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1.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(7): 929-937, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957092

ABSTRACT

After improvement of hygiene protocols on boots in a bovine operation (farm A) in Ibaraki, Japan in September 2017, mortality of calves and the detection of 4 viral pathogen indicators, including bovine rotavirus A (RVA), became significantly low for one year. Subsequently, in the present study, these indicators and mortality were monitored and confirmed all were still low, except for the detection rate of bovine RVA in calves less than 3 weeks old. The present study aimed to investigate G and P genotypic profiles of RVAs in farm A from 2018 to 2020. Molecular analysis using semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR of positive RVAs (n=122) and sequencing of selected samples revealed the presence of G6, G8, G10, P[1], P[5] and P[11] genotypes and the prevalence of G and/or P combination and mixed infections. The most common combination of G and P types was G10P[11] (41.8%), followed by mixed infection with G6+G10P[5] (11.5%). Phylogenetic analysis of RVAs showed clustering with bovine and other animal-derived RVA strains, suggesting the possibility of multiple reassortant events with strains of bovine and others animal origins. Noteworthy as well is that vaccinated cattle might fail to provide their offspring with maternal immunity against RVA infections, due to insufficient colostrum feeding. Our findings further highlight the importance of RVA surveillance in bovine populations, which may be useful to improving effective routine vaccination and hygiene practices on bovine farms.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Biosecurity , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Farms , Feces , Genetic Profile , Genotype , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 270: 109447, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805301

ABSTRACT

Enteric disease is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in young mammals including pigs. Viral species involved in porcine enteric disease complex (PEDC) include rotaviruses, coronaviruses, picornaviruses, astroviruses and pestiviruses among others. The virome of three groups of swine samples submitted to the Kansas State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for routine testing were assessed, namely, a Rotavirus A positive (RVA) group, a Rotavirus co-infection (RV) group and a Rotavirus Negative (RV Neg) group. All groups were designated by qRT-PCR test results for Porcine Rotavirus A, B, C and H such that samples positive for RVA only went in the RVA group, samples positive for > 1 rotavirus went in the RV group and samples negative for all were grouped in the RVNeg group. All of the animals had clinical enteric disease resulting in scours and swollen joints/lameness, enlarged heart and/or a cough. All samples were metagenomic sequenced and analyzed for viral species composition that identified 14 viral species and eight bacterial viruses/phages. Sapovirus and Escherichia coli phages were found at a high prevalence in RVA and RV samples but were found at low or no prevalence in the RVNeg samples. Picobirnavirus was identified at a high proportion and prevalence in RVNeg and RV samples but at a low prevalence in the RVA group. Non-rotaviral diversity was highest in RVA samples followed by RV then RV Neg samples. A sequence analysis of the possible host of Picobirnaviruses revealed fungi as the most likely host. Various sequences were extracted from the sample reads and a phylogenetic update was provided showing a high prevalence of G9 and P[23] RVA genotypes. These data are important for pathogen surveillance and control measures.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Feces , Genotype , Humans , Mammals , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Virome
3.
J Vet Sci ; 22(5): e69, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bovine group A rotavirus (BoRVA) is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in newborn dairy calves. Only one study has investigated the G and P genotypes among dairy calves in a few regions of China, which were G6 and P[5]. Therefore, data on the prevalence and molecular characteristics of BoRVA in dairy calves in China remains limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of BoRVA in dairy calves in China. METHODS: 269 dairy calves diarrheic samples from 23 farms in six provinces in China were collected to detect BoRVA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: 71% of samples were determined to be BoRVA-positive. Two G genotypes (G6, G10) and two P genotypes (P[1], P[5]) were identified, and G6P[1] BoRVA was the predominant strain. Moreover, the VP7 and VP4 gene sequences of these dairy calf BoRVA strains revealed abundant genetic diversity. Interestingly, eight out of 17 complete G6 VP7 sequences were clustered into G6 lineage VI and analysis showed the strains were closely related to Chinese yak BoRVA strains. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that BoRVA circulates widely among dairy calves in China, and the dominant genotype in circulation is G6P[1], first report on molecular characteristics of complete P[5] VP4 genes in chinese dairy calves. These results will help us to further understand the prevalence and genetic evolution of BoRVA among dairy calves in China and, thus, prevent the disease more effectively.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , China/epidemiology , Dairying , Female , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/microbiology
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031655

ABSTRACT

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Cryptosporidiosis/physiopathology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/physiopathology , Weight Gain
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973226

ABSTRACT

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Cryptosporidiosis/physiopathology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/physiopathology , Weight Gain
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 185: 105196, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894168

ABSTRACT

A total of 237 faecal specimens from diarrheic calves younger than two months were collected and submitted for diagnosis of enteropathogens over a two-year period (2017-2018) to a veterinary laboratory. Samples originated from 193 dairy and beef farms in 29 provinces distributed throughout Spain, and were tested for the occurrence of three target enteric pathogens by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR): bovine rotavirus A (RVA), Cryptosporidium parvum and bovine coronavirus (BCoV). RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing analysis were used to determine the G (VP7 gene) and P (VP4 gene) genotypes of 26 specimens positive for RVA. A total of 188 specimens (79.3 %) were positive for at least one of the three target enteric pathogens, and 101 samples (42.6 %) harbored mixed infections. The individual prevalence was 57.8 %, 50.6 % and 23.6 % for C. parvum, RVA and BCoV, respectively. Molecular analysis of selected RVA strains revealed the presence of the G6, G10, G3, P[5] and P[11] genotypes, with the combinations G6P[5] and G6P[11] being the most prevalent. Alignments of nucleotide sequences of the VP7 and VP4 markers showed a high frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with up to 294 SNPs found in 869bp of sequence at the G6 genotype (0.338 SNPs/nt), which reveals the extensive genetic diversity of RVA strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene of the G6 strains revealed four distinct lineages, with most strains clustering in the G6-IV lineage. The discrepancies between the RVA genotypes circulating in the sampled cattle farms and the genotypes contained in commercial vaccines currently available in Spain are discussed. We believe that this is the first study on the molecular characterization of rotavirus infecting cattle in Spain.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryptosporidiosis/complications , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 73: 101567, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885228

ABSTRACT

The etiology of neonatal diarrhea is multifactorial and remains one of the greatest health problems in sheep livestock farming. Faecal samples from 559 neonatal lambs aged less than 30 days from 30 sheepfolds located in the north-center region of Algeria were screened with pathogen-specific antigen ELISA for Cryptosporidium parvum, Escherichia coli K99, rotavirus, and coronavirus. Of the 559 lambs, 312 (58.81 %), 155 (27.72 %), 72 (12.88 %) and 20 (3.57 %) were positives for C. parvum, E. coli K99, rotavirus and coronavirus antigens, respectively. The prevalence of C. parvum was the highest (p < 0.0001). C. parvum, E. coli K99, rotavirus and coronavirus were observed in 23 (76.66 %), 17 (56.66 %), 9 (30 %) and 3 (10 %) sheepfolds, respectively. Compared to age, the prevalence of C. parvum was highest during the second and third week of age (p < 0.001). In contrast, other pathogens were found to be more frequent in lambs aged ≤7 days (p < 0.001). The number of lambs with diarrhea was 280 (50.09 %) of which 280 (100 %), 127 (45.35 %), 52 (18.57 %) and 10 (3.57 %) were found to be infected with C. parvum, E. coli K99, rotavirus and coronavirus, respectively (p < 0.0001). In various combinations, mixed infections were detected only with C. parvum. This is the first report of C. parvum, E. coli K99, rotavirus, and coronavirus in ≤30-days old neonatal lambs in Algeria. Special attention should be given to the first colostrum feeding, hygiene of the farm, prevention and control measures for a better prevention of neonatal diarrhea in lambs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/classification , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Algeria/epidemiology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep Diseases/virology
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 17-28, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-828403

ABSTRACT

The early use of antimicrobial therapy has been introduced in many farms to prevent diarrhea and respiratory disease in young calves; however, there is controversy about whether this practice has a beneficial effect on the health of these animals. This study evaluated the influence of the early use of antimicrobials on the health and performance of neonatal Holstein calves. Twenty-six Holstein calves were screened and divided into two groups, according to the administration (ATB+), or not (ATB-) of tulathromycin (2.5mg/kg, subcutaneously) within the first 12 hours of life. Calves were evaluated by general clinical examination, fecal score, respiratory score, and external palpation of the umbilical region, besides fecal output of dry matter. Anemia was determined by using an automatic system and, also, using a commercial kit for iron dosage. Diarrhea was diagnosed by a centrifuge-flotation technique using a sugar solution (Cryptosporidium) and multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR (rotavirus/coronavirus). The performance of the calves was estimated by Daily Weight Gain (DWG). The young dairy calves were evaluated within 12 hours of birth (≤12h) and at 3-5th (D3-5), 7-9th (D7-9), 13-15th (D13-15), 20-23rd (D20-23), and 27-30th (D27-30) days of life. No difference was noted between the ATB+ and ATB- groups concerning heart rate, respiratory frequency, and rectal temperature. Erythrogram showed a higher frequency of anemia in ATB- group (P=0.016) at the D3-5 check-up; lower values of serum iron were also observed simultaneously (P=0.051). Thirteen cases of respiratory disease were detected during this study; however, no significant difference was observed between the groups in this regard. The frequency of diarrhea (fecal score 2-3) was high in both groups, peaking at D13-D15. No differences were noted between the groups regarding the frequency of diarrhea when considering the dry fecal matter. The predominant etiological agent for diarrhea was Cryptosporidium spp.. The DWG was similar between groups, with maximum weight reduction on D13-15. The administration of tulathromycin in prophylactic dose (2.5mg/kg) at birth decreased the frequency of anemia but did not influence weight gain or the prevalence of diarrhea.(AU)


O uso precoce de antimicrobianos tem sido adotado em muitas fazendas para profilaxia das diarreias e doença respiratória em bezerras, no entanto existem controvérsias sobre os beneficios desta prática na saúde desses animais. Esta pesquisa avaliou a influência do uso precoce de antimicrobiano na sanidade e desempenho de bezerras holandesas recém-nascidas. Para tanto foram selecionadas 26 bezerras Holandesas distribuídas de acordo com a aplicação (ATB+) ou não (ATB-) de tulatromicina (2,5mg/Kg) por via subcutânea até 12h de vida. As bezerras foram examinadas por meio de exame clínico geral, escore fecal, escore respiratório e palpação externa da região umbilical, além da matéria seca fecal. A presença de anemias foi determinada pelo eritrograma utilizando sistema automático e além da dosagem de ferro utilizando kit comercial. O diagnóstico etiológico das diarreias foi investigado por meio da técnica de flutuação em solução saturada de sacarose (Cryptosporidium) e multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR (rotavírus/coronavírus). O desempenho das bezerras foi estimado pelo ganho de peso. As bezerras foram avaliadas até doze horas após o nascimento (≤12h); 3-5º (D3-5); 7-9º (D7-9); 13-15º (D13-15); 20-23º (D20-23); e 27-30º dias de vida (D27-30). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos ATB+ e ATB- em relação à frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória e temperatura retal. O eritrograma revelou maior frequência de anemias no grupo ATB- (P=0,016) no D3-5. Neste momento também foram observados menores valores de ferro sérico (P=0,051). Foram detectados treze casos de doença respiratória durante o estudo, no entanto não foi possível detectar diferença entre os grupos. A frequência de diarreias (escore fecal 2 e 3) foi alta em ambos os grupos, observando-se pico no D13-15 (ATB+=92,3%; ATB-=92,3%). Não observamos diferenças entre os grupos em relação a frequência de diarreia considerando-se a matéria seca fecal. O agente etiológico predominante nas diarreias foi o Cryptosporidium. O ganho de peso diário foi igual entre grupos, com intensa redução no GPD no D13-15. A administração de tulatromicina na dose profilática (2,5mg/Kg) ao nascimento diminuiu a frequência de anemias e não influenciou no ganho de peso e prevalência de diarreias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Dysentery/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Anemia/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus, Bovine , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis
9.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740509

ABSTRACT

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/therapy , Diarrhea , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolism , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolism , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Dairying , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control
10.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103814, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124709

ABSTRACT

Bovine rotavirus (BRoV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are major enteric viral pathogens responsible for calve diarrhoea. They are widespread both in dairy and beef cattle throughout the world and causing huge economic losses. The diagnosis of these agents is very difficult due to non-specific nature of lesions and the involvement of some intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. We performed postmortem of 45 calves, which was below three months of age. Out of 45 necropscid calves, three (6.66%) cases were positive for BRoV and four (8.88%) cases were found positive for BCoV, screened by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Further RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin-embedded intestinal tissue sections. Three cases of enteritis caused by BRoV showed the hallmark lesions of the shortening and fusion of villi, denudation and infiltration of mononuclear cells in the lamina propria. The BRoV antigen distribution was prominent within the lining epithelium of the villi, peyer's patches in the ileum and strong immunoreactions in the lymphocytes and some macrophages of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Four cases in which BCoV was detected, grossly lesions characterized by colonic mucosa covered with thick, fibrinous and diphtheritic membrane. Histopathologically, jejunum showed skipping lesion of micro-abscesses in crypts. The BCoV antigen distribution was prominent within the necrotic crypts in the jejunum and cryptic micro-abscesses in the colon and ileum. It is the first report of BRoV and BCoV antigen demonstration in the jejunum, colon, ileum, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of naturally infected calves from India by using IHC.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/physiology , Enteritis/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/physiology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Enteritis/pathology , Enteritis/virology , Feces/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus Infections/pathology , Rotavirus Infections/virology
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 777-791, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124580

ABSTRACT

The present study attempted to verify the prevalence of and risk factors for diarrhea-causing agents in dairy calves from Brazil. Additionally, ages with a higher risk of occurrence for each agent were verified by means of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The collections were performed on 39 farms, belonging to 29 municipalities located in eight states of Brazil. It was possible to conclude that the prevalence of Coronavirus, Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and nematodes was 7.20% (95% CI 4.54-9.78), 6.37% (95% CI 3.85-8.89), 51.52% (95% CI 45.26-55.57), 3.46% (95% CI 2.24-4.67), and 3.46% (95% CI 2.24-4.67), respectively. Ages with higher probabilities of occurrence of these diseases in calves were < 10, > 8, > 6, > 37, and > 36 days, respectively. Diarrhea occurred more significantly (P < 0.0001) in animals less than 21 days old and mainly on those receiving milk through automatic feeders (P < 0.001). Cryptosporidium spp. were a risk factor for the occurrence of Rotavirus, and vice versa (P = 0.0039) and presented a positive correlation with Coronavirus (P = 0.0089). Calves that drink water from rivers, streams, and ponds had a higher chance of being infected by Eimeria spp. (P < 0.0001), as well as developing infection by nematodes (P < 0.0001). The results found in this study highlight the importance of studying the agents of diarrhea together, once they act as coinfection where the losses triggered for the owners will involve some of these agents simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/complications , Diarrhea/veterinary , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/virology , Eimeria/isolation & purification , Farms , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Female , Nematode Infections/complications , Prevalence , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rotavirus/isolation & purification
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