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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(5): 955-965, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669366

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms that lead to cognitive impairment associated with COVID-19 are not well understood. METHODS: Brain lysates from control and COVID-19 patients were analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling pathway markers, and measurements of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked signaling biochemistry. Post-translational modifications of the ryanodine receptor/calcium (Ca2+ ) release channels (RyR) on the endoplasmic reticuli (ER), known to be linked to AD, were also measured by co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting of the brain lysates. RESULTS: We provide evidence linking SARS-CoV-2 infection to activation of TGF-ß signaling and oxidative overload. The neuropathological pathways causing tau hyperphosphorylation typically associated with AD were also shown to be activated in COVID-19 patients. RyR2 in COVID-19 brains demonstrated a "leaky" phenotype, which can promote cognitive and behavioral defects. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 neuropathology includes AD-like features and leaky RyR2 channels could be a therapeutic target for amelioration of some cognitive defects associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and long COVID.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Humans , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/genetics , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(7): 3136-3144, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis via excessive and pathological Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through ryanodine receptor (RyRs) Ca2+ channels play a critical role in the pathology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and associated multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in sepsis or septic shock. Dantrolene, a potent inhibitor of RyRs, is expected to ameliorate SIRS and MODS and decrease mortality in sepsis or septic shock patients. This review summarized the potential mechanisms of therapeutic effects of dantrolene in sepsis or septic shock at molecular, cell, and organ levels and provided suggestions and strategies for future clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Dantrolene/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Humans , Mortality , Multiple Organ Failure , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Shock, Septic/metabolism
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