervision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Role , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Popul Health Manag ; 23(5): 361-367, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936312

ABSTRACT

Technology has played an important role in responding to the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and subsequent COVID-19 pandemic. The virus's blend of lethality and transmissibility have challenged officials and exposed critical limitations of the traditional public health apparatus. However, throughout this pandemic, technology has answered the call for a new form of public health that illustrates opportunities for enhanced agility, scale, and responsiveness. The authors share the Microsoft perspective and illustrate how technology has helped transform the public health landscape with new and refined capabilities - the efficacy and impact of which will be determined by history. Technologies like chatbot and virtualized patient care offer a mechanism to triage and distribute care at scale. Artificial intelligence and high-performance computing have accelerated research into understanding the virus and developing targeted therapeutics to treat infection and prevent transmission. New mobile contact tracing protocols that preserve patient privacy and civil liberties were developed in response to public concerns, creating new opportunities for privacy-sensitive technologies that aid efforts to prevent and control outbreaks. While much progress is still needed, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted technology's importance to public health security and pandemic preparedness. Future multi-stakeholder collaborations, including those with technology organizations, are needed to facilitate progress in overcoming the current pandemic, setting the stage for improved pandemic preparedness in the future. As lessons are assessed from the current pandemic, public officials should consider technology's role and continue to seek opportunities to supplement and improve on traditional approaches.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/standards , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/methods , Biomedical Technology/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Health Resources/economics , Humans , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Health Management , Risk Assessment , Role , Software/statistics & numerical data , United States , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/statistics & numerical data
16.
Saudi Med J ; 41(11): 1263-1269, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)  pandemic in improving personal hygiene in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We administered a questionnaire distributed online between 19 and 28 May 2020 to determine alterations in personal hygiene practices during this pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic phase. Results: We included 211 respondents from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in this study.  Improvement at different levels was detected in all examined personal hygiene items compared to the pre-pandemic stage. The percentages of respondents who always washed their hands after coming back home (34.1%), used soap to wash their hands (58.8%), used a hand sanitizer outside (5.2%), wore a face masks while outside (1.4%) and washed their hands before preparing and/or eating food (74.9%) was increased before the pandemic to 89.6%, 90%, 63.5%, 59.2% and 89.1% during the pandemic, respectively. The percentage of respondents who never shake hands with people they know increased from 0% before the pandemic to 62.6% during the pandemic. The mean duration of washing hands with soap significantly increased from 13.31 seconds before the pandemic to 28.01 seconds during the pandemic (p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a noticeable improvement in the personal hygiene habits in Saudi Arabia mainly those related to COVID-19 prevention.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hygiene/standards , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Role , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Ann Pharm Fr ; 78(6): 464-468, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841723

ABSTRACT

On January 4 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported the emergence of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China due to a new coronavirus, the SARS-CoV-2. A few weeks later, hospitals had to put in place a series of drastic measures to deal with the massive influx of suspected COVID-19 (COronaroVIrus Disease) patients while securing regular patient care, in particular in the intensive care units (ICU). Since March 12th, 77 of the 685 COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital required hospitalization in the ICU. What are the roles and the added-value of the critical care pharmacist during this period? His missions have evolved although they have remained focused on providing health services for the patients. Indeed, integrated into a steering committee created to organize the crisis in the intensive care units, the role of the clinical pharmacist was focused on the organization and coordination between ICU and the pharmacy, the implementation of actions to secure practices, to train new professionals and the adaptation of therapeutic strategies. He participated to literature monitoring and increased his involvement in the clinical research team. He provided a link between the ICU and the pharmacy thanks to his knowledges of practices and needs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Committee Membership , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/supply & distribution , France , Humans , Information Services , Information Storage and Retrieval , Interdisciplinary Communication , Job Description , Materials Management, Hospital , Patient Safety , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Role , SARS-CoV-2
20.
CJEM ; 22(5): 587-590, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834795

ABSTRACT

A 37-year-old female presents with cough, fever, dyspnea, and myalgias for five days after recent contact with a family member with confirmed 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Her vital signs include T 38.3° C, HR 108, BP 118/70 mm Hg, RR 26 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation 67% on room air. She is not in respiratory distress currently and is protecting her airway. Her chest X-ray reveals bilateral airspace opacities. You plan to immediately intervene and address her hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Airway Management/methods , COVID-19 , Canada , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Role , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Vital Signs
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