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2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1567-1579, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707709

ABSTRACT

Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have been identified from bats and other animal species. Like SARS-CoV, some bat SL-CoVs, such as WIV1, also use angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from human and bat as entry receptor. However, whether these viruses can also use the ACE2 of other animal species as their receptor remains to be determined. We report herein that WIV1 has a broader tropism to ACE2 orthologs than SARS-CoV isolate Tor2. Among the 9 ACE2 orthologs examined, human ACE2 exhibited the highest efficiency to mediate the infection of WIV1 pseudotyped virus. Our findings thus imply that WIV1 has the potential to infect a wide range of wild animals and may directly jump to humans. We also showed that cell entry of WIV1 could be restricted by interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs). However, WIV1 could exploit the airway protease TMPRSS2 to partially evade the IFITM3 restriction. Interestingly, we also found that amphotericin B could enhance the infectious entry of SARS-CoVs and SL-CoVs by evading IFITM3-mediated restriction. Collectively, our findings further underscore the risk of exposure to animal SL-CoVs and highlight the vulnerability of patients who take amphotericin B to infection by SL-CoVs, including the most recently emerging (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chiroptera/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Rats , SARS Virus/physiology , Viverridae
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692289

ABSTRACT

In the 21st century, three highly pathogenic betacoronaviruses have emerged, with an alarming rate of human morbidity and case fatality. Genomic information has been widely used to understand the pathogenesis, animal origin and mode of transmission of coronaviruses in the aftermath of the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. Furthermore, genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis have had an unprecedented relevance in the battle against the 2019-2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the newest and most devastating outbreak caused by a coronavirus in the history of mankind. Here, we review how genomic information has been used to tackle outbreaks caused by emerging, highly pathogenic, betacoronavirus strains, emphasizing on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We focus on shared genomic features of the betacoronaviruses and the application of genomic information to phylogenetic analysis, molecular epidemiology and the design of diagnostic systems, potential drugs and vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Design , Genes, Viral , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS Virus/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
5.
Postepy Biochem ; 66(2): 83-90, 2020 05 09.
Article in Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689005

ABSTRACT

In December 2019 in Wuhan, China the first cases of previously unknown, coronaviral infection-induced pneumonia have been reported. The new virus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) was named after SARS-CoV due to their similarities and the disease caused by the pathogen is COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019). On 11 March 2020 WHO (World Health Organization) defined the rapidly increasing number of incidents of COVID-19 as a pandemic. In this review we will present recent information about the SARS-CoV-2 focusing on the origin, clinical picture, diagnostic methods, structure, replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2 and potential pharmaceutical measures against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus
7.
J Med Virol ; 92(6): 584-588, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685102

ABSTRACT

Last December 2019, a new virus, named novel Coronavirus (COVID-2019) causing many cases of severe pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, China. The virus knowledge is limited and especially about COVID-2019 pathogenesis. The Open Reading Frame 1ab (ORF1ab) of COVID-2019 has been analyzed to evidence the presence of mutation caused by selective pressure on the virus. For selective pressure analysis fast-unconstrained Bayesian approximation (FUBAR) was used. Homology modelling has been performed by SwissModel and HHPred servers. The presence of transmembrane helical segments in Coronavirus ORF1ab non structural protein 2 (nsp2) and nsp3 was tested by TMHMM, MEMSAT, and MEMPACK tools. Three-dimensional structures have been analyzed and displayed using PyMOL. FUBAR analysis revealed the presence of potential sites under positive selective pressure (P < .05). Position 723 in the COVID-2019 has a serine instead a glycine residue, while at aminoacidic position 1010 a proline instead an isoleucine. Significant (P < .05) pervasive negative selection in 2416 sites (55%) was found. The positive selective pressure could account for some clinical features of this virus compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Bat SARS-like CoV. The stabilizing mutation falling in the endosome-associated-protein-like domain of the nsp2 protein could account for COVID-2019 high ability of contagious, while the destabilizing mutation in nsp3 proteins could suggest a potential mechanism differentiating COVID-2019 from SARS. These data could be helpful for further investigation aimed to identify potential therapeutic targets or vaccine strategy, especially in the actual moment when the epidemic is ongoing and the scientific community is trying to enrich knowledge about this new viral pathogen.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Male , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Selection, Genetic , Structural Homology, Protein , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
8.
Virol J ; 17(1): 117, 2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684739

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly across the world and become an international public health emergency. Both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV belong to subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae of the order Nidovirales and they are classified as the SARS-like species while belong to different cluster. Besides, viral structure, epidemiology characteristics and pathological characteristics are also different. We present a comprehensive survey of the latest coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2-from investigating its origin and evolution alongside SARS-CoV. Meanwhile, pathogenesis, cardiovascular disease in COVID-19 patients, myocardial injury and venous thromboembolism induced by SARS-CoV-2 as well as the treatment methods are summarized in this review.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/classification , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , Viral Proteins/chemistry
10.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(2): 63-75, jun. 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-679089

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar una guía que sirva para la interpretación y seguimiento de los esfuerzos que se están desarrollando en todo el mundo con el objetivo de obtener una vacuna que pueda generar inmunidad contra el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 de 2019, el agente causante de la enfermedad por coronavirus denominada COVID-19. Cinco meses después de haber sido detectada la enfermedad, ya hay 102 vacunas en distintos estadios de desarrollo, registradas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), correspondientes a 8 plataformas vacunales con diferentes estrategias, y todos los días aparecen nuevas. Esto representará un enorme desafío de organismos internacionales, para la evaluación, comparación y selección de aquellas que cumplan con los criterios regulatorios indispensables de seguridad y eficacia y que, por otro lado, puedan ser producidas en cantidades suficientes para abastecer la demanda mundial. (AU)


The objective of this article is to provide a guide to help the interpretation and monitoring the efforts that are being carried out worldwide to obtain a vaccine that will be able to generate immunity against the new 2019 SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the viral agent causes the disease named COVID-19. Five months after the disease was detected, there are already 102 vaccines at different stages of development, registered by World Health Organization (WHO), corresponding to 8 vaccination platforms base on different strategies, and every day new ones appear. This will represent a huge challenge for international organizations, to evaluate, compare and selects those that will meet the essential regulatory criteria of safety and efficacy and that, would be able to be produced in enough quantities to supply the worldwide demand. Key words: SARS-Cov-2 vaccine, vaccine platform, COVID-19 strategy, attenuated virus, viral vector, viral proteins, viral DNA, viral RNA, nucleic acids, viral like particles, WHO. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , DNA/therapeutic use , RNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Protein S/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS Virus/genetics , Disease Vectors
11.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(6): 511-512, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679135

ABSTRACT

We have read with interest the article published by Pérez et al., we really appreciate their interesting comments and would like to qualify some points. With the except of the clinical practice, currently there is no recommendation based on scientific evidence about the use of apheresis in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), and even less in Crohn's disease (CD). However, the results obtained in the case of Pérez et al. in relation to systemic inflammation and pulmonary clinical improvement are very interesting from a pathophysiological and clinical point of view.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , SARS Virus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Digestive System , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral
13.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 35(2): 227-234, 2020000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-664643

ABSTRACT

Durante los primeros meses de la pandemia por SARS-CoV 2 (Coronavirus 2 del Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo y Grave), el agente etiológico de la Enfermedad Infecciosa por Coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19), la actividad de donación y trasplante de órganos en todo el mundo se ha visto claramente afectada. Las principales razones que en este momento motivan el cese parcial o total de los trasplantes son: 1) la carga asistencial que genera el manejo de un potencial donante en la Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo (UCI), 2) el alto riesgo de contagio entre donante y receptor, 3) el riesgo de inmunosuprimir a un paciente en medio de la pandemia y 4) la escasez de camas de UCI. A pesar de que el mundo está enfrentando a una enfermedad emergente que merece especial atención, al mismo tiempo continúan prevaleciendo las complicaciones asociadas a las demás enfermedades, incluyendo las complicaciones de patologías crónicas en estado terminal. La decisión de continuar con los programas de trasplante se debe basar en el comportamiento local del virus y en la capacidad asistencial de cada una de las instituciones. En Colombia, el comportamiento epidemiológico del SARS-CoV 2 varía significativamente entre las diferentes regionales, permitiendo a las instituciones que hasta el momento presentan poca carga de atención del COVID-19 retomar sus actividades de trasplante. De esta manera se propone un balance entre mantener las medidas de prevención y atención del COVID-19 y continuar ofreciendo los servicios de trasplante, principalmente a los pacientes con alto riesgo de morbi-mortalidad en lista de espera


The SARS-CoV2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome­related to Coronavirus 2) pandemic, which is the etiological agent of the Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19), organ donation and transplantation activity throughout the world has been clearly affected. The main reasons that currently motivate the partial or total cessation of transplants are: 1) the burden of care burden generated by the management of a potential donor in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), 2) the high risk of donor/recipient viral transmission, 3) the risk of using immuno-suppressing a patient in the midst of the pandemic, and 4) the shortage of ICU beds. Despite the fact that the world is facing an emerging disease that deserves special attention, at the same time the complications associated with other diseases continue to prevail, including complications of end-stage chronic diseases. The decision to continue with the transplant programs should be based on the local behavior of the virus and the healthcare capacity of each of the institutions. In Colombia, the epidemiological behavior of SARS-CoV2 varies significantly between different regions, allowing institutions that, until now, have little burden of attention from COVID-19, to resume their transplant activities. In this way, a balance is proposed between maintaining the prevention and care measures of COVID-19 and continuing to offer transplant services mainly to patients with a high risk of morbidity and mortality on the waiting list


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , General Surgery , Transplantation , SARS Virus
14.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 35(2): 216-226, 2020000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-664642

ABSTRACT

Es grande la expectativa que genera en todos los servicios de salud del mundo la rápida expansión del SARS-CoV2 (Coronavirus 2 del Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo y Grave), agente etiológico de la Enfermedad Infec-ciosa por Coronavirus del año 2019, COVID-19. Por tratarse de una enfermedad emergente es poco lo que se conoce sobre su comportamiento en los humanos, lo que lleva a múltiples interrogantes al momento de tomar decisiones en la práctica clínica. Hasta el momento, las estrategias para enfrentar esta pandemia se basan en la experiencia de los países que han sido epicentro del brote infeccioso y en la evidencia recopilada durante el manejo de otros coronavirus en años anteriores (SARS-CoV en el año 2002 y MERS-CoV en 2012). La falta de información contundente y unificada ha dado lugar a especulaciones y a suposiciones, especialmente relacionadas con la atención del COVID-19 en poblaciones consideradas de alto riesgo, como son los pacientes crónicamente inmunosuprimidos postrasplante. A través de esta revisión narrativa de la literatura, más allá de dar la opinión de los autores, se pretende organizar de manera juiciosa los documentos hasta el momento publicados, y responder, basados en datos reales, cinco de las preguntas más importantes que surgen en el día a día durante el manejo de los pacientes trasplantados


There is a high expectation generated by the rapid expansion of SARS-CoV2 (Severe Acute Respira-tory Syndrome related to Coronavirus 2), which is the etiological agent of the Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019, COVID-19. As an emerging disease, little is known about its behavior in humans, which generates multiple questions when making decisions in clinical practice. So far, the strategies to face this pandemic are based on the experience of the countries that have been the epicenter of the infectious outbreak and on the evidence collected during the management of other past coronavirus infections such as (SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012). The lack of unified and robust information has given rise to speculation and assumptions primarily related to the care and management of COVID-19 in populations considered at high risk of infection, such as chronically immunosuppressed patients after transplantation. Beyond giving the opinion from the authors, this narrative review tries to organize the documents published so far and to answer five of the most critical questions that arise every day during the management of transplant patients based on real data


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Transplantation , SARS Virus , Pandemics
15.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 35(2): 203-208, 2020000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-663585

ABSTRACT

La infección por COVID-19 ha generado un flujo de información derivada de la experiencia diaria de los profesionales, que ha permitido el rápido aprendizaje y conocimiento de las características clínicas, métodos de diagnóstico y tratamiento disponibles a la fecha. Esta nueva afección ha condicionado a las diferentes especialidades de la medicina a desarrollar prontamente guías y recomendaciones encaminadas a garantizar el cuidado de los pacientes afectados y la menor transmisión posible al personal de salud. La cirugía pediátrica no ha sido la excepción, por lo que se pretende recopilar en esta revisión algunos de los aspectos más relevantes en cuanto a la participación de nuestra especialidad en esta pandemia


The infection by COVID-19 has generated a flow of information derived from the professionals' daily experience, which has allowed the rapid learning and knowledge of the clinical characteristics, diagnostic and treatment methods available to date. This new condition has conditioned the different medical specialties to promptly develop guidelines and recommendations aimed to guarantee the care of affected patients and the least possible transmission to health personnel. Pediatric surgery has not been the exception, so it is intended to compile in this review some of the most relevant aspects regarding the participation of our specialty in this pandemic


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Pediatrics , General Surgery , SARS Virus
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