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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21725, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504567

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters the intestine by the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in enterocyte apical membranes, leading to diarrhea in some patients. Early treatment of COVID-19-associated diarrhea could relieve symptoms and limit viral spread within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diosmectite, an aluminomagnesium silicate adsorbent clay with antidiarrheal effects, is recommended in some COVID-19 management protocols. In rotavirus models, diosmectite prevents pathogenic effects by binding the virus and its enterotoxin. We tested the trapping and anti-inflammatory properties of diosmectite in a SARS-CoV-2 model. Trapping effects were tested in Caco-2 cells using spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 preparations. Trapping was assessed by immunofluorescence, alone or in the presence of cells. The effect of diosmectite on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and CXCL10 secretion induced by the spike protein RBD and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Diosmectite bound the spike protein RBD and SARS-CoV-2 preparation, and inhibited interaction of the spike protein RBD with ACE2 receptors on the Caco-2 cell surface. Diosmectite exposure also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and CXCL10 secretion. These data provide direct evidence that diosmectite can bind SARS-CoV-2 components and inhibit downstream inflammation, supporting a mechanistic rationale for consideration of diosmectite as a management option for COVID-19-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicates/chemistry , Adsorption , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Binding Sites , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, Liquid , Clay , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gastroenterology , Humans , Magnesium Compounds/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , Rotavirus , Silicates/metabolism
2.
mBio ; 12(4): e0178121, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349195

ABSTRACT

The 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A)-dependent endoribonuclease, RNase L, is a principal mediator of the interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Therefore, the regulation of cellular levels of 2-5A is a key point of control in antiviral innate immunity. Cellular 2-5A levels are determined by IFN-inducible 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) and by enzymes that degrade 2-5A. Importantly, many coronaviruses (CoVs) and rotaviruses encode 2-5A-degrading enzymes, thereby antagonizing RNase L and its antiviral effects. A-kinase-anchoring protein 7 (AKAP7), a mammalian counterpart, could possibly limit tissue damage from excessive or prolonged RNase L activation during viral infections or from self-double-stranded RNAs that activate OAS. We show that these enzymes, members of the two-histidine phosphoesterase (2H-PE) superfamily, constitute a subfamily referred here as 2',5'-PEs. 2',5'-PEs from the mouse CoV mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) (NS2), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (NS4b), group A rotavirus (VP3), and mouse (AKAP7) were investigated for their evolutionary relationships and activities. While there was no activity against 3',5'-oligoribonucleotides, they all cleaved 2',5'-oligoadenylates efficiently but with variable activity against other 2',5'-oligonucleotides. The 2',5'-PEs are shown to be metal ion-independent enzymes that cleave trimer 2-5A (2',5'-p3A3) producing mono- or diadenylates with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate termini. Our results suggest that the elimination of 2-5A might be the sole function of viral 2',5'-PEs, thereby promoting viral escape from innate immunity by preventing or limiting the activation of RNase L. IMPORTANCE Viruses often encode accessory proteins that antagonize the host antiviral immune response. Here, we probed the evolutionary relationships and biochemical activities of two-histidine phosphoesterases (2H-PEs) that allow some coronaviruses and rotaviruses to counteract antiviral innate immunity. In addition, we investigated the mammalian enzyme AKAP7, which has homology and shared activities with the viral enzymes and might reduce self-injury. These viral and host enzymes, which we refer to as 2',5'-PEs, specifically degrade 2',5'-oligoadenylate activators of the antiviral enzyme RNase L. We show that the host and viral enzymes are metal ion independent and exclusively cleave 2',5'- and not 3',5'-phosphodiester bonds, producing cleavage products with cyclic 2',3'-phosphate termini. Our study defines 2',5'-PEs as enzymes that share characteristic conserved features with the 2H-PE superfamily but have specific and distinct biochemical cleavage activities. These findings may eventually lead to pharmacological strategies for developing antiviral drugs against coronaviruses, rotaviruses, and other viruses.


Subject(s)
A Kinase Anchor Proteins/metabolism , Adenine Nucleotides/metabolism , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/enzymology , Murine hepatitis virus/enzymology , Oligoribonucleotides/metabolism , Rotavirus/enzymology , Animals , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Mice
3.
J Proteomics ; 248: 104354, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364279

ABSTRACT

Porcine rotavirus (PoRV), particularly group A, is one of the most important swine pathogens, causing substantial economic losses in the animal husbandry industry. To improve understanding of host responses to PoRV infection, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantitatively identify the differentially expressed proteins in PoRV-infected IPEC-J2 cells and confirmed the differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) expression differences by performing RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. Herein, in PoRV- and mock-infected IPEC-J2 cells, relative quantitative data were identified for 4724 proteins, 223 of which were DAPs (125 up-accumulated and 98 down-accumulated). Bioinformatics analyses further revealed that a majority of the DAPs are involved in numerous crucial biological processes and signaling pathways, such as metabolic process, immune system process, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, immune system, MHC class I peptide loading complex, Hippo signaling pathway, Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, antigen processing and presentation, and tubule bicarbonate reclamation. The cellular localization prediction analysis indicated that these DAPs may be located in the Golgi apparatus, nucleus, peroxisomal, cytoplasm, mitochondria, extracellular, plasma membrane, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Expression levels of three up-accumulated (VAMP4, IKBKE, and TJP3) or two down-accumulated (SOD3 and DHX9) DAPs upon PoRV infection, were further validated by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. Collectively, this work is the first time to investigate the protein profile of PoRV-infected IPEC-J2 cells using quantitative proteomics; these findings provide valuable information to better understand the mechanisms underlying the host responses to PoRV infection in piglets. SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomics analysis of this study uncovered the target associated with PoRV-induced innate immune response or cellular damage, and provided relevant insights into the molecular functions, biological processes, and signaling pathway in these targets. Out of these 223 DAPs, the expression levels of three up-accumulated (VAMP4, IKBKE, and TJP3) and two down-accumulated (SOD3 and DHX9) DAPs upon PoRV infection, have been further validated using RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. These outcomes could uncover how PoRV manipulated the cellular machinery, which could further our understanding of PoRV pathogenesis in piglets.


Subject(s)
Proteome , Rotavirus , Animals , Cell Line , Chromatography, Liquid , Epithelial Cells , Swine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 192: 113503, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309167

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has unfortunately demonstrated how easily infectious diseases can spread and harm human life and society. As of writing, pandemic has now been on-going for more than one year. There is an urgent need for new nucleic acid-based methods that can be used to diagnose pathogens early, quickly, and accurately to effectively impede the spread of infections and gain control of epidemics. We developed a flap probe-based isothermal nucleic acid amplification method that is triggered by recombinant FEN1-Bst DNA polymerase, which-through enzymatic engineering-has both DNA synthesis, strand displacement and cleavage functions. This novel method offers a simpler and more specific probe-primer pair than those of other isothermal amplifications. We tested the method's ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 (both ORF1ab and N genes), rotavirus, and Chlamydia trachomatis. The limits of detection were 10 copies/µL for rotavirus, C. trachomatis, and SARS-CoV-2 N gene, and 100 copies/µL for SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab gene. There were no cross-reactions among 11 other common pathogens with characteristics similar to those of the test target, and the method showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in clinical comparisons with RT-PCR testing. In addition to real-time detection, the endpoint could be displayed under a transilluminator, which is a convenient reporting method for point-of-care test settings. Therefore, this novel nucleic acid senor has great potential for use in clinical diagnostics, epidemic prevention, and epidemic control.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , DNA, Recombinant , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Flap Endonucleases , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4335-4342, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Single-dose rotavirus vaccines, which are used by a majority of countries, are some of the largest-sized vaccines in immunization programs, and have been shown to constrain supply chains and cause bottlenecks. Efforts have been made to reduce the size of the single-dose vaccines; however, with two-dose, five-dose and ten-dose options available, the question then is whether using multi-dose instead of single-dose rotavirus vaccines will improve vaccine availability. METHODS: We used HERMES-generated simulation models of the vaccine supply chains of the Republic of Benin, Mozambique, and Bihar, a state in India, to evaluate the operational and economic impact of implementing each of the nine different rotavirus vaccine presentations. RESULTS: Among single-dose rotavirus vaccines, using Rotarix RV1 MMP (multi-monodose presentation) led to the highest rotavirus vaccine availability (49-80%) and total vaccine availability (56-79%), and decreased total costs per dose administered ($0.02-$0.10) compared to using any other single-dose rotavirus vaccine. Using two-dose ROTASIIL decreased rotavirus vaccine availability by 3-6% across each supply chain compared to Rotarix RV1 MMP, the smallest single-dose vaccine. Using a five-dose rotavirus vaccine improved rotavirus vaccine availability (52-92%) and total vaccine availability (60-85%) compared to single-dose and two-dose vaccines. Further, using the ten-dose vaccine led to the highest rotavirus vaccine availability compared to all other rotavirus vaccines in both Benin and Bihar. CONCLUSION: Our results show that countries that implement five-dose or ten-dose rotavirus vaccines consistently reduce cold chain constraints and achieve higher rotavirus and total vaccine availability compared to using either single-dose or two-dose rotavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Benin , Humans , Immunization Programs , India , Infant , Mozambique , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252534, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270459

ABSTRACT

Many recent disease outbreaks in humans had a zoonotic virus etiology. Bats in particular have been recognized as reservoirs to a large variety of viruses with the potential to cross-species transmission. In order to assess the risk of bats in Switzerland for such transmissions, we determined the virome of tissue and fecal samples of 14 native and 4 migrating bat species. In total, sequences belonging to 39 different virus families, 16 of which are known to infect vertebrates, were detected. Contigs of coronaviruses, adenoviruses, hepeviruses, rotaviruses A and H, and parvoviruses with potential zoonotic risk were characterized in more detail. Most interestingly, in a ground stool sample of a Vespertilio murinus colony an almost complete genome of a Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was detected by Next generation sequencing and confirmed by PCR. In conclusion, bats in Switzerland naturally harbour many different viruses. Metagenomic analyses of non-invasive samples like ground stool may support effective surveillance and early detection of viral zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Feces/virology , Metagenomics/methods , Virome/genetics , Viruses/genetics , Zoonoses/virology , Adenoviridae/classification , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Chiroptera/classification , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hepevirus/classification , Hepevirus/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Switzerland , Viruses/classification
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7430, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162021

ABSTRACT

Bats are known to be reservoirs of several highly pathogenic viruses. Hence, the interest in bat virus discovery has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. So far, most studies have focused on a single type of virus detection method, either PCR, virus isolation or virome sequencing. Here we present a comprehensive approach in virus discovery, using all three discovery methods on samples from the same bats. By family-specific PCR screening we found sequences of paramyxoviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses and one coronavirus. By cell culture we isolated a novel bat adenovirus and bat orthoreovirus. Virome sequencing revealed viral sequences of ten different virus families and orders: three bat nairoviruses, three phenuiviruses, one orbivirus, one rotavirus, one orthoreovirus, one mononegavirus, five parvoviruses, seven picornaviruses, three retroviruses, one totivirus and two thymoviruses were discovered. Of all viruses identified by family-specific PCR in the original samples, none was found by metagenomic sequencing. Vice versa, none of the viruses found by the metagenomic virome approach was detected by family-specific PCRs targeting the same family. The discrepancy of detected viruses by different detection approaches suggests that a combined approach using different detection methods is necessary for virus discovery studies.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral , Virome/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Germany , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Nairovirus/classification , Nairovirus/genetics , Orbivirus/classification , Orbivirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 550-556, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in 2006 significantly reduced childhood incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. The rotavirus vaccine was included in Poland's national immunization program in 2021. Our study aimed to summarize the epidemiology of AGE in northeastern Poland prior to 2021 and to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary, out-of-pocket rotavirus childhood vaccination on the incidence of rotavirus AGE. METHODS: A review of patients aged 0-17 years with gastroenteritis hospitalized between 2006 and 2020 in northeastern Poland in the context of rotavirus vaccine coverage in the region. RESULTS: Rotavirus was the most common agent of gastroenteritis in hospitalized patients. The seasonality of rotavirus gastroenteritis peaked between February and May in each year of study, except for 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic skewed any viable comparison of seasonality. Rotavirus vaccine coverage in northeastern Poland did not exceed 25% during the study period and had no impact on hospitalization numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus was the primary causative agent of AGE in children hospitalized in northeastern Poland during the study period. Voluntary vaccinations did not affect the number of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE. Our data suggest that universal immunization is key to achieving a significant reduction of rotavirus-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenteritis , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Child , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575074, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256374

ABSTRACT

Combined cellular and humoral host immune response determine the clinical course of a viral infection and effectiveness of vaccination, but currently the cellular immune response cannot be measured on simple blood samples. As functional activity of immune cells is determined by coordinated activity of signaling pathways, we developed mRNA-based JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity assays to quantitatively measure the cellular immune response on Affymetrix expression microarray data of various types of blood samples from virally infected patients (influenza, RSV, dengue, yellow fever, rotavirus) or vaccinated individuals, and to determine vaccine immunogenicity. JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was increased in blood samples of patients with viral, but not bacterial, infection and was higher in influenza compared to RSV-infected patients, reflecting known differences in immunogenicity. High JAK-STAT3 pathway activity was associated with more severe RSV infection. In contrast to inactivated influenza virus vaccine, live yellow fever vaccine did induce JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity in blood samples, indicating superior immunogenicity. Normal (healthy) JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was established, enabling assay interpretation without the need for a reference sample. The JAK-STAT pathway assays enable measurement of cellular immune response for prognosis, therapy stratification, vaccine development, and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Diagnosis, Differential , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Rotavirus Infections/blood , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus Vaccines , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Yellow fever virus/pathogenicity
10.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066819

ABSTRACT

Bats host many viruses pathogenic to humans, and increasing evidence suggests that rotavirus A (RVA) also belongs to this list. Rotaviruses cause diarrheal disease in many mammals and birds, and their segmented genomes allow them to reassort and increase their genetic diversity. Eighteen out of 2,142 bat fecal samples (0.8%) collected from Europe, Central America, and Africa were PCR-positive for RVA, and 11 of those were fully characterized using viral metagenomics. Upon contrasting their genomes with publicly available data, at least 7 distinct bat RVA genotype constellations (GCs) were identified, which included evidence of reassortments and 6 novel genotypes. Some of these constellations are spread across the world, whereas others appear to be geographically restricted. Our analyses also suggest that several unusual human and equine RVA strains might be of bat RVA origin, based on their phylogenetic clustering, despite various levels of nucleotide sequence identities between them. Although SA11 is one of the most widely used reference strains for RVA research and forms the backbone of a reverse genetics system, its origin remained enigmatic. Remarkably, the majority of the genotypes of SA11-like strains were shared with Gabonese bat RVAs, suggesting a potential common origin. Overall, our findings suggest an underexplored genetic diversity of RVAs in bats, which is likely only the tip of the iceberg. Increasing contact between humans and bat wildlife will further increase the zoonosis risk, which warrants closer attention to these viruses.IMPORTANCE The increased research on bat coronaviruses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) allowed the very rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2. This is an excellent example of the importance of knowing viruses harbored by wildlife in general, and bats in particular, for global preparedness against emerging viral pathogens. The current effort to characterize bat rotavirus strains from 3 continents sheds light on the vast genetic diversity of rotaviruses and also hints at a bat origin for several atypical rotaviruses in humans and animals, implying that zoonoses of bat rotaviruses might occur more frequently than currently realized.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Rotavirus Infections/transmission , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diarrhea/virology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Horses , Humans , Metagenomics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031655

ABSTRACT

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Cryptosporidiosis/physiopathology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/physiopathology , Weight Gain
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973226

ABSTRACT

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Cryptosporidiosis/physiopathology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/physiopathology , Weight Gain
13.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2582-2592, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942384

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus infections have become one of the most common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in children. Although rotavirus infections have been intensively studied in infants and young children, the study in adults has been limited. As such, this study assessed the prevalence of rotaviruses and performed the molecular characterization of rotaviruses circulating in Thai adults experiencing acute gastroenteritis between January 2018 and December 2018. Group A human rotaviruses were detected in 100 feces samples by rapid immunochromatography. The peak incidence of infection occurred in February and began to decline in the summer months. From January 2018 to December 2018, there were 1344 acute gastroenteritis adult cases in the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand. Among these, 310 cases were rotavirus-suspected cases. Only 100 samples tested positive for rotavirus via an immunochromatography test. Twentynine out of the 100 rotavirus-positive samples were further characterized by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The G3[P8] strain was identified as the most prevalent (31.0%) followed by G1P[8], G8P[8] and G9P[8], and G2P[8], which accounted for 20.8%, 17.2%, and 13.8%, respectively. Because of the detection of rare rotavirus genotypes, such as G8, the surveillance of rotavirus epidemiology is crucial in monitoring new emergences of rotavirus strains, leading to a better understanding of the effects of strain variation for further vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Feces/virology , Female , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Genotype , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Seasons , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20296, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938317

ABSTRACT

Bats are natural reservoirs for potential zoonotic viruses. In this study, next-generation sequencing was performed to obtain entire genome sequences of picornavirus from a picornavirus-positive bat feces sample (16BF77) and to explore novel viruses in a pooled bat sample (16BP) from samples collected in South Korea, 2016. Fourteen mammalian viral sequences were identified from 16BF77 and 29 from 16BP, and verified by RT-PCR. The most abundant virus in 16BF77 was picornavirus. Highly variable picornavirus sequences encoding 3Dpol were classified into genera Kobuvirus, Shanbavirus, and an unassigned group within the family Picornaviridae. Amino acid differences between these partial 3Dpol sequences were ≥ 65.7%. Results showed that one bat was co-infected by picornaviruses of more than two genera. Retrovirus, coronavirus, and rotavirus A sequences also were found in the BP sample. The retrovirus and coronavirus genomes were identified in nine and eight bats, respectively. Korean bat retroviruses and coronavirus demonstrated strong genetic relationships with a Chinese bat retrovirus (RfRV) and coronavirus (HKU5-1), respectively. A co-infection was identified in one bat with a retrovirus and a coronavirus. Our results indicate that Korean bats were multiply infected by several mammal viruses.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Feces/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Mouth/virology , RNA Viruses/genetics , Animals , Brain/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/physiology , Geography , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Intestines/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Phylogeny , Picornaviridae/classification , Picornaviridae/genetics , Picornaviridae/physiology , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/physiology , Republic of Korea , Retroviridae/classification , Retroviridae/genetics , Retroviridae/physiology , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/physiology
15.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 74: 101581, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926806

ABSTRACT

In this study, primary and immortalized bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIECs) were characterized for the expression of surface carbohydrate moieties. Primary BIEC-c4 cells showed staining greater than 90 % for 16 lectins but less than 50 % staining for four lectins. Immortalized BIECs showed significantly different lectin binding profile for few lectins compared to BIEC-c4 cells. BIEC-c4 cells were studied for infectivity to E. coli, Salmonella enterica, bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Bovine strain E. coli B41 adhered to BIEC-c4 cells and Salmonella strains S. Dublin and S. Mbandaka showed strong cell invasion. BIEC-c4 cells were susceptible to bovine rotavirus. LPS stimulation upregulated IL-10, IL-8, and IL-6 expression and Poly I:C upregulated TLR 8 and TLR 9 expression. This study provides important knowledge on the glycoconjugate expression profile of primary and immortalized BIECs and infectivity and immune responses of primary BIECs to bacterial and viral pathogens or ligands.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Lectins/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral , Escherichia coli , Immunity , Interleukins/immunology , Rotavirus , Salmonella enterica
16.
Prev Vet Med ; 185: 105196, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894168

ABSTRACT

A total of 237 faecal specimens from diarrheic calves younger than two months were collected and submitted for diagnosis of enteropathogens over a two-year period (2017-2018) to a veterinary laboratory. Samples originated from 193 dairy and beef farms in 29 provinces distributed throughout Spain, and were tested for the occurrence of three target enteric pathogens by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR): bovine rotavirus A (RVA), Cryptosporidium parvum and bovine coronavirus (BCoV). RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing analysis were used to determine the G (VP7 gene) and P (VP4 gene) genotypes of 26 specimens positive for RVA. A total of 188 specimens (79.3 %) were positive for at least one of the three target enteric pathogens, and 101 samples (42.6 %) harbored mixed infections. The individual prevalence was 57.8 %, 50.6 % and 23.6 % for C. parvum, RVA and BCoV, respectively. Molecular analysis of selected RVA strains revealed the presence of the G6, G10, G3, P[5] and P[11] genotypes, with the combinations G6P[5] and G6P[11] being the most prevalent. Alignments of nucleotide sequences of the VP7 and VP4 markers showed a high frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with up to 294 SNPs found in 869bp of sequence at the G6 genotype (0.338 SNPs/nt), which reveals the extensive genetic diversity of RVA strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene of the G6 strains revealed four distinct lineages, with most strains clustering in the G6-IV lineage. The discrepancies between the RVA genotypes circulating in the sampled cattle farms and the genotypes contained in commercial vaccines currently available in Spain are discussed. We believe that this is the first study on the molecular characterization of rotavirus infecting cattle in Spain.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryptosporidiosis/complications , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Spain/epidemiology
17.
Sci Immunol ; 5(47)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260039

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA are frequently observed in COVID-19 patients. However, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the human intestine and contributes to possible fecal-oral transmission. Here, we report productive infection of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE2+ mature enterocytes in human small intestinal enteroids. Expression of two mucosa-specific serine proteases, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4, facilitated SARS-CoV-2 spike fusogenic activity and promoted virus entry into host cells. We also demonstrate that viruses released into the intestinal lumen were inactivated by simulated human colonic fluid, and infectious virus was not recovered from the stool specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our results highlight the intestine as a potential site of SARS-CoV-2 replication, which may contribute to local and systemic illness and overall disease progression.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Enterocytes/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Cell Line , Duodenum/cytology , Enterocytes/pathology , Humans , Mice , Organoids/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rotavirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vesiculovirus/genetics
18.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103814, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124709

ABSTRACT

Bovine rotavirus (BRoV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are major enteric viral pathogens responsible for calve diarrhoea. They are widespread both in dairy and beef cattle throughout the world and causing huge economic losses. The diagnosis of these agents is very difficult due to non-specific nature of lesions and the involvement of some intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. We performed postmortem of 45 calves, which was below three months of age. Out of 45 necropscid calves, three (6.66%) cases were positive for BRoV and four (8.88%) cases were found positive for BCoV, screened by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Further RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin-embedded intestinal tissue sections. Three cases of enteritis caused by BRoV showed the hallmark lesions of the shortening and fusion of villi, denudation and infiltration of mononuclear cells in the lamina propria. The BRoV antigen distribution was prominent within the lining epithelium of the villi, peyer's patches in the ileum and strong immunoreactions in the lymphocytes and some macrophages of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Four cases in which BCoV was detected, grossly lesions characterized by colonic mucosa covered with thick, fibrinous and diphtheritic membrane. Histopathologically, jejunum showed skipping lesion of micro-abscesses in crypts. The BCoV antigen distribution was prominent within the necrotic crypts in the jejunum and cryptic micro-abscesses in the colon and ileum. It is the first report of BRoV and BCoV antigen demonstration in the jejunum, colon, ileum, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of naturally infected calves from India by using IHC.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/physiology , Enteritis/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/physiology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Enteritis/pathology , Enteritis/virology , Feces/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus Infections/pathology , Rotavirus Infections/virology
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 777-791, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124580

ABSTRACT

The present study attempted to verify the prevalence of and risk factors for diarrhea-causing agents in dairy calves from Brazil. Additionally, ages with a higher risk of occurrence for each agent were verified by means of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The collections were performed on 39 farms, belonging to 29 municipalities located in eight states of Brazil. It was possible to conclude that the prevalence of Coronavirus, Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and nematodes was 7.20% (95% CI 4.54-9.78), 6.37% (95% CI 3.85-8.89), 51.52% (95% CI 45.26-55.57), 3.46% (95% CI 2.24-4.67), and 3.46% (95% CI 2.24-4.67), respectively. Ages with higher probabilities of occurrence of these diseases in calves were < 10, > 8, > 6, > 37, and > 36 days, respectively. Diarrhea occurred more significantly (P < 0.0001) in animals less than 21 days old and mainly on those receiving milk through automatic feeders (P < 0.001). Cryptosporidium spp. were a risk factor for the occurrence of Rotavirus, and vice versa (P = 0.0039) and presented a positive correlation with Coronavirus (P = 0.0089). Calves that drink water from rivers, streams, and ponds had a higher chance of being infected by Eimeria spp. (P < 0.0001), as well as developing infection by nematodes (P < 0.0001). The results found in this study highlight the importance of studying the agents of diarrhea together, once they act as coinfection where the losses triggered for the owners will involve some of these agents simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/complications , Diarrhea/veterinary , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/virology , Eimeria/isolation & purification , Farms , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Female , Nematode Infections/complications , Prevalence , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rotavirus/isolation & purification
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(7): 851-863, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-31312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A monovalent, parenteral, subunit rotavirus vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults in the USA and in toddlers and infants in South Africa, but elicited poor responses against heterotypic rotavirus strains. We aimed to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent vaccine formulation (P2-VP8-P[4],[6],[8]). METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1/2 study was done at three South African research sites. Healthy adults (aged 18-45 years), toddlers (aged 2-3 years), and infants (aged 6-8 weeks, ≥37 weeks' gestation, and without previous receipt of rotavirus vaccination), all without HIV infection, were eligible for enrolment. In the dose-escalation phase, adults and toddlers were randomly assigned in blocks (block size of five) to receive 30 µg or 90 µg of vaccine, or placebo, and infants were randomly assigned in blocks (block size of four) to receive 15 µg, 30 µg, or 90 µg of vaccine, or placebo. In the expanded phase, infants were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive 15 µg, 30 µg, or 90 µg of vaccine, or placebo, in block sizes of four. Participants, parents of participants, and clinical, data, and laboratory staff were masked to treatment assignment. Adults received an intramuscular injection of vaccine or placebo in the deltoid muscle on the day of randomisation (day 0), day 28, and day 56; toddlers received a single injection of vaccine or placebo in the anterolateral thigh on day 0. Infants in both phases received an injection of vaccine or placebo in the anterolateral thigh on days 0, 28, and 56, at approximately 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Primary safety endpoints were local and systemic reactions (grade 2 or worse) within 7 days and adverse events and serious adverse events within 28 days after each injection in all participants who received at least one injection. Primary immunogenicity endpoints were analysed in infants in either phase who received all planned injections, had blood samples analysed at the relevant timepoints, and presented no major protocol violations considered to have an effect on the immunogenicity results of the study, and included serum anti-P2-VP8 IgA, IgG, and neutralising antibody geometric mean titres and responses measured 4 weeks after the final injection in vaccine compared with placebo groups. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02646891. FINDINGS: Between Feb 15, 2016, and Dec 22, 2017, 30 adults (12 each in the 30 µg and 90 µg groups and six in the placebo group), 30 toddlers (12 each in the 30 µg and 90 µg groups and six in the placebo group), and 557 infants (139 in the 15 µg group, 140 in the 30 µg group, 139 in the 90 µg group, and 139 in the placebo group) were randomly assigned, received at least one dose, and were assessed for safety. There were no significant differences in local or systemic adverse events, or unsolicited adverse events, between vaccine and placebo groups. There were no serious adverse events within 28 days of injection in adults, whereas one serious adverse event occurred in a toddler (febrile convulsion in the 30 µg group) and 23 serious adverse events (four in placebo, ten in 15 µg, four in 30 µg, and five in 90 µg groups) occurred among 20 infants, most commonly respiratory tract infections. One death occurred in an infant within 28 days of injection due to pneumococcal meningitis. In 528 infants (130 in placebo, 132 in 15 µg, 132 in 30 µg, and 134 in 90 µg groups), adjusted anti-P2-VP8 IgG seroresponses (≥4-fold increase from baseline) to P[4], P[6], and P[8] antigens were significantly higher in the 15 µg, 30 µg, and 90 µg groups (99-100%) than in the placebo group (10-29%; p<0·0001). Although significantly higher than in placebo recipients (9-10%), anti-P2-VP8 IgA seroresponses (≥4-fold increase from baseline) to each individual antigen were modest (20-34%) across the 15 µg, 30 µg, and 90 µg groups. Adjusted neutralising antibody seroresponses in infants (≥2·7-fold increase from baseline) to DS-1 (P[4]), 1076 (P[6]), and Wa (P[8]) were higher in vaccine recipients than in placebo recipients: p<0·0001 for all comparisons. INTERPRETATION: The trivalent P2-VP8 vaccine was well tolerated, with promising anti-P2-VP8 IgG and neutralising antibody responses across the three vaccine P types. Our findings support advancing the vaccine to efficacy testing. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rotavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Rotavirus Vaccines/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , Child, Preschool , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Rotavirus Vaccines/genetics , South Africa , United States , Young Adult
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