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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 769898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775977

ABSTRACT

Background: In Africa, rabies causes an estimated 24,000 human deaths annually. Mass dog vaccinations coupled with timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for dog-bite patients are the main interventions to eliminate human rabies deaths. A well-informed healthcare workforce and the availability and accessibility of rabies biologicals at health facilities are critical in reducing rabies deaths. We assessed awareness and knowledge regarding rabies and the management of rabies among healthcare workers, and PEP availability in rural eastern Kenya. Methodology: We interviewed 73 healthcare workers from 42 healthcare units in 13 wards in Makueni and Kibwezi West sub-counties, Makueni County, Kenya in November 2018. Data on demographics, years of work experience, knowledge of rabies, management of bite and rabies patients, and availability of rabies biologicals were collected and analyzed. Results: Rabies PEP vaccines were available in only 5 (12%) of 42 health facilities. None of the health facilities had rabies immunoglobulins in stock at the time of the study. PEP was primarily administered intramuscularly, with only 11% (n = 8) of the healthcare workers and 17% (7/42) healthcare facilities aware of the dose-sparing intradermal route. Less than a quarter of the healthcare workers were aware of the World Health Organization categorization of bite wounds that guides the use of PEP. Eighteen percent (n = 13) of healthcare workers reported they would administer PEP for category I exposures even though PEP is not recommended for this category of exposure. Only one of six respondents with acute encephalitis consultation considered rabies as a differential diagnosis highlighting the low index of suspicion for rabies. Conclusion: The availability and use of PEP for rabies was sub-optimal. We identified two urgent needs to support rabies elimination programmes: improving availability and access to PEP; and targeted training of the healthcare workers to improve awareness on bite wound management, judicious use of PEP including appropriate risk assessment following bites and the use of the dose-sparing intradermal route in facilities seeing multiple bite patients. Global and domestic funding plan that address these gaps in the human health sector is needed for efficient rabies elimination in Africa.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Health Services Needs and Demand , Rabies , Rural Health , Animals , Bites and Stings/therapy , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/veterinary , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/supply & distribution , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies Vaccines/supply & distribution
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0262166, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753183

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the change of myopic prevalence in students with different demographic characteristics before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Suqian, China. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted. Student data from 52 schools in 2019 and 2020 were collected from the electronic medical records database through cluster sampling. Ophthalmic examinations were conducted on students from September to December in 2019 and 2020. Measurements of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and noncycloplegic autorefraction were included to obtain the spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and prevalence of myopia. The difference in the rate of myopia and SER of students ages 6 to 18 with various demographic characteristics was compared between the two years. RESULTS: Records from 118,479 students in 2019 and the 121,881 students in 2020 were obtained. In 2019 and 2020, the prevalence of overall myopia increased from 43.1% to 48.9% (5.8 percentage point), and a substantial shift in myopic rate occurred in grades 4 to 6 (6.9 percentage point). The change in the prevalence of myopia in girls (5.9 percentage point) was approximately equal to that in boys (5.8 percentage point) and it was more common in rural students (5.9 percentage point) than in urban students (5.1 percentage point). The prevalence of low myopia increased more in children, and the prevalence of moderate myopia increased more in adolescents. The mean spherical equivalent refraction (SER) (-1.34±2.03 D) was lower in 2020 than in 2019 (-1.16±1.92 D), while SER decreased mainly at ages 7 to 15. The SER presented myopic status at the age of 9 (-0.55±1.26 D in 2019, -0.71±1.42 D in 2020), and attained moderate myopia at the age of 15 (-3.06±2.41 D in 2019, -3.22±2.40 D in 2020). CONCLUSIONS: After the COVID-19 pandemic, myopia increased in this population with variable rates of increase in different demographic groups. The change of myopia in children was comparatively greater than that in adolescents. Therefore, we should take measures to prevent and control the development of myopia after the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for younger students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Myopia/epidemiology , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity
3.
Malar J ; 20(1): 475, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the government of Uganda implemented a strict lockdown policy in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) was performed to assess whether major changes in outpatient attendance, malaria burden, and case management occurred after the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic in rural Uganda. METHODS: Individual level data from all outpatient visits collected from April 2017 to March 2021 at 17 facilities were analysed. Outcomes included total outpatient visits, malaria cases, non-malarial visits, proportion of patients with suspected malaria, proportion of patients tested using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and proportion of malaria cases prescribed artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations and fractional regression was used to model count and proportion outcomes, respectively. Pre-COVID trends (April 2017-March 2020) were used to predict the'expected' trend in the absence of COVID-19 introduction. Effects of COVID-19 were estimated over two six-month COVID-19 time periods (April 2020-September 2020 and October 2020-March 2021) by dividing observed values by expected values, and expressed as ratios. RESULTS: A total of 1,442,737 outpatient visits were recorded. Malaria was suspected in 55.3% of visits and 98.8% of these had a malaria diagnostic test performed. ITSA showed no differences between observed and expected total outpatient visits, malaria cases, non-malarial visits, or proportion of visits with suspected malaria after COVID-19 onset. However, in the second six months of the COVID-19 time period, there was a smaller mean proportion of patients tested with RDTs compared to expected (relative prevalence ratio (RPR) = 0.87, CI (0.78-0.97)) and a smaller mean proportion of malaria cases prescribed AL (RPR = 0.94, CI (0.90-0.99)). CONCLUSIONS: In the first year after the COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Uganda, there were no major effects on malaria disease burden and indicators of case management at these 17 rural health facilities, except for a modest decrease in the proportion of RDTs used for malaria diagnosis and the mean proportion of malaria cases prescribed AL in the second half of the COVID-19 pandemic year. Continued surveillance will be essential to monitor for changes in trends in malaria indicators so that Uganda can quickly and flexibly respond to challenges imposed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Chronic Disease Indicators , Humans , Infection Control , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Malaria/transmission , Rural Health , Uganda/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the early COVID-19 pandemic travel in Uganda was tightly restricted which affected demand for and access to care for pregnant women and small and sick newborns. In this study we describe changes to neonatal outcomes in one rural central Ugandan newborn unit before and during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We report outcomes from admissions captured in an electronic dataset of a well-established newborn unit before (September 2019 to March 2020) and during the early COVID-19 period (April-September 2020) as well as two seasonally matched periods one year prior. We report excess mortality as the percent change in mortality over what was expected based on seasonal trends. FINDINGS: The study included 2,494 patients, 567 of whom were admitted during the early COVID-19 period. During the pandemic admissions decreased by 14%. Patients born outside the facility were older on admission than previously (median 1 day of age vs. admission on the day of birth). There was an increase in admissions with birth asphyxia (22% vs. 15% of patients). Mortality was higher during COVID-19 than previously [16% vs. 11%, p = 0.017]. Patients born outside the facility had a relative increase of 55% above seasonal expected mortality (21% vs. 14%, p = 0.028). During this period patients had decreased antenatal care, restricted transport and difficulty with expenses and support. The hospital had difficulty with maternity staffing and supplies. There was significant community and staff fear of COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Increased newborn mortality during the early COVID-19 pandemic at this facility was likely attributed to disruptions affecting maternal and newborn demand for, access to and quality of perinatal healthcare. Lockdown conditions and restrictions to public transit were significant barriers to maternal and newborn wellbeing, and require further focus by national and regional health officials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Rural/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality , Adult , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Female , Hospitals, Rural/organization & administration , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Age , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 768624, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581114

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic coincided with a multi-national federally funded research project examining the potential for health and care services in small rural areas to identify and implement innovations in service delivery. The project has a strong focus on electronic health (eHealth) but covers other areas of innovation as well. The project has been designed as an ethnography to prelude a realist evaluation, asking the question under what conditions can local health and care services take responsibility for designing and implementing new service models that meet local needs? The project had already engaged with several health care practitioners and research students based in Canada, Sweden, Australia, and the United States. Our attention is particularly on rural communities with fewer than 5,000 residents and which are relatively isolated from larger service centres. Between March and September 2020, the project team undertook ethnographic and auto-ethnographic research in their own communities to investigate what the service model responses to the pandemic were, and the extent to which local service managers were able to customize their responses to suit the needs of their communities. An initial program theory drawn from the extant literature suggested that "successful" response to the pandemic would depend on a level of local autonomy, "absorptive capacity,*" strong service-community connections, an "anti-fragile†" approach to implementing change, and a realistic recognition of the historical barriers to implementing eHealth and other innovations in these types of rural communities. The field research in 2020 has refined the theory by focusing even more attention on absorptive capacity and community connections, and by suggesting that some level of ignorance of the barriers to innovation may be beneficial. The research also emphasized the role and power of external actors to the community which had not been well-explored in the literature. This paper will summarize both what the field research revealed about the capacity to respond well to the COVID-19 challenge and highlight the gaps in innovative strategies at a managerial level required for rapid response to system stress. *Absorptive Capacity is defined as the ability of an organization (community, clinic, hospital) to adapt to change. Organizations with flexible capacity can incorporate change in a productive fashion, while those with rigid capacity take longer to adapt, and may do so inappropriately. †Antifragility is defined as an entities' ability to gain stability through stress. Biological examples include building muscle through consistent use, and bones becoming stronger through subtle stress. Antifragility has been used as a guiding principle in programme implementation in the past.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anthropology, Cultural , Australia/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rural Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden , United States/epidemiology
6.
Aust J Rural Health ; 29(6): 816-820, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570319

Subject(s)
Rural Health , Humans
8.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1519-1522, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438382

ABSTRACT

We introduce "rural legal deserts," or rural areas experiencing attorney shortages, as a meaningful health determinant. We demonstrate that the absence of rural attorneys has significant impacts on public health-impacts that are rapidly exacerbated by COVID-19.Our work builds on recent scholarship that underscores the public health relevance of attorneys in civil and criminal contexts. It recognizes attorneys as crucial to interprofessional health care teams and to establishing equitable health-related laws and policies. Attorney interventions transform institutional practices and help facilitate the stability necessary for health maintenance and recovery. Yet, critically, many rural residents cannot access legal supports.As more individuals experience unemployment, eviction, and insecure benefits amid the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need for attorneys to address these social determinants of health as legal needs. Accordingly, the growing absence of attorneys in the rural United States proves particularly consequential-because of this pandemic context but also because of rural health disparities. We argue that unless a collaborative understanding of these interrelated phenomena is adopted, justice gaps will continue to compound rural health inequities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lawyers/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Rural Health , Social Determinants of Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Rural Health Services , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314655

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is considered an epidemic of the 21st century. On 11 March 2020, two months after the outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease of 2019) epidemic in China, the World Health Organization announced COVID-19 to be a pandemic. From that time, many hospitals and wards have started to function as both infectious and non-infectious ones; so did the Diabetes Clinic Institute of Rural Health in South-Eastern Poland. Considering the global importance of diabetes and its prevalence worldwide, it seemed important to investigate how the Diabetes Clinic passed through the individual phases of the pandemic, and the possibility of protecting hospitalized patients against future pandemic infection. We present detailed characteristics of the situation in a ward which used to treat non-infectious patients with diabetes only and, nowadays, has been obliged to take into account the risk of spreading SARS-Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) infection also. Moreover, we suggest solutions to avoid cases of infectious diseases in non-infectious wards in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Noncommunicable Diseases , China , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Rural Health , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254339, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309961

ABSTRACT

In Dec 2020 Brazil became one of the worldwide epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic with more than 7.2M reported cases. Brazil has a large territory with unequal distribution of healthcare resources including physicians. Resource limitation has been one of the main factors hampering Brazil's response to the COVID-19 crisis. Telemedicine has been an effective approach for COVID-19 management as it allows to reduce the risk of cross-contamination and provides support to remote rural locations. Here we present the analyses of teleconsultations from a countrywide telemedicine service (TelessáudeRS-UFRGS, TRS), that provides physician-to-physician remote support during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. We performed a descriptive analysis of the teleconsultation incoming calls and a text analysis from the call transcripts. Our findings indicate that TRS teleconsultations in Brazil experienced an exponential increment of 802.% during a period of 6 days, after the first death due to COVID-19 was reported. However, the number of teleconsultations cases decreased over time, despite the number of reported COVID-19 cases continuously increasing. The results also showed that physicians in low-income municipalities, based on GDP per capita, are less likely to consult the telemedicine service despite facing higher rates of COVID-19 cases. The text analysis of call transcripts from medical teleconsultations showed that the main concern of physicians were "asymptomatic" patients. We suggest an immediate reinforcement of telehealth services in the regions of lower income as a strategy to support COVID-19 management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Physicians , Primary Health Care , Remote Consultation/methods , Rural Health , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
12.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(3): 6464, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308598

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many rural hospitals and health systems in the USA lack sufficient resources to treat COVID-19. St Lawrence Health (SLH) developed a system for managing inpatient COVID-19 hospital admissions in St Lawrence County, an underserved rural county that is the largest county in New York State. METHODS: SLH used a hub-and-spoke system to route COVID-19 patients to its flagship hospital. It further assembled a small clinical team to manage admitted COVID-19 patients and to stay abreast of a quickly changing body of literature and standard of care. A review of clinical data was completed for patients who were treated by SLH's inpatient COVID-19 treatment team between 20 March and 22 May 2020. RESULTS: Twenty COVID-19 patients were identified. Sixteen patients (80%) met National Institutes of Health criteria for severe or critical disease. One patient died. No patients were transferred to other hospitals. CONCLUSION: During the first 2 months of the pandemic, the authors were able to manage hospitalized COVID-19 patients in their rural community. Development of similar treatment models in other rural areas should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitals, Rural/organization & administration , Humans , Male , New York
14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(7): e967-e976, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been remarkable progress in the treatment of HIV throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but there are few data on the prevalence and overlap of other significant causes of disease in HIV endemic populations. Our aim was to identify the prevalence and overlap of infectious and non-communicable diseases in such a population in rural South Africa. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional study of eligible adolescents and adults from the Africa Health Research Institute demographic surveillance area in the uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The participants, who were 15 years or older, were invited to participate at a mobile health camp. Medical history for HIV, tuberculosis, hypertension, and diabetes was established through a questionnaire. Blood pressure measurements, chest x-rays, and tests of blood and sputum were taken to estimate the population prevalence and geospatial distribution of HIV, active and lifetime tuberculosis, elevated blood glucose, elevated blood pressure, and combinations of these. FINDINGS: 17 118 adolescents and adults were recruited from May 25, 2018, to Nov 28, 2019, and assessed. Overall, 52·1% (95% CI 51·3-52·9) had at least one active disease. 34·2% (33·5-34·9) had HIV, 1·4% (1·2-1·6) had active tuberculosis, 21·8% (21·2-22·4) had lifetime tuberculosis, 8·5% (8·1-8·9) had elevated blood glucose, and 23·0% (22·4-23·6) had elevated blood pressure. Appropriate treatment and optimal disease control was highest for HIV (78·1%), and lower for elevated blood pressure (42·5%), active tuberculosis (29·6%), and elevated blood glucose (7·1%). Disease prevalence differed notably by sex, across age groups, and geospatially: men had a higher prevalence of active and lifetime tuberculosis, whereas women had a substantially high prevalence of HIV at 30-49 years and an increasing prevalence of multiple and poorly controlled non-communicable diseases when older than 50 years. INTERPRETATION: We found a convergence of infectious and non-communicable disease epidemics in a rural South African population, with HIV well treated relative to all other diseases, but tuberculosis, elevated blood glucose, and elevated blood pressure poorly diagnosed and treated. A public health response that expands the successes of the HIV testing and treatment programme to provide multidisease care targeted to specific populations is required to optimise health in such settings in sub-Saharan Africa. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the South African Department of Science and Innovation, South African Medical Research Council, and South African Population Research Infrastructure Network. TRANSLATION: For the isiZulu translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Epidemics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Prevalence , South Africa/epidemiology
16.
J Rural Health ; 37(3): 460-466, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280349

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In an era of the COVID-19 pandemic, improving health outcomes for diverse rural communities requires collective and sustained actions across transdisciplinary researchers, intersectoral partners, multilevel government action, and authentic engagement with those who carry the burden-rural communities. METHODS: Drawing from an analysis of transcriptions and documents from a national workshop on the "State of Rural Health Disparities: Research Gaps and Recommendations," this brief report underscores the gaps and priorities for future strategies for tackling persistent rural health inequities. FINDINGS: Four overarching recommendations were provided by national thought leaders in rural health: (1) create mechanisms to allow the rural research community time to build sustainable community-based participatory relationships; (2) support innovative research designs and approaches relevant to rural settings; (3) sustain effective interventions relevant to unique challenges in rural areas; and (4) recognize and identify the diversity within and across rural populations and adapt culturally and language-appropriate approaches. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 public health crisis has exacerbated disparities for rural communities and underscored the need for diverse community-centered approaches in health research and dedicated funding to rural service agencies and populations.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Rural Health , Rural Population , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 98: 107884, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267707

ABSTRACT

Performing a cohort-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay is crucial for understanding infection status and future decision-making. The objective of this study was to examine consecutive antibody seroprevalence changes among hospital staff, a high-risk population. A two-time survey was performed in May and October 2020 for 545 hospital staff to investigate the changes in the results of the rapid kit test and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The seroprevalence of each assay was summarized at both the survey periods. The proportion of seropositive individuals in the CLIA for each survey period and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Central Fukushima were then compared. We chose 515 participants for the analysis. The proportion of IgM seroprevalence in CLIA increased from 0.19% in May to 0.39% in October, and IgG seroprevalence decreased from 0.97% in May to 0.39% in October. The proportion of IgM seroprevalence in the rapid kit test decreased from 7.96% in May to 3.50% in October, and IgG seroprevalence decreased from 7.77% in May to 2.14% in October. The IgG and IgM antibody seroprevalence among hospital staff in rural Central Fukushima decreased; the seroprevalence among hospital staff was consistent with the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the Central Fukushima area. Although it is difficult to interpret the results of the antibody assay in a population with a low prior probability, constant follow-up surveys of antibody titers among hospital staff had several merits in obtaining a set of criteria regarding the accuracy of measures against COVID-19 and estimating the COVID-19 infection status among hospital staff.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Personnel, Hospital , Rural Health , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors
18.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(3 May-Jun): 444-451, 2021 May 03.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259814

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Describir el diseño y los resultados de campo de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2020 so-bre Covid-19. Material y métodos. La Ensanut Covid-19 es una encuesta probabilística de hogares. En este artículo se describen los siguientes elementos del diseño: alcance, muestreo, medición, inferencia y logística. Resultados. Se obtuvieron 10 216 entrevistas de hogar completas y 9 464 resultados sobre seropositividad a SARS-CoV-2. La tasa de respuesta de hogar fue 80% y la de prueba de seropositividad de 44%. Conclusiones. El diseño probabilístico de la Ensa-nut Covid-19 permite hacer inferencias estadísticas válidas sobre parámetros de interés para la salud pública a nivel nacional y regional; en particular, permitirá hacer inferencias de utilidad práctica sobre la prevalencia de seropositividad a SARS-CoV-2 en México. Además, la Ensanut Covid-19 podrá ser comparada con Ensanut previas para identificar potenciales cambios en los estados de salud y nutrición de la población mexicana.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Indicators , Nutrition Surveys/methods , Age Distribution , COVID-19/transmission , Censuses , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Sample Size , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data
19.
Semergen ; 47(3): 181-188, 2021 Apr.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253629

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the social distance effect on the daily frequency of possible SARS-CoV-2 cases in Primary Care, in relation to the predictive model Kermack-McKendrick. METHODS: Longitudinal retrospective study in 2 rural populations of Aragon (13,579h). A time series evaluation with a t-Student analysis was carry on, during the first 70 days of the pandemic. A simple Kermack-McKendrick predictive model was compared with the possible COVID-19 cases. Complementary ANOVA analysis to assess the before-after number of daily cases, follow-up days and days from symptoms onset to first contact with Primary Health Care. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty-nine cases were detected (53.4% women; 70.7% under 60). Primary Care followed 95.3% of cases. The number of cases during the first social distancing strategies was higher in comparison with the model (P=.004, P=.006 and P=.004) with a media of decreases of 6.7 possible cases by series. In relation to the lockdown period the model and cases are close (P=.608 and P=.093), with an average decrease of 1.8 cases per series. During post-containment, the number of cases per day (P<.001) and days of follow-up (P<.001) increased. CONCLUSIONS: Social distancing and containment measures were effective in reducing the number of possible COVID-19 cases in rural areas. Primary Care followed most of the cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
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