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3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2002087, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550497

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. In 2017, Italy included rotavirus vaccination in its National Immunization Program. The use of social media monitoring, an efficient tool to understand vaccine hesitancy, has increased in recent years; however, only a few examples of such monitoring are available for Italy. Present study analyzed content on online sources, including social media, to identify factors contributing to Italian parents' decisions to vaccinate or not their children against rotavirus. Blogmeter Suite was used to search and analyze conversations related to rotavirus in Italian on online sources during 2020. These data were compared with data from 2019. There were 2250 mentions of "rotavirus" recorded; 1080 were related to the rotavirus vaccine. Terms and hashtags used were similar in both years. Facebook was the main source of influence, Instagram dominated the engagement (the sum of interactions related to a post), and Google Trends showed a 5-year upward trend in searches for rotavirus vaccine. Of 1270 sentiment opinions, 60.7% were negative. More parents were familiar with the disease and the vaccine in 2020 compared with 2019. Pediatricians were the most influential healthcare professionals (59.2% of mentions), followed by vaccination staff (33.4%). The most relevant factors for vaccine hesitancy were fear of adverse events, concerns about the vaccination schedule, and COVID-19. Present study represents the first web listening analysis of online discussions about rotavirus. The results can be used to inform targeted communication to counteract misinformation and raise awareness about rotavirus vaccination among parents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Child , Communication , Humans , Italy , Vaccination/methods
4.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 452021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543154

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This report from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Network describes the circulating rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults during the period 1 January - 31 December 2020. During this period, 229 faecal specimens were referred for rotavirus G- and P- genotype analysis, including 189 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 98/189 were wildtype rotavirus strains and 86/189 were identified as vaccine-like. A further five samples could not be determined as wildtype or vaccine-like due to poor sequence reads. Genotype analysis of the 98 wildtype rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G3P[8] was the dominant genotype identified for the third consecutive year, identified in 27.6% of samples, followed by G2P[4] in 20.4% of samples. Forty-six percent of rotavirus positive samples received were identified as vaccine-like, highlighting the need to add caution in interpreting rotavirus positive results in children aged 0-8 months. This surveillance period was significantly impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 ) pandemic. The reduction in rotavirus notifications reflected reduced healthcare-seeking behaviour and a decrease in community spread, with 'community lockdowns', school and day-care centre closure and improved compliance with hand hygiene. Fewer stool samples were collected throughout Australia during this period. There was a reluctance to store samples at collaborating laboratories and uncertainties regarding the safety and feasibility of the transport of samples to the central laboratory during the closure of state and territory borders. Systems have now been adapted to manage and send biological samples safely and confidently. Ongoing rotavirus surveillance is crucial to identify changes in genotypic patterns and to provide diagnostic laboratories quality assurance by reporting incidences of wildtype, vaccine-like, or false positive rotavirus results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Population Surveillance , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified factors influencing regulatory approval to introduction timelines for individual vaccines. However, introduction and uptake timelines have not been comprehensively assessed across the portfolio of Gavi-supported vaccines. METHODS: We analysed median times between introduction milestones from vaccine licensure to country introduction and uptake across six vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), three delivery platforms and 69 Gavi-supported countries. Data were gathered from public, partner and manufacturer records. VPDs and prequalified vaccines analysed included Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTwP-HepB-Hib, pentavalent), pneumococcal disease (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV), rotavirus diarrhoea (rotavirus vaccine, RVV), cervical cancer (human papillomavirus vaccine, HPV), polio (inactivated polio vaccine, IPV) and meningococcal meningitis (meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine, MenA). RESULTS: Median time from first vaccine licensure to first Gavi-supported country introduction across VPDs at a 'global level' (Gavi-supported countries) was 5.4 years. Once licensed, MenA vaccines reached first introduction fastest (campaign=0.6 years; routine immunisation (RI)=1.7 years). Most introductions were delayed. Country uptake following first introduction was accelerated for more recently Gavi-supported RI vaccines compared with older ones. CONCLUSION: Factors accelerating timelines across delivery platforms included rapid product prequalifications by WHO, strong initial recommendations by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization, achieving target product profiles on first vaccine licensure within a VPD and completing several VPD milestones at a global level prior to licensure. Milestones required for introduction in Gavi-supported countries should start prior or in parallel to licensure to accelerate uptake of vaccines delivered through diverse delivery platforms.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination
7.
Vaccine ; 39(38): 5447-5450, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347850

ABSTRACT

The theme of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Vaccinology was "Sustainable Future Medical Care Created by Vaccines." This theme includes topics such as the proposal to reduce the medical costs incurred by societies with aging populations through prophylactic vaccination. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic alerted us to the important roles that preventive measures, such as vaccines, play in fighting infectious diseases. In order to inform the public of the benefits of vaccines, it is important to provide society with information regarding new vaccine developments, adjuvants, the cost-benefit ratio of vaccine introduction, and vaccine effectiveness and safety. Clinical research is essential for obtaining evidence of vaccine effectiveness and safety. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts active surveillance in defined areas before and after the introduction of vaccines and documents the reduction in infection rates as a measure of vaccine effectiveness. However, vaccine efficacy and side effects may vary by country and ethnicity. Therefore, it is necessary for individual countries to develop their own evidence-based surveillance programs. We have studied vaccine efficacy and documented side-effects observed in patients for the varicella and rotavirus vaccines in Japan. This review outlines the importance of providing scientific evidence for vaccine effectiveness and safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rotavirus Vaccines , Humans , Japan , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(7): e210356, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305104
9.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4335-4342, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Single-dose rotavirus vaccines, which are used by a majority of countries, are some of the largest-sized vaccines in immunization programs, and have been shown to constrain supply chains and cause bottlenecks. Efforts have been made to reduce the size of the single-dose vaccines; however, with two-dose, five-dose and ten-dose options available, the question then is whether using multi-dose instead of single-dose rotavirus vaccines will improve vaccine availability. METHODS: We used HERMES-generated simulation models of the vaccine supply chains of the Republic of Benin, Mozambique, and Bihar, a state in India, to evaluate the operational and economic impact of implementing each of the nine different rotavirus vaccine presentations. RESULTS: Among single-dose rotavirus vaccines, using Rotarix RV1 MMP (multi-monodose presentation) led to the highest rotavirus vaccine availability (49-80%) and total vaccine availability (56-79%), and decreased total costs per dose administered ($0.02-$0.10) compared to using any other single-dose rotavirus vaccine. Using two-dose ROTASIIL decreased rotavirus vaccine availability by 3-6% across each supply chain compared to Rotarix RV1 MMP, the smallest single-dose vaccine. Using a five-dose rotavirus vaccine improved rotavirus vaccine availability (52-92%) and total vaccine availability (60-85%) compared to single-dose and two-dose vaccines. Further, using the ten-dose vaccine led to the highest rotavirus vaccine availability compared to all other rotavirus vaccines in both Benin and Bihar. CONCLUSION: Our results show that countries that implement five-dose or ten-dose rotavirus vaccines consistently reduce cold chain constraints and achieve higher rotavirus and total vaccine availability compared to using either single-dose or two-dose rotavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Benin , Humans , Immunization Programs , India , Infant , Mozambique , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575074, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256374

ABSTRACT

Combined cellular and humoral host immune response determine the clinical course of a viral infection and effectiveness of vaccination, but currently the cellular immune response cannot be measured on simple blood samples. As functional activity of immune cells is determined by coordinated activity of signaling pathways, we developed mRNA-based JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity assays to quantitatively measure the cellular immune response on Affymetrix expression microarray data of various types of blood samples from virally infected patients (influenza, RSV, dengue, yellow fever, rotavirus) or vaccinated individuals, and to determine vaccine immunogenicity. JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was increased in blood samples of patients with viral, but not bacterial, infection and was higher in influenza compared to RSV-infected patients, reflecting known differences in immunogenicity. High JAK-STAT3 pathway activity was associated with more severe RSV infection. In contrast to inactivated influenza virus vaccine, live yellow fever vaccine did induce JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity in blood samples, indicating superior immunogenicity. Normal (healthy) JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was established, enabling assay interpretation without the need for a reference sample. The JAK-STAT pathway assays enable measurement of cellular immune response for prognosis, therapy stratification, vaccine development, and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Diagnosis, Differential , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Rotavirus Infections/blood , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus Vaccines , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Yellow fever virus/pathogenicity
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 550-556, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in 2006 significantly reduced childhood incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. The rotavirus vaccine was included in Poland's national immunization program in 2021. Our study aimed to summarize the epidemiology of AGE in northeastern Poland prior to 2021 and to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary, out-of-pocket rotavirus childhood vaccination on the incidence of rotavirus AGE. METHODS: A review of patients aged 0-17 years with gastroenteritis hospitalized between 2006 and 2020 in northeastern Poland in the context of rotavirus vaccine coverage in the region. RESULTS: Rotavirus was the most common agent of gastroenteritis in hospitalized patients. The seasonality of rotavirus gastroenteritis peaked between February and May in each year of study, except for 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic skewed any viable comparison of seasonality. Rotavirus vaccine coverage in northeastern Poland did not exceed 25% during the study period and had no impact on hospitalization numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus was the primary causative agent of AGE in children hospitalized in northeastern Poland during the study period. Voluntary vaccinations did not affect the number of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE. Our data suggest that universal immunization is key to achieving a significant reduction of rotavirus-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Child , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated
13.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7146-7155, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine immunization globally. Impact will likely be higher in low and middle-income countries with limited healthcare resources and fragile health systems. We quantified the impact, spatial heterogeneity, and determinants for childhood immunizations of 48 million population affected in the Sindh province of Pakistan. METHODS: We extracted individual immunization records from real-time provincial Electronic Immunization Registry from September 23, 2019, to July 11, 2020. Comparing baseline (6 months preceding the lockdown) and the COVID-19 lockdown period, we analyzed the impact on daily immunization coverage rate for each antigen by geographical area. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore the predictors associated with immunizations during the lockdown. RESULTS: There was a 52.5% decline in the daily average total number of vaccinations administered during lockdown compared to baseline. The highest decline was seen for Bacille Cal-mette Guérin (BCG) (40.6% (958/2360) immunization at fixed sites. Around 8438 children/day were missing immunization during the lockdown. Enrollments declined furthest in rural districts, urban sub-districts with large slums, and polio-endemic super high-risk sub-districts. Pentavalent-3 (penta-3) immunization rates were higher in infants born in hospitals (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15) and those with mothers having higher education (RR: 1.19-1.50; 95% CI: 1.13-1.65). Likelihood of penta-3 immunization was reduced by 5% for each week of delayed enrollment into the immunization program. CONCLUSION: One out of every two children in Sindh province has missed their routine vaccinations during the provincial COVID-19 lockdown. The pool of un-immunized children is expanding during lockdown, leaving them susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. There is a need for tailored interventions to promote immunization visits and safe service delivery. Higher maternal education, facility-based births, and early enrollment into the immunization program continue to show a positive association with immunization uptake, even during a challenging lockdown.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Measles/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Electronic Data Processing , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/immunology , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Registries , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Urban Population , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(7): 851-863, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-31312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A monovalent, parenteral, subunit rotavirus vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults in the USA and in toddlers and infants in South Africa, but elicited poor responses against heterotypic rotavirus strains. We aimed to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent vaccine formulation (P2-VP8-P[4],[6],[8]). METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1/2 study was done at three South African research sites. Healthy adults (aged 18-45 years), toddlers (aged 2-3 years), and infants (aged 6-8 weeks, ≥37 weeks' gestation, and without previous receipt of rotavirus vaccination), all without HIV infection, were eligible for enrolment. In the dose-escalation phase, adults and toddlers were randomly assigned in blocks (block size of five) to receive 30 µg or 90 µg of vaccine, or placebo, and infants were randomly assigned in blocks (block size of four) to receive 15 µg, 30 µg, or 90 µg of vaccine, or placebo. In the expanded phase, infants were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive 15 µg, 30 µg, or 90 µg of vaccine, or placebo, in block sizes of four. Participants, parents of participants, and clinical, data, and laboratory staff were masked to treatment assignment. Adults received an intramuscular injection of vaccine or placebo in the deltoid muscle on the day of randomisation (day 0), day 28, and day 56; toddlers received a single injection of vaccine or placebo in the anterolateral thigh on day 0. Infants in both phases received an injection of vaccine or placebo in the anterolateral thigh on days 0, 28, and 56, at approximately 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Primary safety endpoints were local and systemic reactions (grade 2 or worse) within 7 days and adverse events and serious adverse events within 28 days after each injection in all participants who received at least one injection. Primary immunogenicity endpoints were analysed in infants in either phase who received all planned injections, had blood samples analysed at the relevant timepoints, and presented no major protocol violations considered to have an effect on the immunogenicity results of the study, and included serum anti-P2-VP8 IgA, IgG, and neutralising antibody geometric mean titres and responses measured 4 weeks after the final injection in vaccine compared with placebo groups. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02646891. FINDINGS: Between Feb 15, 2016, and Dec 22, 2017, 30 adults (12 each in the 30 µg and 90 µg groups and six in the placebo group), 30 toddlers (12 each in the 30 µg and 90 µg groups and six in the placebo group), and 557 infants (139 in the 15 µg group, 140 in the 30 µg group, 139 in the 90 µg group, and 139 in the placebo group) were randomly assigned, received at least one dose, and were assessed for safety. There were no significant differences in local or systemic adverse events, or unsolicited adverse events, between vaccine and placebo groups. There were no serious adverse events within 28 days of injection in adults, whereas one serious adverse event occurred in a toddler (febrile convulsion in the 30 µg group) and 23 serious adverse events (four in placebo, ten in 15 µg, four in 30 µg, and five in 90 µg groups) occurred among 20 infants, most commonly respiratory tract infections. One death occurred in an infant within 28 days of injection due to pneumococcal meningitis. In 528 infants (130 in placebo, 132 in 15 µg, 132 in 30 µg, and 134 in 90 µg groups), adjusted anti-P2-VP8 IgG seroresponses (≥4-fold increase from baseline) to P[4], P[6], and P[8] antigens were significantly higher in the 15 µg, 30 µg, and 90 µg groups (99-100%) than in the placebo group (10-29%; p<0·0001). Although significantly higher than in placebo recipients (9-10%), anti-P2-VP8 IgA seroresponses (≥4-fold increase from baseline) to each individual antigen were modest (20-34%) across the 15 µg, 30 µg, and 90 µg groups. Adjusted neutralising antibody seroresponses in infants (≥2·7-fold increase from baseline) to DS-1 (P[4]), 1076 (P[6]), and Wa (P[8]) were higher in vaccine recipients than in placebo recipients: p<0·0001 for all comparisons. INTERPRETATION: The trivalent P2-VP8 vaccine was well tolerated, with promising anti-P2-VP8 IgG and neutralising antibody responses across the three vaccine P types. Our findings support advancing the vaccine to efficacy testing. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rotavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Rotavirus Vaccines/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , Child, Preschool , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Rotavirus Vaccines/genetics , South Africa , United States , Young Adult
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