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1.
Sci Prog ; 105(2): 368504221105172, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909995

ABSTRACT

Despite the development and deployment of effective COVID-19 vaccines, many regions remain poorly covered. Seeking alternative tools for achieving immunity against COVID-19 remains to be of high importance. "Trained immunity" is the nonspecific immune response usually established through administering live attenuated vaccines and is a potential preventive tool against unrelated infections. Evidence regarding a possible protective role for certain live attenuated vaccines against COVID-19 has emerged mainly for those administered as part of childhood vaccination protocols. This review summarizes the relevant literature about the potential impact of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccines on COVID-19. Existing available data suggest a potential role for BCG and MMR in reducing COVID-19 casualties and burden. However, more investigation and comparative studies are required for a better understanding of their impact on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mumps , Rubella , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 156, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE & AIM: The coronavirus disease, so far (COVID-19) has brought about millions of infections and fatalities throughout the world. Our aim was to determine the correlation between rubella IGG titers with the severity COVID-19.  MATERIALS & METHODS: This study was conducted among COVID-19 confirmed patients over 18 years of age. The disease severity levels were categorized by WHO interim guidance. The rubella-specific IgG antibody-titer spectrum was measured (within first 48 h of hospitalization) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULT: In a study of 46 inpatients with varying COVID-19 disease severity (mild, moderate, severe, and critical), we observed a negative correlation between rubella IgG antibody titers and COVID-19 severity (P-Value = 0.017), There was an interaction between COVID-19 vaccination history and rubella IGG on severity COVID-19 (P-Value = 0.0015). There was an interaction between age group under 44 years (including national measles- rubella (MR) vaccination in Iran) and rubella IGG titers on severity COVID-19 too (p-value = 0.014). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, MR vaccination seems to have a positive effect in reducing the severity of the disease, emphasizing that, the important and separate effect of the IGG rubella (due to natural or extrinsic immunity) titers is determining.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rubella , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G
3.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3676-3683, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852210

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, have been re-emerging in countries with moderate to high vaccine uptake. It is increasingly important to identify and close immunity gaps and increase coverage of routine childhood vaccinations, including two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR). Here, we present a simple cohort model relying on a Bayesian approach to evaluate the evolution of measles seroprevalence in Belgium using the three most recent cross-sectional serological survey data collections (2002, 2006 and 2013) and information regarding vaccine properties. We find measles seroprevalence profiles to be similar for the different regions in Belgium. These profiles exhibit a drop in seroprevalence in birth cohorts that were offered vaccination at suboptimal coverages in the first years after routine vaccination has been started up. This immunity gap is observed across all cross-sectional survey years, although it is more pronounced in survey year 2013. At present, the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively impact the immunization coverage worldwide, thereby increasing the need for additional immunization programs in groups of children that are impacted by this. Therefore, it is now even more important to identify existing immunity gaps and to sustain and reach vaccine-derived measles immunity goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Bayes Theorem , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps/prevention & control , Pandemics , Rubella/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776196

ABSTRACT

Due to the current burden of COVID-19 on public health institutions, increased migration and seasonal touristic traveling, there is an increased risk of epidemic outbreaks of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). The aim of the present study was to analyze the epidemiological data on MMR immunization coverage and the number of measles cases in 2001-2019 in Croatia and a number of European countries. Results revealed a decreasing trend in vaccination in 2001-2019 throughout Europe. However, Croatia and Hungary still have the highest primary and revaccination coverage, compared to other analyzed countries. The highest number of measles cases was in 2017 in Romania. There was no significant correlation between the percentage of primary vaccination and the number of measles cases (r = -0.0528, p = 0.672), but there was a significant negative correlation between the percentage of revaccination and the number of measles cases (r = -0.445, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the results of the present study emphasize the necessity to perform a full protocol of vaccination to reach appropriate protection from potential epidemic outbreaks. Furthermore, in the light of present migrations, documenting the migrants' flow and facilitating vaccination as needed is of utmost importance to prevent future epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Croatia/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Europe , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689458, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775809

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This analysis examines governorate-level disease incidence as well as the relationship between incidence and the number of persons of concern for three vaccine-preventable diseases-measles, mumps, and rubella-between 2001 and 2016. METHODS: Using Iraqi Ministry of Health and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) data, we performed descriptive analyses of disease incidence and conducted a pooled statistical analysis with a linear mixed effects regression model to examine the role of vaccine coverage and migration of persons of concern on subnational disease incidence. RESULTS: We found large variability in governorate-level incidence, particularly for measles (on the order of 100x). We identified decreases in incident measles cases per 100,000 persons for each additional percent vaccinated (0.82, 95% CI: [0.64, 1.00], p-value < 0.001) and for every additional 10,000 persons of concern when incorporating displacement into our model (0.26, 95% CI: [0.22, 0.30], p-value < 0.001). These relationships were insignificant for mumps and rubella. CONCLUSIONS: National level summary statistics do not adequately capture the high geospatial disparity in disease incidence between 2001 and 2016. This variability is complicated by MMR vaccine coverage and the migration of "persons of concern" (refugees) during conflict. We found that even when vaccine coverage was constant, measles incidence was higher in locations with more displaced persons, suggesting conflict fueled the epidemic in ways that vaccine coverage could not control.


Subject(s)
Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Humans , Iraq/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination
6.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(6): 853-859, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to estimate vaccination and susceptibility rates against vaccine-preventable diseases among healthcare personnel (HCP) in eight hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: A total of 1284 HCP participated (physicians: 31.3%, nursing personnel: 36.6%, paramedical personnel: 11.1%, administrative personnel: 13.2%, supportive personnel: 7.3%). Vaccination rates were 32.9% against measles and mumps, 38.1% against rubella, 5.7% against varicella, 9.2% against hepatitis A, 65.8% against hepatitis B, 31.8% against tetanus-diphtheria, 7.1% against pertussis, 60.2% against influenza, and 80.1% against COVID-19. Susceptibility rates were as follows: 27.8% for measles, 39.6% for mumps, 33.4% for rubella, 22.2% for varicella, 86.3% for hepatitis A, 34.2% for hepatitis B, 68.2% for tetanus-diphtheria, and 92.9% for pertussis. Older HCP had higher susceptibility rates against mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus-diphtheria, and pertussis (p-values <0.001 for all). Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 81.85% of HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Although most HCPs supported mandatory vaccinations, significant vaccination gaps, and susceptibility rates were recorded. The proportion of susceptible HCP to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella has increased in the past decade, mostly because of reduction in acquired cases of natural illness. Vaccination programs for HCP should be developed. A national registry to follow HCP's vaccination rates is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Diphtheria , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
7.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(3): 485-511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767998

ABSTRACT

Maternal pathogens can be transmitted to the fetus resulting in congenital infection with sequelae ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe debilitating disease and still birth. The TORCH pneumonic (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) is used widely, but it provides a limited description of the expanding list of pathogens associated with congenital infection. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of infants with common congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, and infections that warrant early diagnosis and treatment to prevent serious complications, such as toxoplasmosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis. Zika virus and Chagas disease remain uncommon.


Subject(s)
Fetal Diseases , Herpes Simplex , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Rubella , Syphilis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Toxoplasmosis , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Rubella/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 221, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the 2015 earthquake, a measles-rubella (MR) supplementary immunization activity (SIA), in four phases, was implemented in Nepal in 2015-2016. A post-campaign coverage survey (PCCS) was then conducted in 2017 to assess SIA performance and explore factors that were associated with vaccine uptake. METHODS: A household survey using stratified multi-stage probability sampling was conducted to assess coverage for a MR dose in the 2015-2016 SIA in Nepal. Logistic regression was then used to identify factors related to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Eleven thousand two hundred fifty-three households, with 4870 eligible children provided information on vaccination during the 2015-2016 MR SIA. Overall coverage of measles-rubella vaccine was 84.7% (95% CI: 82.0-87.0), but varied between 77.5% (95% CI: 72.0, 82.2) in phase-3, of 21 districts vaccinated in Feb-Mar 2016, to 97.7% (CI: 95.4, 98.9) in phase-4, of the last seven mountainous districts vaccinated in Mar-Apr 2016. Coverage in rural areas was higher at 85.6% (CI: 81.9, 88.8) than in urban areas at 79.0% (CI: 75.5, 82.1). Of the 4223 children whose caregivers knew about the SIA, 96.5% received the MR dose and of the 647 children whose caregivers had not heard about the campaign, only 1.8% received the MR dose. CONCLUSIONS: The coverage in the 2015-2016 MR SIA in Nepal varied by geographical region with rural areas achieving higher coverage than urban areas. The single most important predictor of vaccination was the caregiver being informed in advance about the vaccination campaign. Enhanced efforts on social mobilization for vaccination have been used in Nepal since this survey, notably for the most recent 2020 MR campaign.


Subject(s)
Measles , Rubella , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Nepal/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Rubella Vaccine , Vaccination
9.
Vaccine ; 40(20): 2884-2893, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701291

ABSTRACT

In 2020, National Immunization Programme (NIP) of Nepal implemented a measles outbreak response immunization (ORI) campaign, which was additional to an ongoing preventive measles-rubella SIA campaign. Both campaigns were implemented during ongoing COVID-19 transmission. By April, 220 measles cases and two deaths were confirmed from eight districts of Nepal. The NIP triangulated information from surveillance (measles and COVID-19), measles immunization performance and immunity profile, programme capacities and community engagement and applied a logical decision-making framework to the collated data to inform 'Go/No-Go' decisions for ORI interventions. This was reviewed by the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) for endorsement. Outbreak response with non-selective immunization (ORI), vitamin-A administration and case management were implemented in affected municipalities of four districts, while in the remaining districts outbreak response without ORI were undertaken. The structure and iterative application of this logical framework has been described. ORI was implemented without interrupting the ongoing measles-rubella vaccination campaign which had targeted children from 9 to 59 months of age. The age group for ORI was same as SIA in one sub-district area, while for the other three sub-district areas it was from 6 months to 15 years of age. More than 32,000 persons (97% coverage) were vaccinated in ORI response. Overall measles incidence decreased by 98% after ORI. The daily incidence rate of measles was 94 times higher (95% confidence interval: 36.11 - 347.62) before the ORI compared to two weeks after ORI until year end. Close attention to surveillance and other data to inform actions and seamless collaboration between NIP and core immunization partners (WHO, UNICEF), with guidance from NIAC were key elements in successful implementation. This was an example of feasible application of the global framework for implementation of a mass vaccination campaign during COVID-19 through application of a simple decision-making logical framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Rubella , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Nepal/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control
10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633231

ABSTRACT

Recent reports indicate that respiratory infectious diseases were suppressed during the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 led to behavioral changes aimed to control droplet transmission or contact transmission. In this study, we examined the incidence of common infectious diseases in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 data were extracted from the national data based on the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID). Common infectious diseases were selected from notifiable infectious diseases under the NESID. The epidemic activity of the diseases during 2015-2020 was evaluated based on the Infectious Disease Weekly Reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Each disease was then categorized according to the route of transmission. Many Japanese people had adopted hygienic activities, such as wearing masks and hand washing, even before the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the correlation between the time-series of disease counts of common infectious diseases and COVID-19 over time using cross-correlation analysis. The weekly number of cases of measles, rotavirus, and several infections transmitted by droplet spread, was negatively correlated with the weekly number of cases of COVID-19 for up to 20 weeks in the past. According to the difference-in-differences analysis, the activity of influenza and rubella was significantly lower starting from the second week in 2020 than that in 2015-2019. Only legionellosis was more frequent throughout the year than in 2015-2019. Lower activity was also observed in some contact transmitted, airborne-transmitted, and fecal-oral transmitted diseases. However, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, exanthema subitum, showed the same trend as that over the previous 5 years. In conclusion, our study shows that public health interventions for the COVID-19 pandemic may have effectively prevented the transmission of most droplet-transmitted diseases and those transmitted through other routes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Health Behavior , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Masks , Pandemics , Rubella/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591304

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite gains in global coverage of childhood vaccines, many children remain undervaccinated. Although mass vaccination campaigns are commonly conducted to reach these children their effectiveness is unclear. We evaluated the effectiveness of a mass vaccination campaign in reaching zero-dose children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in 10 health centre catchment areas in Southern province, Zambia in November 2020. About 2 months before a national mass measles and rubella vaccination campaign conducted by the Ministry of Health, we used aerial satellite maps to identify built structures. These structures were visited and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles zero-dose children were identified (children who had not received any DTP or measles-containing vaccines, respectively). After the campaign, households where measles zero-dose children were previously identified were targeted for mop-up vaccination and to assess if these children were vaccinated during the campaign. A Bayesian geospatial model was used to identify factors associated with zero-dose status and measles zero-dose children being reached during the campaign. We also produced fine-scale zero-dose prevalence maps and identified optimal locations for additional vaccination sites. RESULTS: Before the vaccination campaign, 17.3% of children under 9 months were DTP zero-dose and 4.3% of children 9-60 months were measles zero-dose. Of the 461 measles zero-dose children identified before the vaccination campaign, 338 (73.3%) were vaccinated during the campaign and 118 (25.6%) were reached by a targeted mop-up activity. The presence of other children in the household, younger age, greater travel time to health facilities and living between health facility catchment areas were associated with zero-dose status. Mapping zero-dose prevalence revealed substantial heterogeneity within and between catchment areas. Several potential locations were identified for additional vaccination sites. CONCLUSION: Fine-scale variation in zero-dose prevalence and the impact of accessibility to healthcare facilities on vaccination coverage were identified. Geospatial modelling can aid targeted vaccination activities.


Subject(s)
Measles , Rubella , Bayes Theorem , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination , Zambia/epidemiology
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1237, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the social isolation measures adopted in an attempt to mitigate the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, there has been a reduction in vaccination coverage of children and adolescents in several countries and regions of the world. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the number of doses of vaccine against Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) applied before and after the beginning of mitigation measures due to COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: The data collected refer to the number of doses of the MMR vaccine applied monthly to the target population residing in Brazil: cahildren, aged 12 months (first dose) and children, aged 9 years (second dose), from April 2019 to December 2020. Differences in MMR vaccine doses from April 2019 to March 2020 (before the start of mitigation measures) and April 2020 to September 2020 (after the start of the mitigation measures) were evaluated. Spatial analysis identified clusters with a high percentage of reduction in the median of applied doses no Brazil. RESULTS: There was a reduction in the median of doses applied in the Regions North (- 33.03%), Northeast (- 43.49%) and South (- 39.01%) e nos Estados Acre (- 48.46%), Amazonas (- 28.96%), Roraima (- 61.91%), Paraíba (- 41.58%), Sergipe (- 47.52%), Rio de Janeiro (-59.31%) and Santa Catarina (- 49.32) (p < 0.05). High-high type spatial clusters (reduction between 34.00 and 90.00%) were formed in the five regions of Brazil (Moran's I = 0.055; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: A reduction in the number of MMR vaccine doses was evidenced as a possible effect by the restrictive actions of COVID-19 in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(11): 1169-1174, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542850

ABSTRACT

<b>Background and Objective:</b> In recent years, respiratory tract viral infections have caused many pandemics that impact the whole world. To investigate the seropositivity of <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, rubella, CMV, HSV-1 and group A <i>Streptococcus</i> in recovered COVID-19 patients and correlate these findings with vitamin D levels. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> A total of 417 COVID-19 patients with diarrhoea were enrolled in this study. Vitamin D and seroprevalence for <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, rubella, CMV, HSV-1 and group A <i>Streptococcus</i> were evaluated and correlated. <b>Results:</b> It was found that recent infection in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1, rubella, <i>Toxoplasma</i> and CMV, respectively. IgG was detected indicating the development of adaptive immunity with all microbes. <b>Conclusion:</b> Current study detected a correlation between vitamin D levels and HSV-1 and no correlation between this infection and vitamin D deficiency with the other microbes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calcifediol/blood , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Female , Herpes Simplex/blood , Herpes Simplex/epidemiology , Herpes Simplex/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Rubella/blood , Rubella/diagnosis , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/immunology , Rubella virus/immunology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Streptococcal Infections/blood , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/immunology , Streptococcus/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/blood , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
14.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4414-4418, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine may afford cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 which may contribute to the wide variability in disease severity of Covid-19. METHODS: We employed a test negative case-control study, utilising a recent measles outbreak during which many healthcare workers received the MMR vaccine, to investigate the potential protective effect of MMR against SARS-CoV-2 in 5905 subjects (n = 805 males, n = 5100 females). RESULTS: The odds ratio for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, in recently MMR-vaccinated compared to not recently MMR-vaccinated individuals was 0.91 (95% CI 0.76, 1.09). An interaction analysis showed a significant interaction for sex. After sex-stratification, the odds ratio for testing positive for males was 0.43 (95% CI 0.24, 0.79, P = 0.006), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.83, 1.22, P = 0.92) for females. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that there may be a protective effect of the MMR vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in males but not females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(7): 811-826, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258699

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Measles, mumps, and rubella incidence decreased drastically following vaccination programs' implementation. However, measles and mumps' resurgence was recently reported, outbreaks still occur, and challenges remain to control these diseases. AREAS COVERED: This qualitative narrative review provides an objective appraisal of the literature regarding current challenges in controlling measles, mumps, rubella infections, and interventions to address them. EXPERT OPINION: While vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella (including trivalent vaccines) are widely used and effective, challenges to control these diseases are mainly related to insufficient immunization coverage and changing vaccination needs owing to new global environment (e.g. traveling, migration, population density). By understanding disease transmission peculiarities by setting, initiatives are needed to optimize vaccination policies and increase vaccination coverage, which was further negatively impacted by COVID-19 pandemic. Also, awareness of the potential severity of infections and the role of vaccines should increase. Reminder systems, vaccination of disadvantaged, high-risk and difficult-to-reach populations, accessibility of vaccination, healthcare infrastructure, and vaccination services management should improve. Outbreak preparedness should be strengthened, including implementation of high-quality surveillance systems to monitor epidemiology. While the main focus should be on these public health initiatives to increase vaccination coverage, slightly more benefits could come from evolution of current vaccines.


PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARYWhat is the context?Measles, mumps, and rubella are highly contagious diseases associated with significant medical and societal burden. Effective vaccines against these diseases are available, and the implementation of vaccination programs drastically reduced disease incidence globally. However, reports of measles and mumps outbreaks in the last few years highlight remaining challenges to eliminate these diseases.What does the review highlight?We conducted a literature review to identify challenges associated with controlling measles, mumps, and rubella infections, and interventions needed to address them. We identified 11 challenges mainly related to low immunization coverage and vaccine characteristics. Societal challenges could be addressed by increasing awareness of disease severity and vaccines impact, targeting high-risk, unvaccinated, and under-vaccinated populations, improving vaccination access, setting up clear outbreak preparedness plans, and implementing country-specific vaccination policies. System weaknesses could be addressed through improving vaccination services and health infrastructure, implementing high-quality surveillance, patient invite, and reminder systems, ensuring vaccine implementation and long-term supply. Interventions related to vaccine characteristic challenges could include adaptation of vaccination schedules (shorter interval between doses, administration of a third dose) and development of vaccines against emerging strains.What is the take-home message?Policymakers should support the following strategies to increase vaccination coverage and reach elimination of measles, mumps, and rubella: strengthening health systems and vaccination access; raising awareness of disease severity and vaccination impact; limiting disease propagation owing to global changing environment and population dynamics (traveling, migration); improving surveillance systems to rapidly address the immunity gaps against disease resurgence.


Subject(s)
Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/prevention & control , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/methods , Vaccination/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/psychology , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/psychology , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
16.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211005902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this cohort study was to evaluate measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and varicella immunity among a population of adult employees receiving primary care in an employer-sponsored health center. METHODS: Participants were eligible for MMR and varicella immunity screening if they were an employee receiving primary care in an employer-sponsored health center between January 1, 2019 and November 1, 2020 who could not provide proof of immunization and 1) had it recommended by their provider, 2) specifically requested immunity testing (often because they had heard of measles outbreaks in their country of origin), or 3) were seen for an immigration physical for their Green Card application. RESULTS: Overall, 3494 patients were screened for their MMR immunity. Of these, 3057 were also screened for varicella immunity. Among these patients, 13.9% lacked measles immunity, 0.83% lacked immunity to all 3 components of MMR, and 13.2% lacked varicella immunity. Among the 262 patients who presented specifically for immunity screening, the rates of lacking immunity were higher for all conditions: 22.7% lacked measles immunity and 9.2% lacked varicella immunity. CONCLUSION: Given declines in immunizations during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is reason to be concerned that measles and varicella-associated morbidity and mortality may rise. Employers, especially those with large foreign-born populations or who require international travel may want to educate their populations about common contagious illnesses and offer immunity validation or vaccinations at no or low cost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Measles , Mumps , Pandemics , Rubella , Vaccination Coverage , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , California , Chickenpox/immunology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/immunology , Mumps/prevention & control , Occupational Health Services , Primary Health Care , Rubella/immunology , Rubella/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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