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1.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 37(1): 25, 2023 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239355

ABSTRACT

Richard L. Martin III, MD, MPH, and Stephen Schleicher, MD, MBA, share a perspective on rural cancer care.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Rural Population , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy
2.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 528-546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238115

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in 2020 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of case-based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility in cases notified in 2020, data from Statistics Poland on deaths from tuberculosis in 2019, data from National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Research Institute (NIPH NIH - NRI) on HIV-positive subjects for whom TB was an AIDS-defining disease, data from the report "European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2022 - 2020 data. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe and Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2022." RESULTS: In 2020, 3,388 TB cases were reported in Poland. The incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 100,000 with large variability between voivodeships from 5.5 to 13.3 per 100,000. A decrease in the incidence was found in 15 voivodeships, the most significant in Slaskie voivodship (63.9%). The number of all pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 3,237 i.e. 8.4 per 100,000. Pulmonary cases represented 95.5% of all TB cases. In 2020, 151 extrapulmonary TB cases were notified (4.5% of all TB cases). Pulmonary tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 2,573 cases (79.5% of all pulmonary TB cases, the incidence rate 6.7 per 100,000). The number of smear-positive pulmonary TB cases was 1,771 i.e. 4.6 per 100,000 (54.7% of all pulmonary TB cases). In 2020, there were 38 cases (15 of foreign origin) with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) representing 1.6% of cases with known drug sensitivity. The incidence rates of tuberculosis were growing along with increasing age from 0.7 per 100,000 among children (0-14 years) to 15.0 per 100,000 among subjects in the age group 45-64 years, the incidence rate in the age group ≥65 years was 12.1 per 100,000. There were 39 cases in children up to 14 years of age (1.2% of the total) and 49 cases in adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age - rates 0.7 and 2.7 per 100,000 respectively. In 2020, there were 2,506 cases of tuberculosis in men and 882 in women. The TB incidence in men - 13.5 per 100,000 was 3.0 times higher than among women - 4.5. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 50-54 years - 26.8 vs. 4.1 and in age group 55 to 59 years - 28.7 vs. 4.8. In 2020, there were 116 patients of foreign origin among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (3.4%). In 2019, TB was the cause of death for 456 people (mortality rate - 1.2 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: TB incidence in Poland in 2020 was 36.7% lower than in 2019. Such significant declines in the incidence have not been observed in the last two decades. As in previous years, there were differences in incidence rates between voivodeships with an unexpectedly sharp decrease in incidence in Silesia (Slaskie voivodeship). The percentage of tuberculosis cases with bacteriological confirmation exceeded 78%, more than in EU/EEA countries (67.3%). The percentage of MDR-TB cases was still lower than the average in EU/EEA countries (1.6% vs. 3.8%). The highest incidence rates were found in Poland in the older age groups (EU/EEAaged 25 to 44). The percentage of children up to 14 years of age among the total number of TB patients was 1.2%, less than the average in EU/EEA countries (3.8%). The incidence of tuberculosis in men was three times higher than in women in Poland, and six times higher in patients aged 50 to 59. The impact of migration on the TB pattern in Poland has not yet become significant in 2020. The percentage of foreigners among TB patients was 3.4% (33% in EU/EEA countries).


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Child , Male , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Child, Preschool , Poland/epidemiology , Urban Population , Age Distribution , Rural Population , Sex Distribution , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Incidence
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 109(1): 76-89, 2023 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237554

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, the Zambian Ministry of Health instituted prevention guidelines to limit spread of COVID-19. We assessed community knowledge, motivations, behavioral skills, and perceived community adherence to prevention behaviors (i.e., hand hygiene, mask wearing, social distancing, and limiting gatherings). Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial in four rural districts, in November 2020 and May 2021, we conducted in-depth interviews with health center staff (N = 19) and community-based volunteers (N = 34) and focus group discussions with community members (N = 281). A content analysis was conducted in Nvivo v12. Data were interpreted using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Generally, respondents showed good knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, spread, and high-risk activities, with some gaps. Prevention behavior performance was driven by personal and social factors. Respondents described institutional settings (e.g., clinics and church) having higher levels of perceived adherence due to stronger enforcement measures and clear leadership. Conversely, informal community settings (e.g., weddings, funerals, football matches) lacked similar social and leadership expectations for adherence and had lower perceived levels of adherence. These settings often involved higher emotions (excitement or grief), and many involved alcohol use, resulting in community members "forgetting" guidelines. Doubt about disease existence or need for precautions persisted among some community members and drove non-adherence more generally. Although COVID-19 information successfully penetrated these very remote rural communities, more targeted messaging may address persistent COVID-19 doubt and misinformation. Engaging local leaders in religious, civic, and traditional leadership positions could improve community behaviors without adding additional monitoring duties on an already overburdened, resource-limited health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Zambia/epidemiology , Rural Population , Information Motivation Behavioral Skills Model , Motivation
4.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1_suppl): 36S-41S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244626

ABSTRACT

Integrated behavioral health can improve primary care and mental health outcomes. Access to behavioral health and primary care services in Texas is in crisis because of high uninsurance rates, regulatory restrictions, and lack of workforce. To address gaps in access to care, a partnership formed among a large local mental health authority in central Texas, a federally designated rural health clinic, and the Texas A&M University School of Nursing to create an interprofessional team-based health care delivery model led by nurse practitioners in rural and medically underserved areas of central Texas. Academic-practice partners identified 5 clinics for an integrated behavioral health care delivery model. From July 1, 2020, through December 31, 2021, a total of 3183 patient visits were completed. Patients were predominantly female (n = 1719, 54%) and Hispanic (n = 1750, 55%); 1050 (33%) were living at or below the federal poverty level; and 1400 (44%) were uninsured. The purpose of this case study was to describe the first year of implementation of the integrated health care delivery model, barriers to implementation, challenges to sustainability, and successes. We analyzed data from multiple sources, including meeting minutes and agendas, grant reports, direct observations of clinic flow, and interviews with clinic staff, and identified common qualitative themes (eg, challenges to integration, sustainability of integration, outcome successes). Results revealed implementation challenges with the electronic health record, service integration, low staffing levels during a global pandemic, and effective communication. We also examined 2 patient cases to illustrate the success of integrated behavioral health and highlighted lessons learned from the implementation process, including the need for a robust electronic health record and organizational flexibility.


Subject(s)
Community Mental Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Hispanic or Latino , Nurse Practitioners , Patient-Centered Care , Female , Humans , Male , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Electronic Health Records , Mental Health , Rural Population , Medically Underserved Area , Texas , Medically Uninsured
5.
Ann Ital Chir ; 94: 195-202, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is having a worldwide impact on surgical treatment. Our aim was to investigate the impact of the pandemic in a rural hospital serving a low densely populated area. METHODS: We investigated the volume and type of surgical performed operations during both the pandemic (March 2020 - February 2021) and pre-pandemic periods (March 2019 - February 2020) as well as during the first and second pandemic waves compared to the pre-pandemic period. We compared the volume and timing of emergency appendectomy and cholecystectomy performed during the pandemic with those of the pre-pandemic period, doing the same with the volume, timing and stages of elective gastric and colorectal resections for cancer. RESULTS: In the pre-pandemic period a higher number of appendectomies (42 vs. 24) and urgent and elective cholecystectomies (174 vs. 126) was performed. The patients operated during the pandemic period (both for appendectomy and cholecystectomy) were on average older (58 vs. 52 years old, p=0.006), including for cholecystectomy (73 vs. 66 years old, p=0.01) and appendectomy (43 vs. 30 years old, p =0.04). The logistic regression analysis with regard to the cholecystectomies and appendectomies performed in emergency showed that male sex and age were associated with gangrenous type histology, both in the pandemic and pre-pandemic period. Finally, we found a reduction in the stage I and IIA colorectal cancers operated during the pandemic compared to those of the pre-pandemic period, with no increase of the advanced stages. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in services imposed by governments during the first months of total lock down could not justify the whole decrease in surgical interventions in the year of the pandemic. Data suggest that greater "non-operative management" for appendicitis and acute cholecystitis does not lead to an increase of cases operated over time, nor to an increase in the "gangrenous" pattern, this seems to depend on age advanced and male population. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Emergency Surgery, General Surgery, Pandemics.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Cholecystitis, Acute , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Rural Population , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystitis, Acute/surgery , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/surgery
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 89, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New York State (NYS) is the 27th largest state and the 4th most populous state in the U.S., with close to 20 million people in 62 counties. Territories with diverse populations present the best opportunity to study health outcomes and associated covariates, and how these differ across different populations and groups. The County Health Ranking and Roadmaps (CHR&R) ranks counties by linking the population's characteristics and health outcomes and contextual factors in a synchronic approach. METHODS: The goal of this study is to analyze the longitudinal trends in NYS counties of age-adjusted premature mortality rate and years of potential life loss rate (YPLL) from 2011-2020 using (CHR&R) data to identify similarities and trends among the counties of the state. This study used a weighted mixed regression model to analyze the longitudinal trend in health outcomes as a function of the time-varying covariates and clustered the 62 counties according to the trend over time in the covariates. RESULTS: Four clusters of counties were identified. Cluster 1, which represents 33 of the 62 counties in NYS, contains the most rural counties and the least racially and ethnically diverse counties. Clusters 2 and 3 mirror each other in most covariates and Cluster 4 is comprised of 3 counties (Bronx, Kings/Brooklyn, Queens) representing the most urban and racial and ethnic diverse counties in the state. CONCLUSION: The analysis clustered counties according to the longitudinal trends of the covariates, and by doing so identified clusters of counties that shared similar trends among the covariates, to later examine trends in the health outcomes through a regression model. The strength of this approach lies in the predictive feature of what is to come for the counties by understanding the covariates and setting prevention goals.


Subject(s)
Mortality, Premature , Rural Population , Humans , United States , New York/epidemiology
7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 34(7): 595-609, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314058

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Disparities in cancer care persist between patients living in rural versus urban areas. The COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted concerns related to care and personal health differently in rural cancer patients. Using survey data collected from cancer patients in western Pennsylvania, we examined pandemic-related distress, concerns related to cancer care, impact on personal health, and the extent to which these differed by urban-rural residence. METHODS: Patients filled out an initial survey in August-December 2020; a second survey was completed in March 2021. The following patient concerns related to the pandemic were evaluated: threat of COVID-19 to their health, pandemic-related distress, perceptions of cancer care, and vaccine hesitancy. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between these outcomes and urban-rural residence as well as patient-related factors, including anxiety symptoms and social support. RESULTS: The study sample included 1,980 patients, 17% resided in rural areas. COVID-19 represented a major or catastrophic threat to personal health for 39.7% of rural and 49.0% of urban patients (p = 0.0017). Patients with high general anxiety were 10-times more likely to experience pandemic-related distress (p < 0.001). In the follow-up survey (n = 983), vaccine hesitancy was twice as prevalent among rural patients compared to urban (p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: The extent to which perceptions of the threat of COVD-19 to personal health and vaccine hesitancy exacerbates rural-urban disparities in cancer care and prognosis warrants further study. Cancer patients may be vulnerable to heightened anxiety and distress triggered by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Rural Population , Anxiety , Neoplasms/epidemiology
8.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1160964, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317377

ABSTRACT

Background: Community engagement has shown to be fundamental component of the response to previous disease outbreaks. This study aimed co-design and implement a culturally appropriate COVID-19 risk communication and community engagement strategy with a resource-poor rural community in Northwest Pakistan. Methods: Participatory Action Research (PAR) was conducted from January 2021 to March 2022. Five PAR meetings took place with community members (n = 30) to: (1) explore how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted on the community; (2) identify challenges to limit the spread of the virus; (3) identify and implement solutions to these challenges; and (4) highlight the enablers, challenges and knowledge of the cultural context needed to optimize safety during emergencies. Focus group discussions (N = 6) with community members not involved in the PAR meetings (N = 50) and children of the community (N = 26) were conducted following the PAR meetings. Thematic analysis of the PAR and focus group data was conducted. Results: Delivery of messages on how to keep families safe, provision of personal protective equipment and improved water systems were part of the strategies taken by the community to create awareness and reduce the spread of COVID-19. Nine themes were identified: Attitudes to the pandemic: From skepticism to acceptance, Changing attitudes about vaccination: rumors and trust, COVID-19 and Faith, Social impact of the pandemic, Access to water, Resource mobilization: personal protective equipment, Spaces where collaborative effort can bring to solutions, Agents of change, and Empowerment of women. Discussion: The participatory approach of this research allowed understanding of the challenges faced by the community to engage in behavior change strategies to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and enabled the community to find sustainable solutions. Engagement with the community empowered men and women to be agents of change and promoted necessary precautionary actions to reduce the risk of infection within their community. Conclusion: Participatory approach highlighted the importance of engaging with and integrating to local culture and values to overcome challenges such as gender imbalance and distrust. Findings of this study are relevant to others working in diverse cultural settings in similar crises events regardless of particular cultural variations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Rural Population , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Services Research , Communication
9.
J Biosoc Sci ; 54(2): 163-183, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312319

ABSTRACT

Utilization of health care facilities for child delivery is associated with improved maternal and neonatal outcomes, but less than half of mothers use these for child delivery in Nigeria. This study investigated the factors associated with facility delivery in Nigeria, and their variation between the Northern and Southern parts of the country - two regions with distinct socio-cultural make-ups. The study included 33,924 mothers aged 15-49 who had given birth in the last 5 years preceding the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Overall, higher age, being educated, being a Christian, being an urban resident, being exposed to mass media, making joint decisions with partner on health care, beginning antenatal visits in the first trimester and attending antenatal clinics frequently were found to be associated with improved use of a health care facility for child delivery. An average mother in Northern Nigeria had a 38% chance of having a facility-based delivery, whereas the likelihood in the South was 76%. When other factors were adjusted for, age and listening to the radio were significant predictors of facility-based delivery in the South but not in the North. In the North, Christians were more likely than Muslims to have a facility-based delivery, but the reverse was true in the South. Rural women in the South had a 16% greater chance of having a facility-based delivery than urban women in the North. The study results suggest that there is inequality in access to health care facilities in Nigeria, and the differences in the socio-cultural make-up of the two regions suggest that uniform intervention programmes may not yield similar results across the regions. The findings give credence to, and expand on, the Cosmopolitan-Success and Conservative-Failure Hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Delivery, Obstetric , Mothers , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 59, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poverty vulnerability has been defined as the likelihood of a family falling into poverty in the upcoming months. Inequality is a major cause of poverty vulnerability in developing countries. There is evidence that establishing effective government subsidies and public service mechanisms significantly reduces health poverty vulnerability. One of the ways to study poverty vulnerability is by using empirical data such as income elasticity of demand to perform the analysis. Income elasticity refers to the extent to which changes in consumers' income affect changes in demand for commodities or public goods. In this work, we assess health poverty vulnerability in rural and urban China. We provide two levels of evidence on the marginal effects of the design and implementation of government subsidies and public mechanisms in reducing health poverty vulnerability, before and after incorporating the income elasticity of demand for health. METHODS: Multidimensional physical and mental health poverty indexes, according to the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative and the Andersen model, were implemented to measure health poverty vulnerability by using the 2018 China Family Panel Survey database (CFPS) as the data source for empirical analysis. The income elasticity of demand for health care was used as the key mediating variable of impact. Our assessment was conducted by a two-level multidimensional logistic regression using STATA16 software. RESULTS: The first level regression indicates that the marginal utility of public mechanism (PM) in reducing urban and rural vulnerability as expected poverty on physical and mental health (VEP-PH&MH) was insignificant. On the other hand, government subsidies (GS) policies had a positive suppression effect on VEP-PH&MH to a relatively low degree. The second level regression found that given the diversity of health needs across individual households, i.e., the income elasticity of demand (HE) for health care products, PM and GS policies have a significant effect in reducing VEP-PH&MH in rural and urban areas. Our analysis has verified the significant positive impact of enacting accurate GS and PM policies on effectively reducing VEP-PH&MH in rural as well as urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that implementing government subsidies and public mechanisms has a positive marginal effect on reducing VEP-PH&MH. Meanwhile, there are individual variations in health demands, urban-rural disparities, and regional disparities in the effects of GS and PM on inhibiting VEP-PH&MH. Therefore, special consideration needs to be given to the differences in the degree of health needs of individual residents among urban and rural areas and regions with varying economic development. Furthermore, considerations of this approach in the current worldwide scenario are analyzed.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Poverty , Humans , Income , Delivery of Health Care , Rural Population , Financing, Government , China
11.
J Rural Health ; 39(3): 625-635, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307495

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is little information as to how America's broadband infrastructure might impact recent efforts to expand access to virtual care for underserved communities. OBJECTIVE: To examine potential and realized access to broadband internet services within Medically Underserved Areas (MUAs) that rely on community health care service providers for primary care. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 214,946 US Census Block Group estimates from the 2017 and 2019 American Community Survey and the corresponding Federal Communications Commission database. Changes in household broadband subscription rates and Healthy People 2020 access thresholds within MUAs were assessed. FINDINGS: In 2019, 24,304 MUA households (31.9%) met Healthy People 2020 targets for broadband subscription rates, compared to 64.4% of non-MUA households (n = 89,285). On average, 74.7% of MUA households had a broadband internet subscription compared to 85.2% of non-MUA households, whereas 61.1% (n = 46,635) of MUA households had access to broadband speeds of at least 25.0 Mbps, compared to 75.6% (n = 104,696) of non-MUA households. Within urban households, there was a 0.8 to 1.3 to 1.6 annual percentage point convergence in MUA versus non-MUA broadband disparities between across quintiles (P < .05). Rural MUA households showed little improvement in broadband access between 2017 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS: There has been an overall convergence of broadband access disparities between MUA and non-MUA households over time, but less improvements in access among the most rural households. Reimbursement for audio-only telehealth visits by state Medicaid agencies would help drive down barriers to virtual health care options for populations residing in MUAs.


Subject(s)
Medically Underserved Area , Telemedicine , United States , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Rural Population
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293344

ABSTRACT

The use of short message service (SMS) text messaging technology has grown in popularity over the last twenty years, but there is limited data on the design and feasibility of campaigns to reduce work-related injury, particularly among rural workers, non-native English speakers, and illiterate or low-literacy populations. Although there is a critical need for tech equity or 'TechQuity' interventions that reduce injury and enhance the wellbeing of under-reached communities, the barriers and benefits to implementation must be empirically and systematically examined. Thus, our team used D&I science to design and implement an 18-week texting campaign for under-reached workers with a higher-than-average risk of fatal and non-fatal injury. The experimental project was conducted with English-, Spanish-, and Vietnamese-speaking commercial fishermen in the Gulf of Mexico to test the design and feasibility, and messaging focused on preventing injury from slips, trips, and falls, as well as hurricane preparedness. The ubiquity of mobile devices and the previous success of texting campaigns made this a promising approach for enhancing health and preventing injury among an under-reached population. However, the perceived benefits were not without their barriers. The lessons learned included the difficulty of navigating federal regulations regarding limits for special characters, enrolling migratory participants, and navigating areas with limited cellular service or populations with limited accessibility to technology. We conclude with short- and long-term suggestions for future technology interventions for under-reached worker populations, including ethical and policy regulations.


Subject(s)
Text Messaging , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Rural Population , Gulf of Mexico , Vietnam
13.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06011, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290652

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has been a major public health concern requiring continuous efforts for understanding its epidemiology. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have a wide range of clinical features ranging from asymptomatic infection to mild or severe illness with fatal outcomes or recovery. Population-based seroepidemiological studies are an effective method for measuring the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and monitoring the pandemic's progress. Methods: We conducted repeated cross-sectional community-based sentinel surveillance between January and June 2021 in the rural parts of the Pune district of Maharashtra, India to assess the seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in three age categories. We selected 30 clusters for each round using a proportional population sampling method and 30 individuals in each of the three age groups (1-17 years, 18-49 years, and ≥50 years). We took blood samples from consenting study participants to check for the presence of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in all five rounds. Results: We included 14 274 individuals across five rounds; 29% were from the 1-17, 39% from the 18-49, and 32% from the ≥50-year-old group. Overall seroprevalence combining all rounds was 45%. There was an increase in seropositivity in rounds four (51.15%) and five (58.32%) contributed mostly by adults. We found that about 72% of elderly individuals ≥50 years in round five were seropositive. The factors strongly associated with the seropositivity were being in contact with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) = 7.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.2-12.14), receiving at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 3.13 (95% CI = 0.70-14.07), being aged ≥50 years (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.81-2.15), and being in an occupation belonging to a high-risk category (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.65-2.26). Among 135 hospitalizations reported due to COVID-19-like illness, 91 (67%) were in the elderly age group of ≥50 and 33 (24%) were in the 18-49-year-old age group. Conclusions: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was high in the last two rounds (April to June 2021) which coincide with the second wave of the pandemic (Delta variant B.1.617.2) in India. Overall, one in three children and one in two adults had antibodies for SARS-CoV-2. The suspected or confirmed case of COVID-19 emerged as the significant factor strongly associated with the seropositivity followed by COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rural Population , Adult , Child , Aged , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , India/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Antibodies, Viral
14.
J Viral Hepat ; 30(5): 455-462, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301075

ABSTRACT

Despite a high prevalence, there are few successful models for de-centralizing diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We report baseline characteristics and 1 year retention outcomes for patients enrolled in a HBV clinic integrated within chronic disease services in a rural district hospital in Sierra Leone. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with HBV infection enrolled between 30 April 2019 and 30 April 2021. Patients were eligible for 1 year follow-up if enrolled before 28 February 2020. Treatment eligibility at baseline was defined as cirrhosis (diagnosed by clinical criteria of decompensated cirrhosis, ultrasonographic findings or aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio >2) or co-infection with HIV or HCV. Retention in care was defined as a documented follow-up visit at least 1 year after enrolment. We enrolled 623 individuals in care, median age of 30 years (IQR 23-40). Of 617 patients with available data, 97 (15.7%) had cirrhosis. Treatment was indicated among 113 (18.3%) patients and initiated among 74 (65.5%). Of 39 patients eligible for 1 year follow-up on treatment at baseline, 20 (51.3%) were retained at 1 year, among whom 12 (60.0%) had documented viral suppression. Among the 232 patients not initiated on treatment eligible for 1 year follow-up, 75 (32.3%) were retained at 1 year. Although further interventions are required to improve outcomes, our findings demonstrated feasibility of retention and treatment of patients with HBV infection in a rural district in Sub-Saharan Africa, when integrated with other chronic disease services.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Rural Population , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B virus , Hospitals, Public , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology
15.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 35(4): 322-323, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296660
16.
Rural Remote Health ; 23(2): 6651, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295310

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about instability in healthcare providers worldwide; this includes rural settings that had fewer cases of COVID-19 in the first year of the pandemic. This article examines the impact of COVID-19 on the surgical services offered at the Balfour Hospital, Orkney Islands, Scotland in the UK and the impact the pandemic had indirectly on the service in 2020. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective study concentrating on surgical services including emergency hospital presentations and the number of cancer diagnoses, specifically colorectal. Colorectal malignancies were specifically investigated as in the Balfour Hospital they are primarily diagnosed by surgeons. Focus was on diagnosis and outcomes between June 2020 and October 2020, in comparison with the previous year. This time period was chosen because surgical services reconvened after a period of inactivity due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The types of emergency admission into the Balfour Hospital during this time were examined, as well as delayed surgeries and the impact of delaying surgery. RESULTS: The data show that, although the prevalence of cancers diagnosed was static, patients presented at a much later stage, with significant impact on prognosis and quality of life. Aside from cancer diagnosis, non-urgent work was significantly disrupted due to the pandemic in 2020. The average waiting time for non-urgent clinic consultation increased from 6 weeks to 18 weeks during this period. The number of patients awaiting endoscopic investigations increased threefold. There was also an increase in the number of emergency admissions due to complications of disease. CONCLUSION: Although the effects of COVID-19 have been felt nationwide, the impact is more exaggerated in rural communities such as Orkney due to the small population. It is likely the indirect impact on surgical morbidity and mortality in Orkney in 2020 was disproportionately higher than the impact of COVID-19 in the local community. Furthermore, due to limited island resources, a significant number of patients required transfer to tertiary centres for management of complications. This is a unique issue affecting rural communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Rural Population
17.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 19(7): 501-508, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306509

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined changes in patterns of cancer-related deaths during the first year of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the United States. METHODS: We identified cancer-related deaths, defined as deaths attributable to cancer as the primary cause (underlying cause) or deaths with cancer documented as one of the multiple contributing factors (contributing cause) from the Multiple Cause of Death database (2015-2020). We compared age-standardized cancer-related annual and monthly mortality rates for January-December 2020 (first pandemic year) to January-December 2015-2019 (prepandemic) overall and stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, urban rural residence, and place of death. RESULTS: We found that the death rate (per 100,000 person-years) with cancer as the underlying cause was lower in 2020 compared with 2019 (144.1 v 146.2), continuing the past trend observed in 2015-2019. By contrast, the death rate with cancer as a contributing cause was higher in 2020 than in 2019 (164.1 v 162.0), reversing the continuously decreasing trend from 2015 to 2019. We projected 19,703 more deaths with cancer as a contributing cause than expected on the basis of historical trends. Mirroring pandemic peaks, the monthly death rates with cancer as a contributing cause first increased in April 2020 (rate ratio [RR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.04), subsequently declined in May and June 2020, and then increased again each month from July through December 2020 compared with 2019, with the highest RR in December (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.08). CONCLUSION: Death rates with cancer as the underlying cause continued to decrease in 2020 despite the increase in death rates with cancer as a contributing cause in 2020. Ongoing monitoring of long-term cancer-related mortality trends is warranted to assess effects of delays in cancer diagnosis and receipt of care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Rural Population
19.
Aust Health Rev ; 47(2): 239-245, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293650

ABSTRACT

Objective Phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) reduces cardiovascular risk factors, morbidity and mortality after a cardiac event. Traditional Australian CR programs are located in metropolitan areas and delivered by an expert, multidisciplinary team. Referral and uptake barriers for people living in rural and remote locations are significantly affected by geographical isolation. This scoping review aimed to explore how phase II CR services in rural and remote Australia are being delivered. Methods A scoping review was conducted to obtain all published literature relating to CR service delivery for people living in rural and remote Australia. A literature search of the following databases was performed in December 2021: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and PubMed. Results Six articles met the inclusion criteria. Study designs varied and included mixed methods, cross-sectional design and narrative review. Overall, literature relating to CR programs in rural and remote Australia was limited. Three themes were apparent: (1) barriers to the delivery of phase II CR in rural and remote Australia remain; (2) community centre-based programs do not reach all people in rural and remote Australia; and (3) alternative models of CR are underutilised. Conclusions Phase II CR programs in rural and remote Australia do not align with current recommendations for service delivery. The use of technology as a primary or adjunct model of delivery to support people living in rural and remote Australia needs to be further developed and implemented. Further research exploring barriers to the uptake of alternative models of CR delivery is recommended.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Medicine , Rural Health Services , Humans , Australia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Rural Population , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
20.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 14: 21501319231168022, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293631

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Despite the introduction of lung cancer screening using low dose computed tomography (LDCT), overall screening rates in the U.S. remain low, with certain populations including Black and rural communities experiencing additional disparities. The primary objective of this study was to understand the facilitators of lung cancer screening initiation and retention in Alabama reported by people at risk from mostly rural, mostly Black populations in Jefferson County-including the urban center of Birmingham-and 6 rural counties: Choctaw, Dallas, Greene, Hale, Marengo, and Sumter. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 58 people who underwent lung cancer screening between December 2019 and January 2022. Participant responses were recorded by the interviewer for analysis. Open-ended responses were coded to identify emergent themes. RESULTS: The most reported influences to initiate screening were information or suggestion from a Community Health Advisor (CHAs) or the supervising county coordinator, suggestion from a friend, or consideration of a personal history of smoking. Most participants reported multiple influences. Physicians were not very influential in decisions to initiate screening, but they were extremely influential in participants' intent to continue screening, both positively and negatively. Knowing the recommended timeline for their annual scans was also a predictor of intention to continue screening. Participants screened during the COVID-19 state of emergency expressed less certainty about dates of next scans and more ambivalence about intention to continue screening. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the benefit of using multiple methods to support increased awareness of and interest in lung cancer screening, particularly when educational messaging through CHAs is used. Clear guideline-based messages from healthcare providers about recommended screening is important for increasing retention. COVID-19 related implementation challenges impacted screening recruitment and retention. Future research is warranted to further explore use of CHAs in lung cancer screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control , Alabama , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Rural Population , Mass Screening/methods
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