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2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 901055, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123411

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the light of the current COVID-19 epidemic and the availability of effective vaccines, this study aims to identify factors associated with non-response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines as immunological alteration associated with immune rheumatic diseases (IRD) and immunosuppressive medications may impair the response to vaccination. Methods: Volunteers in the health profession community with IRD, age, and sex-matched controls (CTRL) who underwent vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 were recruited for this study. Anti-Trimeric Spike protein antibodies were assayed eight ± one weeks after the second vaccine dose. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with non-response and low antibody titers. Results: Samples were obtained from 237 IRD patients (m/f 73/164, mean age 57, CI 95% [56-59]): 4 autoinflammatory diseases (AI), 62 connective tissue diseases (CTD), 86 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 71 spondylarthritis (SpA) and 14 vasculitis (Vsc). 232 CTRL were recruited (m/f 71/161, mean age 57, CI 95% [56-58]). Globally, IRD had a lower seroconversion rate (88.6% vs 99.6%, CI 95% OR [1.61-5.73], p<0.001) and lower antibody titer compared to controls (median (IQR) 403 (131.5-1012) versus 1160 (702.5-1675), p<0.001). After logistic regression, age, corticosteroid (CCS), Abatacept and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) use were associated with non-response. Lower antibody titer was associated with the use of MMF, ABA, CCS, Rituximab, tumor necrosis factor inhibitor, JAK inhibitors, and higher age. Conclusion: The response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is often impaired in IRD patients under treatment and may pose them at higher risk of severe COVID-19. Specific vaccination protocols are desirable for these patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines/pharmacology
3.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 123, 2022 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098309

ABSTRACT

The genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains many insertions/deletions (indels) from the genomes of other SARS-related coronaviruses. Some of the identified indels have recently reported to involve relatively long segments of 10-300 consecutive bases and with diverse RNA sequences around gaps between virus species, both of which are different characteristics from the classical shorter in-frame indels. These non-classical complex indels have been identified in non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3), the S1 domain of the spike (S), and open reading frame 8 (ORF8). To determine whether the occurrence of these non-classical indels in specific genomic regions is ubiquitous among broad species of SARS-related coronaviruses in different animal hosts, the present study compared SARS-related coronaviruses from humans (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2), bats (RaTG13 and Rc-o319), and pangolins (GX-P4L), by performing multiple sequence alignment. As a result, indel hotspots with diverse RNA sequences of different lengths between the viruses were confirmed in the Nsp2 gene (approximately 2500-2600 base positions in the overall 29,900 bases), Nsp3 gene (approximately 3000-3300 and 3800-3900 base positions), N-terminal domain of the spike protein (21,500-22,500 base positions), and ORF8 gene (27,800-28,200 base positions). Abnormally high rate of point mutations and complex indels in these regions suggest that the occurrence of mutations in these hotspots may be selectively neutral or even benefit the survival of the viruses. The presence of such indel hotspots has not been reported in different human SARS-CoV-2 strains in the last 2 years, suggesting a lower rate of indels in human SARS-CoV-2. Future studies to elucidate the mechanisms enabling the frequent development of long and complex indels in specific genomic regions of SARS-related coronaviruses would offer deeper insights into the process of viral evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , SARS Virus , Animals , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Phylogeny , COVID-19/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Pangolins
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6309, 2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087203

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus vaccines that are highly effective against current and anticipated SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed to control COVID-19. We previously reported a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-sortase A-conjugated ferritin nanoparticle (scNP) vaccine that induced neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and pre-emergent sarbecoviruses and protected non-human primates (NHPs) from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1 infection. Here, we find the RBD-scNP induced neutralizing antibodies in NHPs against pseudoviruses of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants including 614G, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/BA.5, and a designed variant with escape mutations, PMS20. Adjuvant studies demonstrate variant neutralization titers are highest with 3M-052-aqueous formulation (AF). Immunization twice with RBD-scNPs protect NHPs from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1, Beta, and Delta variant challenge, and protect mice from challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant and two other heterologous sarbecoviruses. These results demonstrate the ability of RBD-scNPs to induce broad neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and to protect animals from multiple different SARS-related viruses. Such a vaccine could provide broad immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , SARS Virus , Viral Vaccines , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Mice, Inbred BALB C , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Ferritins
7.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3448, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2054596

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze nurses' attitudes toward death in a hospital context after the critical period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal. Method: this quantitative, descriptive, exploratory study was conducted in a university hospital and addressed 995 nurses. Revised Death Attitude Profile (DAP-R) was used to collect data, which were analyzed using analytical and inferential statistics. Results: the nurses most frequently agreed with the statements concerning the Neutral/Neutrality Acceptance and Fear. Age, marital status, profession, and unit of work influenced the nurses' attitudes toward death. During the critical pandemic period, the nurses providing care to patients with COVID-19 presented the following means: Fear (28.89/±8.521) and Avoidance Acceptance (18.35/±7.116), which were higher than the mean obtained in the Escape Acceptance dimension, with significant differences (p=0.004). Conclusion: the nurses held Fear and Avoidance attitudes, revealing the need to qualify and support Nursing workers to cope with the death of those they provide care and manage pandemics and catastrophes.


Objective: analisar as atitudes dos enfermeiros frente à morte no contexto hospitalar após o período crítico da pandemia por COVID-19 em Portugal. Método: estudo quantitativo, descritivo, exploratório, realizado em um hospital universitário, com a participação de 995 enfermeiros. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se a Escala de Avaliação do Perfil de Atitudes acerca da Morte, sendo os dados analisados por meio de estatísticas analítica e inferencial. Resultados: a concordância dos enfermeiros foi mais elevada nas afirmativas relativas às atitudes de Aceitação Neutral/Neutralidade e Medo. A idade, o estado civil, a categoria profissional e a área de trabalho foram variáveis que influenciaram as atitudes face à morte. Durante o período crítico da pandemia, os enfermeiros em atendimento à COVID-19 apresentaram as médias das atitudes Medo (28,89/±8,521) e Evitamento (18,35/±7,116) superiores em relação à atitude Aceitação como Escape, que apresentou diferenças significativas (p=0,004). Conclusão: os enfermeiros adotaram posturas de Medo e Evitamento, o que revela a necessidade de investir-se na qualificação e no apoio dos profissionais de Enfermagem, para o enfrentamento da morte daqueles que cuidam e o manejo das pandemias e catástrofes.


Objetivo: analizar las actitudes de los enfermeros frente a la muerte en el contexto hospitalario después del período crítico de la pandemia por COVID-19 en Portugal. Método: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, realizado en un hospital universitario, con la participación de 995 enfermeros. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó la Escala de Evaluación del Perfil de Actitudes acerca de la Muerte. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de la estadística analítica e inferencial. Resultados: la concordancia de los enfermeros fue más elevada en las afirmaciones relativas a las actitudes de Aceptación Neutral/Neutralidad y Miedo. La edad, el estado civil, la categoría profesional y el área de trabajo fueron variables que influenciaron las actitudes frente a la muerte. Durante el período crítico de la pandemia, los enfermeros que atendían el COVID-19 presentaron las medias de las actitudes: Miedo (28,89/ ± 8,521) y Evitación (18,35/ ± 7,116), superiores a las actitudes de Aceptación, como Escape, que presentó diferencias significativas (p=0,004). Conclusión: los enfermeros adoptaron posturas de Miedo y Evitación, lo que revela la necesidad de realizar inversiones en la calificación y en apoyo de los profesionales de Enfermería, a fin de hacer frente a la muerte de quienes cuidan y gestionan las pandemias y los desastres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires , SARS Virus , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
8.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043992

ABSTRACT

Humans interact with virus-infected animal hosts, travel globally, and maintain social networks that allow for novel viruses to emerge and develop pandemic potential. There are key lessons-learned from the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that blood operators can apply to the next pandemic. Warning signals to the COVID-19 pandemic included outbreaks of Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the prior two decades. It will be critical to quickly determine whether there is a risk of blood-borne transmission of a new pandemic virus. Prior to the next pandemic blood operators should be prepared for changes in activities, policies, and procedures at all levels of the organization. Blood operators can utilize "Plan-Do-Study-Act" cycles spanning from: vigilance for emerging viruses, surveillance activities and studies, operational continuity, donor engagement and trust, and laboratory testing if required. Occupational health and donor safety issues will be key areas of focus even if the next pandemic virus is not transfusion transmitted. Blood operators may also be requested to engage in new activities such as the development of therapeutics or supporting public health surveillance activities. Activities such as scenario development, tabletop exercises, and drills will allow blood operators to prepare for the unknowns of the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Animals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043780

ABSTRACT

Global vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus has proved to be highly effective. However, the possibility of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) upon vaccination remains underinvestigated. Here, we aimed to theoretically determine conditions for the occurrence of ADE in COVID-19. We developed a series of mathematical models of antibody response: model Ab-a model of antibody formation; model Cv-a model of infection spread in the body; and a complete model, which combines the two others. The models describe experimental data on SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans and cell cultures, including viral load dynamics, seroconversion times and antibody concentration kinetics. The modelling revealed that a significant proportion of macrophages can become infected only if they bind antibodies with high probability. Thus, a high probability of macrophage infection and a sufficient amount of pre-existing antibodies are necessary for the development of ADE in SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, from the point of view of the dynamics of pneumocyte infection, the two cases where the body has a high concentration of preexisting antibodies and a high probability of macrophage infection and where there is a low concentration of antibodies in the body and no macrophage infection are indistinguishable. This conclusion could explain the lack of confirmed ADE cases for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Biomolecules ; 12(8)2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023131

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 belong to the family of "common cold" RNA coronaviruses, and they are responsible for the 2003 epidemic and the current pandemic with over 6.3 M deaths worldwide. The ORF3a gene is conserved in both viruses and codes for the accessory protein ORF3a, with unclear functions, possibly related to viral virulence and pathogenesis. The tyrosine-based YXXΦ motif (Φ: bulky hydrophobic residue-L/I/M/V/F) was originally discovered to mediate clathrin-dependent endocytosis of membrane-spanning proteins. Many viruses employ the YXXΦ motif to achieve efficient receptor-guided internalisation in host cells, maintain the structural integrity of their capsids and enhance viral replication. Importantly, this motif has been recently identified on the ORF3a proteins of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Given that the ORF3a aa sequence is not fully conserved between the two SARS viruses, we aimed to map in silico structural differences and putative sequence-driven alterations of regulatory elements within and adjacently to the YXXΦ motifs that could predict variations in ORF3a functions. Using robust bioinformatics tools, we investigated the presence of relevant post-translational modifications and the YXXΦ motif involvement in protein-protein interactions. Our study suggests that the predicted YXXΦ-related features may confer specific-yet to be discovered-functions to ORF3a proteins, significant to the new virus and related to enhanced propagation, host immune regulation and virulence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Peptides , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Mol Model ; 28(10): 305, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007156

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 severe acute respiratory syndrome, which was fatal for millions of people worldwide, triggered the race to understand in detail the molecular mechanisms of this disease. In this work, the differences of interactions between the SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Receptor binding domain (RBD) and the human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor were studied using in silico tools. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 RBD is more stable and forms more interactions with ACE2 than SARS-CoV. At its interface, three stable binding patterns are observed and named red-K31, green-K353 and blue-M82 according to the central ACE2 binding residue. In SARS-CoV instead, only the first two binding patches are persistently formed during the MD simulation. Our MM/GBSA calculations indicate the binding free energy difference of about 2.5 kcal/mol between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV which is compatible with the experiments. The binding free energy decomposition points out that SARS-CoV-2 RBD-ACE2 interactions of the red-K31 ([Formula: see text]) and blue-M82 ([Formula: see text]) patterns contribute more to the binding affinity than in SARS-CoV ([Formula: see text] for red-K31), while the contribution of the green-K353 pattern is very similar in the two strains ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, respectively). Five groups of mutations draw our attention at the RBD-ACE2 binding interface, among them, the mutation -PPA469-471/GVEG482-485 has the most important and favorable impact on SARS-CoV-2 binding to the ACE2 receptor. These results, highlighting the molecular differences in the binding between the two viruses, contribute to the common knowledge about the new corona virus and to the development of appropriate antiviral treatments, addressing the necessity of ongoing pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Binding Sites , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006226

ABSTRACT

Bats are a major global reservoir of alphacoronaviruses (alphaCoVs) and betaCoVs. Attempts to discover the causative agents of COVID-19 and SARS have revealed horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) to be the most probable source of the virus. We report the first detection of bat coronaviruses (BtCoVs) in insectivorous bats in Poland and highlight SARS-related coronaviruses found in Rhinolophidae bats. The study included 503 (397 oral swabs and 106 fecal) samples collected from 20 bat species. Genetically diverse BtCoVs (n = 20) of the Alpha- and Betacoronavirus genera were found in fecal samples of two bat species. SARS-related CoVs were in 18 out of 58 lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) samples (31%, 95% CI 20.6-43.8), and alphaCoVs were in 2 out of 55 Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) samples (3.6%, 95% CI 0.6-12.3). The overall BtCoV prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 2.6-6.1). High identity was determined for BtCoVs isolated from European M. daubentonii and R. hipposideros bats. The detection of SARS-related and alphaCoVs in Polish bats with high phylogenetic relatedness to reference BtCoVs isolated in different European countries but from the same species confirms their high host restriction. Our data elucidate the molecular epidemiology, prevalence, and geographic distribution of coronaviruses and particularly SARS-related types in the bat population.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , SARS Virus , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Phylogeny , Poland/epidemiology , SARS Virus/genetics
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 912717, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005867

ABSTRACT

We present evidence suggesting that the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus non-structural protein 13 (Nsp13) modulates the Z-RNA dependent regulated cell death pathways . We show that Z-prone sequences [called flipons] exist in coronavirus and provide a signature (Z-sig) that enables identification of the animal viruses from which the human pathogens arose. We also identify a potential RIP Homology Interaction Motif (RHIM) in the helicase Nsp13 that resembles those present in proteins that initiate Z-RNA-dependent cell death through interactions with the Z-RNA sensor protein ZBP1. These two observations allow us to suggest a model in which Nsp13 down regulates Z-RNA activated innate immunity by two distinct mechanisms. The first involves a novel ATP-independent Z-flipon helicase (flipase) activity in Nsp13 that differs from that of canonical A-RNA helicases. This flipase prevents formation of Z-RNAs that would otherwise activate cell death pathways. The second mechanism likely inhibits the interactions between ZBP1 and the Receptor Interacting Proteins Kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3 by targeting their RHIM domains. Together the described Nsp13 RHIM and flipase activities have the potential to alter the host response to coronaviruses and impact the design of drugs targeting the Nsp13 protein. The Z-sig and RHIM domains may provide a way of identifying previously uncharacterized viruses that are potentially pathogenic for humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Animals , Coronavirus/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA , SARS Virus/metabolism
14.
Mol Syst Biol ; 18(8): e10961, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994617

ABSTRACT

Cell-intrinsic responses mounted in PBMCs during mild and severe COVID-19 differ quantitatively and qualitatively. Whether they are triggered by signals emitted by productively infected cells of the respiratory tract or result from physical interaction with virus particles remains unclear. Here, we analyzed susceptibility and expression profiles of PBMCs from healthy donors upon ex vivo exposure to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. In line with the absence of detectable ACE2 receptor expression, human PBMCs were refractory to productive infection. RT-PCR experiments and single-cell RNA sequencing revealed JAK/STAT-dependent induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) but not proinflammatory cytokines. This SARS-CoV-2-specific response was most pronounced in monocytes. SARS-CoV-2-RNA-positive monocytes displayed a lower ISG signature as compared to bystander cells of the identical culture. This suggests a preferential invasion of cells with a low ISG baseline profile or delivery of a SARS-CoV-2-specific sensing antagonist upon efficient particle internalization. Together, nonproductive physical interaction of PBMCs with SARS-CoV-2- and, to a much lesser extent, SARS-CoV particles stimulate JAK/STAT-dependent, monocyte-accentuated innate immune responses that resemble those detected in vivo in patients with mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0074122, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992937

ABSTRACT

Within the past 2 decades, three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses have emerged, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The health threats and economic burden posed by these tremendously severe coronaviruses have paved the way for research on their etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Compared to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV genome encoded fewer accessory proteins, among which the ORF4b protein had anti-immunity ability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our work for the first time revealed that ORF4b protein was unstable in the host cells and could be degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system. After extensive screenings, it was found that UBR5 (ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 5), a member of the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, specifically regulated the ubiquitination and degradation of ORF4b. Similar to ORF4b, UBR5 can also translocate into the nucleus through its nuclear localization signal, enabling it to regulate ORF4b stability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Through further experiments, lysine 36 was identified as the ubiquitination site on the ORF4b protein, and this residue was highly conserved in various MERS-CoV strains isolated from different regions. When UBR5 was knocked down, the ability of ORF4b to suppress innate immunity was enhanced and MERS-CoV replication was stronger. As an anti-MERS-CoV host protein, UBR5 targets and degrades ORF4b protein through the ubiquitin proteasome system, thereby attenuating the anti-immunity ability of ORF4b and ultimately inhibiting MERS-CoV immune escape, which is a novel antagonistic mechanism of the host against MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE ORF4b was an accessory protein unique to MERS-CoV and was not present in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 which can also cause severe respiratory disease. Moreover, ORF4b inhibited the production of antiviral cytokines in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, which was likely to be associated with the high lethality of MERS-CoV. However, whether the host proteins regulate the function of ORF4b is unknown. Our study first determined that UBR5, a host E3 ligase, was a potential host anti-MERS-CoV protein that could reduce the protein level of ORF4b and diminish its anti-immunity ability by inducing ubiquitination and degradation. Based on the discovery of ORF4b-UBR5, a critical molecular target, further increasing the degradation of ORF4b caused by UBR5 could provide a new strategy for the clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Host Microbial Interactions , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2204256119, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991767

ABSTRACT

Antibody therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 have been highly successful. However, the recent emergence of the Omicron variant has posed a challenge, as it evades detection by most existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Here, we successfully generated a panel of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV cross-neutralizing antibodies by sequential immunization of the two pseudoviruses. Of the potential candidates, we found that nAbs X01, X10, and X17 offer broad neutralizing potential against most variants of concern, with X17 further identified as a Class 5 nAb with undiminished neutralization against the Omicron variant. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the three antibodies together in complex with each of the spike proteins of the prototypical SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 defined three nonoverlapping conserved epitopes on the receptor-binding domain. The triple-antibody mixture exhibited enhanced resistance to viral evasion and effective protection against infection of the Beta variant in hamsters. Our findings will aid the development of antibody therapeutics and broad vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Conserved Sequence , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mice , Neutralization Tests , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4782, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991594

ABSTRACT

The emergence of heavily mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) place the international community on high alert. In addition to numerous mutations that map in the spike protein of VOCs, expression of the viral accessory proteins ORF6 and ORF9b also elevate; both are potent interferon antagonists. Here, we present the crystal structures of Rae1-Nup98 in complex with the C-terminal tails (CTT) of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV ORF6 to 2.85 Å and 2.39 Å resolution, respectively. An invariant methionine (M) 58 residue of ORF6 CTT extends its side chain into a hydrophobic cavity in the Rae1 mRNA binding groove, resembling a bolt-fitting-hole; acidic residues flanking M58 form salt-bridges with Rae1. Our mutagenesis studies identify key residues of ORF6 important for its interaction with Rae1-Nup98 in vitro and in cells, of which M58 is irreplaceable. Furthermore, we show that ORF6-mediated blockade of mRNA and STAT1 nucleocytoplasmic transport correlate with the binding affinity between ORF6 and Rae1-Nup98. Finally, binding of ORF6 to Rae1-Nup98 is linked to ORF6-induced interferon antagonism. Taken together, this study reveals the molecular basis for the antagonistic function of Sarbecovirus ORF6, and implies a strategy of using ORF6 CTT-derived peptides for immunosuppressive drug development.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , Interferons/metabolism , Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4380, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984384

ABSTRACT

Emerging diseases caused by coronaviruses of likely bat origin (e.g., SARS, MERS, SADS, COVID-19) have disrupted global health and economies for two decades. Evidence suggests that some bat SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) could infect people directly, and that their spillover is more frequent than previously recognized. Each zoonotic spillover of a novel virus represents an opportunity for evolutionary adaptation and further spread; therefore, quantifying the extent of this spillover may help target prevention programs. We derive current range distributions for known bat SARSr-CoV hosts and quantify their overlap with human populations. We then use probabilistic risk assessment and data on human-bat contact, human viral seroprevalence, and antibody duration to estimate that a median of 66,280 people (95% CI: 65,351-67,131) are infected with SARSr-CoVs annually in Southeast Asia. These data on the geography and scale of spillover can be used to target surveillance and prevention programs for potential future bat-CoV emergence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , SARS Virus , Animals , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Phylogeny , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
J Inorg Biochem ; 236: 111953, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977520

ABSTRACT

A novel series of metal(II) complexes (1-5) [MII(L)2]{Where M = Cu (1), Co (2), Mn (3), Ni (4) and Zn (5)} constructed from 2-(4-morpholinobenzylideneamino)phenol Schiff base ligand (HL) in a 1:2 M ratio and the spectral and analytical results put forward square planar geometry. Spectro-electrochemical, hydrodynamic, gel electrophoresis, and DNA binding/cleavage results for all the compounds demonstrate that complex (1) had excellent DNA binding/cleavage properties compared to other compounds. The observation also suggests that test compounds could intercalate with DNA, and the biothermodynamic property more strongly supports the stabilizing of the double helix DNA with the complexes. BSA binding constant results show that complex (1) exposes the best binding property via a static mode, which is further confirmed by FRET calculations. The DFT calculations and docking results for all compounds towards DNA, BSA and SARS-CoV-19 main protease (3CLPro), reveal the binding energies were in the range of -7.8 to -9.4, -6.6 to -10.2 and - 6.1 - -8.2 kcal/mol for all test compounds respectively. In this case, complexes showed favorable binding energies compared to free ligand, which stimulates further studies aimed at validating the predicted activity as well as contributing to tackling the current and future viral pandemics. The in-vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer results for all compounds revealed that copper complex (1) has better activity compared to others. This might result in an effective anticancer drug for future research, which is especially promising since the observed experimental results for all cases were in close agreement with the theoretical calculations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antineoplastic Agents , Coordination Complexes , SARS Virus , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , DNA/chemistry , DNA Cleavage , Ligands , Metals/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Morpholines/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phenols , SARS Virus/metabolism , Schiff Bases/chemistry
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5669-5677, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976737

ABSTRACT

Due to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and emergent administration of various vaccines worldwide, comprehensive studies on the different aspects of vaccines are in demand. This study evaluated antibody response after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in the Children's Medical Center personnel. The blood samples of 174 healthcare workers were gathered at least 10 days after vaccination. The administered vaccines included Oxford/AstraZeneca, COVAXIN, Sinopharm, and Sputnik V. This study assessed all antibodies employing ELISA methods, including anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody by DiaZist and Pishtazteb kits, anti-SARS-CoV-2-nucleocapsid by Pishtazteb kit, and anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike by Razi kit. The cutoff for the tests' results was calculated according to the instructions of each kit. Totally, 174 individuals with an average age of 40 ± 9 years participated in this study, the proportion of men was 31%, and the frequency of past COVID-19 infection was 66 (38%). Sixteen (9%) personnel received Oxford/AstraZeneca, 28 (16%) COVAXIN, 29 (17%) Sinopharm, and 101 (58%) Sputnik V. anti-SARS-CoV-2-nucleocapsid and anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike were positive in 37 (21%), and 163 (94%) participants and their mean level were more in adenoviral-vectored vaccines (p value < 0.0001). Neutralizing antibody was positive in 74% using Pishtazteb kit while 87% using DiaZist kit. All antibodies' levels were significantly higher in those with a past COVID-19 infection (p value < 0.0001). In conclusion, Oxford/AstraZeneca and Sputnik V had a similar outcome of inducing high levels of anti-SARS-Cov-2-spike and neutralizing antibodies, which were more than Sinopharm and COVAXIN. The titers of Anti-SARS-CoV-2-nucleocapsid antibody were low in all of these four vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Health Personnel , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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