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2.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 59, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the lung respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in the time course of COVID-19-associated respiratory failure is limited. This study aimed to explore respiratory mechanics and gas exchange, the lung recruitability and risk of overdistension during the time course of mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients (n = 116) with COVID-19 admitted into Intensive Care Units of Sechenov University. The primary endpoints were: «optimum¼ positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level balanced between the lowest driving pressure and the highest SpO2 and number of patients with recruitable lung on Days 1 and 7 of mechanical ventilation. We measured driving pressure at different levels of PEEP (14, 12, 10 and 8 cmH2O) with preset tidal volume, and with the increase of tidal volume by 100 ml and 200 ml at preset PEEP level, and calculated static respiratory system compliance (CRS), PaO2/FiO2, alveolar dead space and ventilatory ratio on Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21. RESULTS: The «optimum¼ PEEP levels on Day 1 were 11.0 (10.0-12.8) cmH2O and 10.0 (9.0-12.0) cmH2O on Day 7. Positive response to recruitment was observed on Day 1 in 27.6% and on Day 7 in 9.2% of patients. PEEP increase from 10 to 14 cmH2O and VT increase by 100 and 200 ml led to a significant decrease in CRS from Day 1 to Day 14 (p < 0.05). Ventilatory ratio was 2.2 (1.7-2,7) in non-survivors and in 1.9 (1.6-2.6) survivors on Day 1 and decreased on Day 7 in survivors only (p < 0.01). PaO2/FiO2 was 105.5 (76.2-141.7) mmHg in non-survivors on Day 1 and 136.6 (106.7-160.8) in survivors (p = 0.002). In survivors, PaO2/FiO2 rose on Day 3 (p = 0.008) and then between Days 7 and 10 (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Lung recruitability was low in COVID-19 and decreased during the course of the disease, but lung overdistension occurred at «intermediate¼ PEEP and VT levels. In survivors gas exchange improvements after Day 7 mismatched CRS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04445961 . Registered 24 June 2020-Retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Care/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Mechanics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Tidal Volume , Treatment Failure
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264072, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701675

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has posed a severe healthcare challenge calling for an integrated approach in determining the clues for early non-invasive diagnostics of the potentially severe cases and efficient patient stratification. Here we analyze the clinical, laboratory and CT scan characteristics associated with high risk of COVID-19-related death outcome in the cohort of severely-ill patients in Russia. The data obtained reveal that elevated dead lymphocyte counts, decreased early apoptotic lymphocytes, decreased CD14+/HLA-Dr+ monocytes, increased expression of JNK in PBMCs, elevated IL-17 and decreased PAI-1 serum levels are associated with a high risk of COVID-19-related mortality thus suggesting them to be new prognostic factors. This set of determinants could be used as early predictors of potentially severe course of COVID-19 for trials of prevention or timely treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-17/blood , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Russia/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262846, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662440

ABSTRACT

In many countries of the world, COVID-19 pandemic has led to exceptional changes in mortality trends. Some studies have tried to quantify the effects of Covid-19 in terms of a reduction in life expectancy at birth in 2020. However, these estimates might need to be updated now that, in most countries, the mortality data for the whole year are available. We used data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD) Short-Term Mortality Fluctuations (STMF) data series to estimate life expectancy in 2020 for several countries. The changes estimated using these data and the appropriate methodology seem to be more pessimistic than those that have been proposed so far: life expectancy dropped in the Russia by 2.16 years, 1.85 in USA, and 1.27 in England and Wales. The differences among countries are substantial: many countries (e.g. Denmark, Island, Norway, New Zealand, South Korea) saw a rather limited drop in life expectancy or have even seen an increase in life expectancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Life Expectancy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Developed Countries , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , New Zealand/epidemiology , Norway/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Russia/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2): 463-465, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650757

ABSTRACT

Population-based data on coronavirus disease in Russia and on the immunogenicity of the Sputnik V vaccine are sparse. In a survey of 1,080 residents of Arkhangelsk 40-75 years of age, 65% were seropositive for IgG. Fifteen percent of participants had been vaccinated; of those, 97% were seropositive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Russia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(6): 425-433, 2022 01 08.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The relevance of studying the circulation of human respiratory viruses among laboratory primates is associated with the need to test vaccines and antiviral drugs against these infections on monkeys.The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of serological and molecular markers of human respiratory viral infections in laboratory primates born at the Adler Primate Center and in imported monkeys. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood serum samples (n = 1971) and lung autopsy material (n = 26) were obtained from different monkey species. These samples were tested for the presence of serological markers of measles, parainfluenza (PI) types 1, 2, 3, influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial (RS) and adenovirus infections using enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Detection of RS virus, metapneumovirus, PI virus types 1-4, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and adenoviruses B, C, E and bocavirus nucleic acids in this material was performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The overall prevalence of antibodies (Abs) among all monkeys was low and amounted 11.3% (95% CI: 9.2-13.7%, n = 811) for measles virus, 8.9% (95% CI: 6.2-12.2%, n = 381) for PI type 3 virus, 2.5% (95% CI: 0.8-5.6%, n = 204) for PI type 1 virus, and 7.7% (95% CI: 3.8-13.7%, n = 130) for adenoviruses. When testing 26 autopsy lung samples from monkeys of different species that died from pneumonia, 2 samples from Anubis baboons (Papio аnubis) were positive for of parainfluenza virus type 3 RNA. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the importance of the strict adherence to the terms of quarantine and mandatory testing of monkey sera for the presence of IgM antibodies to the measles virus that indicate the recent infection. The role of PI virus type 3 in the pathology of the respiratory tract in Anubis baboons has been established.


Subject(s)
Haplorhini/virology , Monkey Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Adenoviridae , Animals , Biomarkers , Coronavirus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Monkey Diseases/virology , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Russia/epidemiology
8.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(6): 1439-1445, 2021 Nov.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1558972

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) directly effected medical statistics service. The amendments to the Federal Law "On the Official Statistical Accounting and the System of State Statistics in the Russian Federation" adopted in December 2020, regulated the provision of primary statistical data according forms of Federal and industrial statistical observation in the format of electronic document signed with electronic signature. This required the development of system of collecting and processing statistical data at the Federal level applying new technological solutions. The purpose of the study. To analyze the changes in the system of collecting and processing annual reporting on medical statistics for 2020 during the pandemic of new coronavirus infection COVID-19. The analysis was made concerning both normative legal base regulating implementation of information systems and system of receiving annual reports for current and previous years. Also content analysis was applied and materials distributed Internet were used. In conditions of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic, instead of classical system of informational interaction at face-to-face coordination of annual report data, in extremely short terms new model of informational interaction of remote coordination and processing of annual report data was developed. The updated technological scheme was applied that included data transmission, remote coordination in VKS format, informing thriugh Telegram-channels and signing finalized forms with enhanced electronic digital signature. The complicated epidemiological situation regarding morbidity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) and as well as adoption of amendments in Federal legislation regarding provision of statistical observation forms in format of electronic document signed with electronic signature, required revision of format of statistical reports reception in 2020. The application of developed technology of collecting and processing annual reports data on medical statistics in online format permitted to dispense with both provision of hard copies versions of forms and reports and business trips of specialists from the subjects of the Russian Federation to Moscow that reduced expenses of the subjects of the Russian Federation when submitting annual reports. The developed mechanism of signing with unqualified electronic digital signature permitted to control data integrity. The applied mechanism for signing finalized concerted forms with enhanced electronic digital signature of public authority of the subject of the Russian Federation in the field of health protection ensured juridical significance of document provided. The establishment of base for further modernization of system of collecting statistical information from primary data, including subsequent implementation of structured electronic medical documents is proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Public Health , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538547

ABSTRACT

2014 marked the first emergence of avian influenza A(H5N8) in Jeonbuk Province, South Korea, which then quickly spread worldwide. In the midst of the 2020-2021 H5N8 outbreak, it spread to domestic poultry and wild waterfowl shorebirds, leading to the first human infection in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Despite being clinically asymptomatic and without direct human-to-human transmission, the World Health Organization stressed the need for continued risk assessment given the nature of Influenza to reassort and generate novel strains. Given its promiscuity and easy cross to humans, the urgency to understand the mechanisms of possible species jumping to avert disastrous pandemics is increasing. Addressing the epidemiology of H5N8, its mechanisms of species jumping and its implications, mutational and reassortment libraries can potentially be built, allowing them to be tested on various models complemented with deep-sequencing and automation. With knowledge on mutational patterns, cellular pathways, drug resistance mechanisms and effects of host proteins, we can be better prepared against H5N8 and other influenza A viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H5N8 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Birds/virology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Pandemics/veterinary , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Russia/epidemiology
10.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 192, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there is no clinical data pertaining to COVID-19 outcomes and safety of COVID-19 vaccination in Russian patients with genitourinary (GU) malignancies. Aim of our analysis was to describe the characteristics of the COVID-19 infection course as well as preliminary safety and efficacy of Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine in patients with active GU malignancies. METHODS: Patients were retrospectively identified at nine cancer centers in different regions. Patients were included if COVID-19 was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction. Data from additional patients with GU cancers who had no positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test before vaccination and who received two doses of Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V) between 11 February and 31 August 2021 were collected for safety assessment. Anonymized data were collected through an online registry covering demographics, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: The Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine was well tolerated; no grade 3-5 toxicities were reported in 112 vaccinated metastatic GU cancer patients. The most common grade 1 adverse events (81%) were injection site reactions (76%), flu-like illness (68%), and asthenia (49%). Five patients experienced grade 2 chills (4.5%) and 3 patients had grade 2 fever (2.7%). With median follow-up of 6.2 months, two COVID-19 cases were confirmed by RT-PCR test in the vaccine group (of 112 participants; 1.8%). Eighty-eight patients with COVID-19 disease were included in the analysis. The average age as of the study enrollment was 66 (range 39-81) and the majority of patients were male with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Thirty-six patients (41%) had evidence of metastatic disease, of these 22 patients were receiving systemic therapy. More than half of patients required hospitalization. Fifty-four patients (61%) experienced complications. Sixteen patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia required mechanical ventilator support. Sixteen patients (18%) died in a median of 23.5 days after the date of COVID-19 diagnosis was established. The 3-month survival rate was 82%. Clinical and/or radiographic progression of cancer during COVID-19 infection or the subsequent 3 months was observed in 10 patients (11.4%). CONCLUSION: Patients with GU malignancies are at increased risk of mortality from COVID-19 infection when compared to the general population. Vaccination could be safe in GU cancer patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Urogenital Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Urogenital Neoplasms/epidemiology
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(1): 147-157, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506384

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) have been reported with great variability and without standardization. In hospitalized patients, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of GI symptoms, factors associated with their occurrence, and variation at 1 month. METHODS: The GI-COVID-19 is a prospective, multicenter, controlled study. Patients with and without COVID-19 diagnosis were recruited at hospital admission and asked for GI symptoms at admission and after 1 month, using the validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire. RESULTS: The study included 2036 hospitalized patients. A total of 871 patients (575 COVID+ and 296 COVID-) were included for the primary analysis. GI symptoms occurred more frequently in patients with COVID-19 (59.7%; 343/575 patients) than in the control group (43.2%; 128/296 patients) (P < 0.001). Patients with COVID-19 complained of higher presence or intensity of nausea, diarrhea, loose stools, and urgency as compared with controls. At a 1-month follow-up, a reduction in the presence or intensity of GI symptoms was found in COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms at hospital admission. Nausea remained increased over controls. Factors significantly associated with nausea persistence in COVID-19 were female sex, high body mass index, the presence of dyspnea, and increased C-reactive protein levels. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of GI symptoms in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is higher than previously reported. Systemic and respiratory symptoms are often associated with GI complaints. Nausea may persist after the resolution of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Egypt/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Gastroenteritis/etiology , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Russia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 285: 259-264, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502267

ABSTRACT

Due to the specific circumstances related to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have enforced emergency measures such as self-isolation and restriction of movement and assembly, which are also directly affecting the functioning of their respective public health and judicial systems. The goal of this study is to identify the efficiency of the criminal sanctions in Russia that were introduced in the beginning of COVID-19 outbreak using machine learning methods. We have developed a regression model for the fine handed out, using random forest regression and XGBoost regression, and calculated the features importance parameters. We have developed classification models for the remission of the penalty and for setting a sentence using a gradient boosting classifier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Crime , Humans , Russia/epidemiology
14.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(5): 1066-1070, 2021 Sep.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478960

ABSTRACT

The article considers the problem of access to stomatological care, in particular to prosthetic dentistry, for people with limited health capacities in conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. The range of factors impeding to get quality dental services in state stomatological polyclinics and at home was established by empirical study organized in two Subjects of the Russian Federation located in the Central Federal Okrug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oral Medicine , Humans , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(5): 1060-1065, 2021 Sep.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478959

ABSTRACT

The article demonstrates that the restrictions introduced during the coronavirus pandemic affected the dynamics of mutual settlements between the territorial funds of the mandatory medical insurance (MMI, TFMMI). According to the results of the first nine months of 2020, medical institutions of a number of subjects were not able to earn even a half of the amount of sum that was presented for payment in 2019 on medical care support of patients from other regions. It was established that besides such relevant features of the Russian health care system as large territory, fragmentation of population, necessity to maintain a number of state medical institutions, there is also a number of factors that during the pandemic were most aggravated in those "weak" places in the MMI system that have been stagnating for a long time. Among them, insufficiently large listing of medical services covered by MMI, inability to provide medical services to all those in need due to shortage of equipment, working areas, qualified care, etc. It is noted that among the general trends of MMI, the Russian medical insurance system (not only that it is not a classical one), especially during the pandemic, is broken out of social insurance: two funds, structures, costs of informatization, etc. However, in Russia, even in such conditions, health care is funded through the MMI system up to 50%. The pandemic demonstrated that no private sector, no paid services, no commercial insurance companies can cover the whole spectrum of health care complicities during the pandemic crisis. Namely, the MMI system bore the brunt of the survival of medicine during the pandemic. It is concluded that namely the need in medical institutions with sufficient reserve of bed fund with MMI services can input into development of necessary stable basis for survival in difficult conditions of pandemic crisis. The proposal of the Audit Chamber of the Russian Federation of further reforming of the mandatory medical insurance system is considered reasonable and logical especially in difficult situation of struggle against COVID-19. The article also presents data concerning the state of MMI in 2020, at the height of the pandemic crisis in the regions of the Russian Federation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insurance , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Insurance, Health , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(5): 1047-1056, 2021 Sep.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478957

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the new corona-virus infection COVID-19 will be over only when population immunity will be developed. This condition can be achieved by both vaccination and surviving disease in natural way. The WHO recommends the first mode for achieving population immunity, since immune response to vaccine is similar to that one developed while surviving natural infection, but with minimal risks to health and life. The article presents the results of sociological survey organized with purpose of studying the attitude of Russians to vaccination against COVID-19 infection. The results of the survey demonstrated that at present, 22% of respondents are ready to be vaccinated i.e. they responded positively to the corresponding question. The following main factors determining population attitude to vaccination were identified. First, there is statistically significant correlation between vaccination readiness and education level: respondents with higher level of education are more likely to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Secondly, in general, the population is quite positive about the response of the National health care to the corona-virus pandemic. However, the percentage of population that is positive about vaccination can be higher if it would be possible to apply foreign-made vaccines in Russia. Thirdly, still there is large percentage of population believing that vaccination with medications that have not passed long-term clinical trials can result in health negative consequences. Fourthly, the majority of respondents experienced various manifestations of the pandemic on themselves: either they have been ill themselves, or their relatives and friends were ill or died and almost all of them somehow limited their common mobility.The survey results did not established statistically significant differences in distribution of responses among males and females. We assume that in order to develop positive attitude of population to vaccination, and specifically to Russian-made vaccines, more extensive information campaign is needed to be implemented. Also, significant increase of percentage of vaccinated population can be achieved if clearly defined requirements for availability of COVID-19 vaccination would be adopted on the international level. Actually, this is key condition for restoring international mobility and removing restrictions in national economies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 510-525, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are substantial public health threats in the region of Central Asia and the Caucasus, where the prevalence of these infections is currently rising. METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO was conducted with no publication date or language restrictions through October 2019. Additional data were also harvested from national surveillance reports, references found in discovered sources, and other "grey" literature. It included studies conducted on high-risk populations (people who inject drugs (PWID), female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), prisoners, and migrants) in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan; and the Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Northern Caucasus region of the Russian Federation. RESULTS: Wide ranges were noted for HIV prevalence: PWID 0-30.1%, MSM 0-25.1%, prisoners 0-22.8%, FSW 0-10.0%, and migrants 0.06-1.5%, with the highest prevalence of these high-risk groups reported in Kazakhstan (for PWID), Georgia (for MSM and prisoners) and Uzbekistan (for migrants). HCV prevalence also had a wide range: PWID 0.3-92.1%, MSM 0-18.9%, prisoners 23.8-49.7%, FSW 3.3-17.8%, and migrants 0.5-26.5%, with the highest prevalence reported in Georgia (92.1%), Kyrgyzstan (49.7%), and migrants from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (26.5%). Similarly, HBV prevalence had a wide range: PWID 2.8-79.7%, MSM 0-22.2%, prisoners 2.7-6.2%, FSW 18.4% (one study), and migrants 0.3-15.7%. CONCLUSION: In Central Asia and the Caucasus, prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV remains exceedingly high among selected populations, notably PWID and MSM.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Asia, Central/epidemiology , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Prisoners , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology , Sex Workers , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Transcaucasia/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258132, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448580

ABSTRACT

This confirmatory research investigates the influence of risk framing of COVID-19 on support for restrictive government policy based on two web survey experiments in Russia. Using 2x2 factorial design, we estimated two main effects-factors of risk severity (low vs. high) and object at risk (individual losses vs. losses to others). First, focusing on higher risks had a positive effect on support for the government's restrictive policy. Second, focusing on the losses for others did not produce stronger support for the restrictive policy compared to focusing on personal losses. However, we found a positive moderation effect of such prosocial values as universalism and benevolence. We found that those with prosocial values had a stronger positive effect in the "losses for others" condition and were more willing to support government restrictive policy when others were included. The effects found in our experimental study reveal both positive and negative aspects in risk communication during the pandemic, which may have a great and long-term impact on trust, attitudes, and behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Policy , Social Support , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Government , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5846-5852, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432417

ABSTRACT

Geographical variation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS--CoV--2) spread requires seroprevalence studies based on local tests, but robust validation is needed. We summarize an evaluation of antibody tests used in a serological study of SARS--CoV--2 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. We validated three different antibody assays: chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) Abbott Architect SARS--CoV--2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) CoronaPass total antibodies test, and ELISA SARS--CoV--2--IgG--EIA--BEST. Clinical sensitivity was estimated with the SARS--CoV--2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test as the gold standard using manufacturer recommended cutoff. Specificity was estimated using pre-pandemic sera samples. The median time between positive PCR test results and antibody tests was 21 weeks. Measures of concordance were calculated against the microneutralization test (MNA).Sensitivity was equal to 91.1% (95% confidence intervbal [CI]: 78.8-97.5), 90% (95% CI: 76.4-96.4), and 63.1% (95% CI [50.2-74.7]) for ELISA Coronapass, ELISA Vector-Best, and CMIA Abbott, respectively. Specificity was equal to 100% for all the tests. Comparison of receiver operating characteristics has shown lower AUC for CMIA Abbott. The cut-off SC/O ratio of 0.28 for CMIA Abbott resulted in a sensitivity of 80% at the same level of specificity. Less than 33% of the participants with positive antibody test results had neutralizing antibodies in titers 1:80 and above. Antibody assays results and MNA correlated moderately. This study encourages the use of local antibody tests and sets the reference for seroprevalence correction. Available tests' sensitivity allows detecting antibodies within the majority of PCR- positive individuals. The Abbott assay sensitivity can be improved by incorporating a new cut-off. Manufacturers' test characteristics may introduce bias into the study results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoassay , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(9): 1107-1120, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequalae of COVID-19 remain poorly characterized. We assessed persistent symptoms in previously hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and assessed potential risk factors. METHODS: Data were collected from patients discharged from 4 hospitals in Moscow, Russia between 8 April and 10 July 2020. Participants were interviewed via telephone using an ISARIC Long-term Follow-up Study questionnaire. RESULTS: 2,649 of 4755 (56%) discharged patients were successfully evaluated, at median 218 (IQR 200, 236) days post-discharge. COVID-19 diagnosis was clinical in 1291 and molecular in 1358. Most cases were mild, but 902 (34%) required supplemental oxygen and 68 (2.6%) needed ventilatory support. Median age was 56 years (IQR 46, 66) and 1,353 (51.1%) were women. Persistent symptoms were reported by 1247 (47.1%) participants, with fatigue (21.2%), shortness of breath (14.5%) and forgetfulness (9.1%) the most common symptoms and chronic fatigue (25%) and respiratory (17.2%) the most common symptom categories. Female sex was associated with any persistent symptom category OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.17) with association being strongest for dermatological (3.26, 2.36 to 4.57) symptoms. Asthma and chronic pulmonary disease were not associated with persistent symptoms overall, but asthma was associated with neurological (1.95, 1.25 to 2.98) and mood and behavioural changes (2.02, 1.24 to 3.18), and chronic pulmonary disease was associated with chronic fatigue (1.68, 1.21 to 2.32). CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of adults admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 reported persistent symptoms 6 to 8 months after discharge. Fatigue and respiratory symptoms were most common, and female sex was associated with persistent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology
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