Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
2.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4335-4342, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Single-dose rotavirus vaccines, which are used by a majority of countries, are some of the largest-sized vaccines in immunization programs, and have been shown to constrain supply chains and cause bottlenecks. Efforts have been made to reduce the size of the single-dose vaccines; however, with two-dose, five-dose and ten-dose options available, the question then is whether using multi-dose instead of single-dose rotavirus vaccines will improve vaccine availability. METHODS: We used HERMES-generated simulation models of the vaccine supply chains of the Republic of Benin, Mozambique, and Bihar, a state in India, to evaluate the operational and economic impact of implementing each of the nine different rotavirus vaccine presentations. RESULTS: Among single-dose rotavirus vaccines, using Rotarix RV1 MMP (multi-monodose presentation) led to the highest rotavirus vaccine availability (49-80%) and total vaccine availability (56-79%), and decreased total costs per dose administered ($0.02-$0.10) compared to using any other single-dose rotavirus vaccine. Using two-dose ROTASIIL decreased rotavirus vaccine availability by 3-6% across each supply chain compared to Rotarix RV1 MMP, the smallest single-dose vaccine. Using a five-dose rotavirus vaccine improved rotavirus vaccine availability (52-92%) and total vaccine availability (60-85%) compared to single-dose and two-dose vaccines. Further, using the ten-dose vaccine led to the highest rotavirus vaccine availability compared to all other rotavirus vaccines in both Benin and Bihar. CONCLUSION: Our results show that countries that implement five-dose or ten-dose rotavirus vaccines consistently reduce cold chain constraints and achieve higher rotavirus and total vaccine availability compared to using either single-dose or two-dose rotavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Benin , Humans , Immunization Programs , India , Infant , Mozambique , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 550-556, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in 2006 significantly reduced childhood incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. The rotavirus vaccine was included in Poland's national immunization program in 2021. Our study aimed to summarize the epidemiology of AGE in northeastern Poland prior to 2021 and to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary, out-of-pocket rotavirus childhood vaccination on the incidence of rotavirus AGE. METHODS: A review of patients aged 0-17 years with gastroenteritis hospitalized between 2006 and 2020 in northeastern Poland in the context of rotavirus vaccine coverage in the region. RESULTS: Rotavirus was the most common agent of gastroenteritis in hospitalized patients. The seasonality of rotavirus gastroenteritis peaked between February and May in each year of study, except for 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic skewed any viable comparison of seasonality. Rotavirus vaccine coverage in northeastern Poland did not exceed 25% during the study period and had no impact on hospitalization numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus was the primary causative agent of AGE in children hospitalized in northeastern Poland during the study period. Voluntary vaccinations did not affect the number of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE. Our data suggest that universal immunization is key to achieving a significant reduction of rotavirus-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Child , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575074, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256374

ABSTRACT

Combined cellular and humoral host immune response determine the clinical course of a viral infection and effectiveness of vaccination, but currently the cellular immune response cannot be measured on simple blood samples. As functional activity of immune cells is determined by coordinated activity of signaling pathways, we developed mRNA-based JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity assays to quantitatively measure the cellular immune response on Affymetrix expression microarray data of various types of blood samples from virally infected patients (influenza, RSV, dengue, yellow fever, rotavirus) or vaccinated individuals, and to determine vaccine immunogenicity. JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was increased in blood samples of patients with viral, but not bacterial, infection and was higher in influenza compared to RSV-infected patients, reflecting known differences in immunogenicity. High JAK-STAT3 pathway activity was associated with more severe RSV infection. In contrast to inactivated influenza virus vaccine, live yellow fever vaccine did induce JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity in blood samples, indicating superior immunogenicity. Normal (healthy) JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was established, enabling assay interpretation without the need for a reference sample. The JAK-STAT pathway assays enable measurement of cellular immune response for prognosis, therapy stratification, vaccine development, and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Diagnosis, Differential , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Rotavirus Infections/blood , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus Vaccines , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Yellow fever virus/pathogenicity
5.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740509

ABSTRACT

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/therapy , Diarrhea , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolism , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolism , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Dairying , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control
6.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7146-7155, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine immunization globally. Impact will likely be higher in low and middle-income countries with limited healthcare resources and fragile health systems. We quantified the impact, spatial heterogeneity, and determinants for childhood immunizations of 48 million population affected in the Sindh province of Pakistan. METHODS: We extracted individual immunization records from real-time provincial Electronic Immunization Registry from September 23, 2019, to July 11, 2020. Comparing baseline (6 months preceding the lockdown) and the COVID-19 lockdown period, we analyzed the impact on daily immunization coverage rate for each antigen by geographical area. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore the predictors associated with immunizations during the lockdown. RESULTS: There was a 52.5% decline in the daily average total number of vaccinations administered during lockdown compared to baseline. The highest decline was seen for Bacille Cal-mette Guérin (BCG) (40.6% (958/2360) immunization at fixed sites. Around 8438 children/day were missing immunization during the lockdown. Enrollments declined furthest in rural districts, urban sub-districts with large slums, and polio-endemic super high-risk sub-districts. Pentavalent-3 (penta-3) immunization rates were higher in infants born in hospitals (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15) and those with mothers having higher education (RR: 1.19-1.50; 95% CI: 1.13-1.65). Likelihood of penta-3 immunization was reduced by 5% for each week of delayed enrollment into the immunization program. CONCLUSION: One out of every two children in Sindh province has missed their routine vaccinations during the provincial COVID-19 lockdown. The pool of un-immunized children is expanding during lockdown, leaving them susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. There is a need for tailored interventions to promote immunization visits and safe service delivery. Higher maternal education, facility-based births, and early enrollment into the immunization program continue to show a positive association with immunization uptake, even during a challenging lockdown.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Measles/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Electronic Data Processing , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/immunology , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Registries , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Urban Population , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...