Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 2 de 2
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715767


INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spontaneous clinical course of patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiac human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA presence, and the effectiveness of steroid-based intervention in HHV6-positive patients. RESULTS: 756 heart failure (HF) patients underwent an EMB procedure to determine the underlying cause of unexplained HF. Low levels of HHV6 DNA, detectable by nested PCR only, were found in 10.4% of the cases (n = 79) of which 62% (n = 49) showed myocardial inflammation. The spontaneous course of patients with EMB-proven HHV6 DNA-associated lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 26) showed significant improvements in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical symptoms, respectively, in 15/26 (60%) patients, 3-12 months after disease onset. EMB mRNA expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protein analysis of cardiac remodeling markers, analyzed by real-time PCR and MALDI mass spectrometry, respectively, did not differ between HHV6-positive and -negative patients. In another cohort of patients with ongoing symptoms related to lymphocytic myocarditis associated with cardiac levels of HHV6-DNA copy numbers <500 copies/µg cardiac DNA, quantified by real-time PCR, the efficacy and safety of steroid-based immunosuppression for six months was investigated. Steroid-based immunosuppression improved the LVEF (≥5%) in 8/10 patients and reduced cardiac inflammation in 7/10 patients, without an increase in cardiac HHV6 DNA levels in follow-up EMBs. CONCLUSION: Low HHV6 DNA levels are frequently detected in the myocardium, independent of inflammation. In patients with lymphocytic myocarditis with low levels of HHV6 DNA, the spontaneous clinical improvement is nearby 60%. In selected symptomatic patients with cardiac HHV6 DNA copy numbers less than 500 copies/µg cardiac DNA and without signs of an active systemic HHV6 infection, steroid-based therapy was found to be effective and safe. This finding needs to be further confirmed in large, randomized trials.

Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Dosage , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology , Stroke Volume
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(3): 169-193, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851285


Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the myocardium and a high risk of deteriorating cardiac function, has a heterogeneous aetiology. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is predominantly mediated by viral infection, but can also be induced by bacterial, protozoal or fungal infections as well as a wide variety of toxic substances and drugs and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Despite extensive research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or arrhythmia is associated with a poor prognosis. At present, the reason why some patients recover without residual myocardial injury whereas others develop dilated cardiomyopathy is unclear. The relative roles of the pathogen, host genomics and environmental factors in disease progression and healing are still under discussion, including which viruses are active inducers and which are only bystanders. As a consequence, treatment strategies are not well established. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the available evidence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with a special focus on virus-induced and virus-associated myocarditis. Furthermore, we identify knowledge gaps, appraise the available experimental models and propose future directions for the field. The current knowledge and open questions regarding the cardiovascular effects associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also discussed. This Review is the result of scientific cooperation of members of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, the Heart Failure Society of America and the Japanese Heart Failure Society.

Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmunity/immunology , Biopsy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coxsackievirus Infections/immunology , Coxsackievirus Infections/physiopathology , Coxsackievirus Infections/therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Echovirus Infections/immunology , Echovirus Infections/physiopathology , Echovirus Infections/therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/physiopathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/therapy , Erythema Infectiosum/immunology , Erythema Infectiosum/physiopathology , Erythema Infectiosum/therapy , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Leukocytes/immunology , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology