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1.
Anaesthesia ; 77(1): 22-27, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483808

ABSTRACT

Manual facemask ventilation, a core component of elective and emergency airway management, is classified as an aerosol-generating procedure. This designation is based on one epidemiological study suggesting an association between facemask ventilation and transmission during the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. There is no direct evidence to indicate whether facemask ventilation is a high-risk procedure for aerosol generation. We conducted aerosol monitoring during routine facemask ventilation and facemask ventilation with an intentionally generated leak in anaesthetised patients. Recordings were made in ultraclean operating theatres and compared against the aerosol generated by tidal breathing and cough manoeuvres. Respiratory aerosol from tidal breathing in 11 patients was reliably detected above the very low background particle concentrations with median [IQR (range)] particle counts of 191 (77-486 [4-1313]) and 2 (1-5 [0-13]) particles.l-1 , respectively, p = 0.002. The median (IQR [range]) aerosol concentration detected during facemask ventilation without a leak (3 (0-9 [0-43]) particles.l-1 ) and with an intentional leak (11 (7-26 [1-62]) particles.l-1 ) was 64-fold (p = 0.001) and 17-fold (p = 0.002) lower than that of tidal breathing, respectively. Median (IQR [range]) peak particle concentration during facemask ventilation both without a leak (60 (0-60 [0-120]) particles.l-1 ) and with a leak (120 (60-180 [60-480]) particles.l-1 ) were 20-fold (p = 0.002) and 10-fold (0.001) lower than a cough (1260 (800-3242 [100-3682]) particles.l-1 ), respectively. This study demonstrates that facemask ventilation, even when performed with an intentional leak, does not generate high levels of bioaerosol. On the basis of this evidence, we argue facemask ventilation should not be considered an aerosol-generating procedure.


Subject(s)
Masks , /chemistry , Adult , Aged , Cough/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200147, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1378146

ABSTRACT

Abstract With the COVID-19 pandemic, many diagnostic tests (molecular or immunological) were rapidly standardised, given the urgency of the situation, many are still in the process of being validated. The main objective of this study was to review the aspects of the diagnostic kits approved in Brazil and their application in the different federative units to gather epidemiological information. In order to achieve these objectives, a survey was carried out on the data available at the regulatory agency (ANVISA) and in the literature. The main countries that have registered products in Brazil are China (51.4%), Brazil (16.6%), South Korea (9.2%), USA (8.8%) and Germany (3.6%). The methodologies of these products are based on the detection of nucleic-acid (15.8%), antigen (13%) and antibody (71.2%). In the immunological tests, it was verified that the sensitivity ranged from 55 to 100% and the specificity from 80 to 100%. The percentage of cases in the samples tested in Brazil is elevated in almost all federative units since eight states showed 40% of positive cases in tested samples, while 18 states displayed between 20 and 40%. In conclusion, this review showed that Brazil is dependent on external technology to respond to pandemics, epidemics and endemics disease and needs to improve its biotechnological scheme to solve further diseases outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunologic Tests/instrumentation , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Chromatography, Affinity/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374295

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), has severely influenced public health and economics. For the detection of SARS-CoV-2, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein (Cas)-based assays have been emerged because of their simplicity, sensitivity, specificity, and wide applicability. Herein, we have developed a CRISPR-Cas12-based assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. In the assay, the target amplicons are produced by isothermal reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) and recognized by a CRISPR-Cas12a/guide RNA (gRNA) complex that is coupled with the collateral cleavage activity of fluorophore-tagged probes, allowing either a fluorescent measurement or naked-eye detection on a lateral flow paper strip. This assay enables the sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 at a low concentration of 10 copies per sample. Moreover, the reliability of the method is verified by using nasal swabs and sputum of COVID-19 patients. We also proved that the current assay can be applied to other viruses, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), with no major changes to the basic scheme of testing. It is anticipated that the CRISPR-Cas12-based assay has the potential to serve as a point-of-care testing (POCT) tool for a wide range of infectious viruses.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Endodeoxyribonucleases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Nose/virology , Point-of-Care Testing , RNA, Guide/chemistry , RNA, Guide/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/virology
4.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 896-904, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343621

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has recently caused a large-scale outbreak of viral pneumonia both in China and worldwide. In this study, we obtained the entire genome sequence of 777 new coronavirus strains as of 29 February 2020 from a public gene bank. Bioinformatics analysis of these strains indicated that the mutation rate of these new coronaviruses is not high at present, similar to the mutation rate of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus. The similarities of 2019-nCoV and SARS virus suggested that the S and ORF6 proteins shared a low similarity, while the E protein shared the higher similarity. The 2019-nCoV sequence has similar potential phosphorylation sites and glycosylation sites on the surface protein and the ORF1ab polyprotein as the SARS virus; however, there are differences in potential modification sites between the Chinese strain and some American strains. At the same time, we proposed two possible recombination sites for 2019-nCoV. Based on the results of the skyline, we speculate that the activity of the gene population of 2019-nCoV may be before the end of 2019. As the scope of the 2019-nCoV infection further expands, it may produce different adaptive evolutions due to different environments. Finally, evolutionary genetic analysis can be a useful resource for studying the spread and virulence of 2019-nCoV, which are essential aspects of preventive and precise medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , Phylogeny , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/isolation & purification
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1507-1514, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310873

ABSTRACT

Severe respiratory disease coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been the most devastating disease COVID-19 in the century. One of the unsolved scientific questions of SARS-CoV-2 is the animal origin of this virus. Bats and pangolins are recognized as the most probable reservoir hosts that harbour highly similar SARS-CoV-2 related viruses (SARSr-CoV-2). This study identified a novel lineage of SARSr-CoVs, including RaTG15 and seven other viruses, from bats at the same location where we found RaTG13 in 2015. Although RaTG15 and the related viruses share 97.2% amino acid sequence identities with SARS-CoV-2 in the conserved ORF1b region, it only shows less than 77.6% nucleotide identity to all known SARSr-CoVs at the genome level, thus forming a distinct lineage in the Sarbecovirus phylogenetic tree. We found that the RaTG15 receptor-binding domain (RBD) can bind to ACE2 from Rhinolophus affinis, Malayan pangolin, and use it as an entry receptor, except for ACE2 from humans. However, it contains a short deletion and has different key residues responsible for ACE2 binding. In addition, we showed that none of the known viruses in bat SARSr-CoV-2 lineage discovered uses human ACE2 as efficiently as the pangolin-derived SARSr-CoV-2 or some viruses in the SARSr-CoV-1 lineage. Therefore, further systematic and longitudinal studies in bats are needed to prevent future spillover events caused by SARSr-CoVs or to understand the origin of SARS-CoV-2 better.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Cell Lineage , Chiroptera/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Animals , Host Specificity , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/classification
8.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(1, ene-feb): 109-119, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310298

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Describir la evidencia sobre la presencia e infectividad de SARS-CoV-2 y otros coronavirus en aguas residuales y su potencial uso como herramienta de vigilancia epidemiológica. Material y métodos. Búsqueda de publicaciones en PubMed y medRxiv desde enero 2003 hasta el 8 de junio de 2020 de acuerdo con la guía de revisiones rápidas de Cochrane. Resultados. Se incluyeron 29 publicaciones. El ARN de SARS-CoV-2 no infectivo se encontró en agua residual hospitalaria, agua residual cruda, tratada y lodos de plantas de tratamiento. Los niveles cuantitativos de ARN viral en agua residual presentan relación con el número de casos de Covid-19. SARS-CoV-1 y otros coronavirus permanecieron infectivos en agua residual cruda hasta por dos días. Conclusiones. Hasta esta revisión no existe evidencia sobre la presencia de virus infectivos de SARS-CoV-2 en agua residual cruda o tratada. La cuantificación de ARN de SARS-CoV-2 en agua residual es útil para la vigilancia epidemiológica.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Mexico , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence , Water Microbiology
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(22): 25694-25700, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246315

ABSTRACT

Containing the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been an unprecedented challenge due to high horizontal transmissivity and asymptomatic carriage rates. Lateral flow device (LFD) immunoassays were introduced in late 2020 to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic or presymptomatic individuals rapidly. While LFD technologies have been used for over 60 years, their widespread use as a public health tool during a pandemic is unprecedented. By the end of 2020, data from studies into the efficacy of the LFDs emerged and showed these point-of-care devices to have very high specificity (ability to identify true negatives) but inadequate sensitivity with high false-negative rates. The low sensitivity (<50%) shown in several studies is a critical public health concern, as asymptomatic or presymptomatic carriers may wrongly be assumed to be noninfectious, posing a significant risk of further spread in the community. Here, we show that the direct visual readout of SARS-CoV-2 LFDs is an inadequate approach to discriminate a potentially infective viral concentration in a biosample. We quantified significant immobilized antigen-antibody-labeled conjugate complexes within the LFDs visually scored as negative using high-sensitivity synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging. Correlating quantitative X-ray fluorescence measurements and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) determined numbers of viral copies, we identified that negatively scored samples could contain up to 100 PFU (equivalent here to ∼10 000 RNA copies/test). The study demonstrates where the shortcomings arise in many of the current direct-readout SARS-CoV-2 LFDs, namely, being a deficiency in the readout as opposed to the potential level of detection of the test, which is orders of magnitude higher. The present findings are of importance both to public health monitoring during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to the rapid refinement of these tools for immediate and future applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Immunoassay/instrumentation , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , SARS Virus/ultrastructure , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Vero Cells
10.
Bioessays ; 43(7): e2100015, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245362

ABSTRACT

RaTG13, MP789, and RmYN02 are the strains closest to SARS-CoV-2, and their existence came to light only after the start of the pandemic. Their genomes have been used to support a natural origin of SARS-CoV-2 but after a close examination all of them exhibit several issues. We specifically address the presence in RmYN02 and closely related RacCSxxx strains of a claimed natural PAA/PVA amino acid insertion at the S1/S2 junction of their spike protein at the same position where the PRRA insertion in SARS-CoV-2 has created a polybasic furin cleavage site. We show that RmYN02/RacCSxxx instead of the claimed insertion carry a 6-nucleotide deletion in the region and that the 12-nucleotide insertion in SARS-CoV-2 remains unique among Sarbecoviruses. Also, our analysis of RaTG13 and RmYN02's metagenomic datasets found unexpected reads which could indicate possible contamination. Because of their importance to inferring SARS-CoV-2's origin, we call for a careful reevaluation of RaTG13, MP789 and RmYN02 sequencing records and assembly methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Pangolins/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Uncertainty , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Datasets as Topic , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/classification , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Deletion/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
12.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(1): 72-74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143743

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 diagnosis is usually based on PCR detection of viral RNA in airway specimens in a patient with typical clinical fea-tures. Histological features of the COVID-19 lung disease are reported from autopsies. Transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBCB) is an evolving technique usually performed in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. We report a TBCB in a 76-year-old female patient who had repeatedly tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathological examination revealed the presence of interstitial pneumonia with lymphocytic infiltration. The qRT-PCR against SARS-CoV-2 from a pharyngeal swab was positive after performing the TBCB.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cryosurgery/methods , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Aged , Biopsy/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Humans
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21894, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977275

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, and its dissemination globally has caused an unprecedented strain on public health. Animal models are urgently being developed for SARS-CoV-2 to aid rational design of vaccines and therapeutics. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation techniques that facilitate reliable and reproducible detection of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viral products in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens would be of great utility. A selection of commercial antibodies generated against SARS-CoV spike protein and nucleoprotein, double stranded RNA, and RNA probe for spike genes were evaluated for the ability to detect FFPE infected cells. We also tested both heat- and enzymatic-mediated virus antigen retrieval methods to determine the optimal virus antigen recovery as well as identifying alternative retrieval methods to enable flexibility of IHC methods. In addition to using native virus infected cells as positive control material, the evaluation of non-infected cells expressing coronavirus (SARS, MERS) spike as a biosecure alternative to assays involving live virus was undertaken. Optimized protocols were successfully applied to experimental animal-derived tissues. The diverse techniques for virus detection and control material generation demonstrated in this study can be applied to investigations of coronavirus pathogenesis and therapeutic research in animal models.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Immunohistochemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ferrets , In Situ Hybridization , RNA Probes/immunology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Vero Cells
15.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(9): 2311-2330, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938553

ABSTRACT

The current global fight against coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to flatten the transmission curve is put forth by the World Health Organization (WHO) as there is no immediate diagnosis or cure for COVID-19 so far. In order to stop the spread, researchers worldwide are working around the clock aiming to develop reliable tools for early diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) understanding the infection path and mechanisms. Currently, nucleic acid-based molecular diagnosis (real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test) is considered the gold standard for early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Antibody-based serology detection is ineffective for the purpose of early diagnosis, but a potential tool for serosurveys, providing people with immune certificates for clearance from COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, there are various blooming methods developed these days. In this review, we summarise different types of coronavirus discovered which can be transmitted between human beings. Methods used for diagnosis of the discovered human coronavirus (SARS, MERS, COVID-19) including nucleic acid detection, gene sequencing, antibody detection, antigen detection, and clinical diagnosis are presented. Their merits, demerits and prospects are discussed which can help the researchers to develop new generation of advanced diagnostic tools for accurate and effective control of human coronavirus transmission in the communities and hospitals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serologic Tests/methods , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis
16.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(11): 1303-1310, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937676

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: We implemented multiple nucleic acid amplification test platforms because of the limited availability of test kits for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the early stages of the pandemic. Interpretation of results generated by different platforms and prioritization for testing algorithms required cross-comparison. OBJECTIVE.­: To compare the analytical sensitivity of 3 commercial SARS-CoV-2 molecular assays, selected samples were studied in parallel with Cobas SARS-CoV-2 test, NxTAG CoV Extended Panel, and ID NOW COVID-19 assays. DESIGN.­: A total of 8043 SARS-CoV-2 tests performed from March 22 to April 19, 2020, were included in this study. For all 1794 positive specimens detected by the cobas SARS-CoV-2 assay, the cycle threshold (Ct) values were manually tracked and plotted to demonstrate the distribution of sample viral levels. Additionally, 50 and 63 low-positive specimens (Ct values >32) as well as 50 and 61 consecutive positive specimens by the cobas assay were tested with NxTAG and ID NOW, respectively, to estimate their relative sensitivities. RESULTS.­: The Ct values of cobas SARS-CoV-2-positive samples were evenly distributed throughout ranges of 13.32 to 39.50 (mean, 25.06) and 13.60 to 42.49 (mean, 26.45) for ORF1 and E gene targets, respectively. NxTAG reliably detected only specimens with E gene Ct values lower than 33, and is estimated to detect 89.4% of positive specimens detected by cobas assay. ID NOW had performance variation independent of Ct value and is estimated to detect 83.5% of cobas positives. CONCLUSIONS.­: Clinical specimens exhibit a wide range of viral burden, with a significant portion at low levels. Analytical sensitivity of testing platforms is critical for reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 and uniform care to patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS Virus/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/methods
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3517-3554, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-910849

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar efeitos de tratamentos medicamentosos para infecções por coronavírus. Revisão sistemática rápida com buscas nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, BVS, Global Index Medicus, Medrix, bioRxiv, Clinicaltrials.gov e International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Foram incluídos 36 estudos avaliando alternativas medicamentosas contra SARS, SARS-CoV-2 e MERS. A maioria dos estudos incluídos foi conduzida na China com delineamento observacional para tratamento da COVID-19. Os tratamentos mais estudados foram antimaláricos e antivirais. Nos antimaláricos, a metanálise de dois estudos com 180 participantes não identificou benefício da hidroxicloroquina em relação à negativação da carga viral via reação em cadeia de polimerase em tempo real e o uso de antivirais comparado ao cuidado padrão foi similar em relação aos desfechos. As evidências científicas disponíveis são preliminares e de baixa qualidade metodológica, o que sugere cautela na interpretação dos dados. Pesquisas que avaliem a eficácia comparativa em ensaios clínicos randomizados, controlados, com tempo de acompanhamento adequado e com os métodos devidamente divulgados e sujeitos à revisão científica por pares são necessárias. Recomenda-se atualização periódica da presente revisão.


Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the effects of drug therapies for coronavirus infections. Rapid systematic review with search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, BVS, Global Index Medicus, Medrix, bioRxiv, Clinicaltrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases. Thirty-six studies evaluating alternative drugs against SARS, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS were included. Most of the included studies were conducted in China with an observational design for the treatment of COVID-19. The most studied treatments were with antimalarials and antivirals. In antimalarial, the meta-analysis of two studies with 180 participants did not identify the benefit of hydroxychloroquine concerning the negative viral load via real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the use of antivirals compared to standard care was similar regarding outcomes. The available scientific evidence is preliminary and of low methodological quality, which suggests caution when interpreting its results. Research that evaluates comparative efficacy in randomized, controlled clinical trials, with adequate follow-up time and with the methods properly disclosed and subject to scientific peer review is required. A periodic update of this review is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/drug effects , Pandemics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Antimalarials/administration & dosage
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3365-3376, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-910838

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a eficácia das máscaras faciais padrão tecido não tecido (TNT) para a prevenção de doenças respiratórias (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV e SARS-CoV-2) na população. Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip. Também busca complementar no Google Acadêmico, Rayyan e medRxiv. Não foram aplicados filtros relacionados a data, idioma ou status de publicação. Títulos e resumos foram rastreados e, posteriormente, textos completos foram avaliados. Foram incluídos três estudos: um ensaio clínico randomizado tipo cluster e duas revisões sistemáticas. O ensaio clínico indica benefício potencial de máscaras médicas para controle da fonte de infecção, para a doença respiratória clínica. Em uma das revisões sistemáticas, não foi possível estabelecer relação conclusiva entre uso da máscara e proteção contra infecção respiratória. Por fim, outra revisão sistemática demonstrou que máscaras são eficazes na prevenção da propagação de vírus respiratórios. As evidências apontam para benefício potencial das máscaras faciais padrão TNT. Para o cenário atual de pandemia por COVID 19, recomenda-se educação sobre uso adequado de máscaras, associado a medidas individuais de proteção.


Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of non-woven face masks for the prevention of respiratory infections (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) in the population. Methods: search in Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip databases. Google Scholar, Rayyan and medRxiv were also consulted for complementary results. No filters related to date, language or publication status were applied. Titles and abstracts were screened, and later, full texts were evaluated. Results: three studies were included: a randomized cluster clinical trial and two systematic reviews. The clinical trial indicates a potential benefit of medical masks to control the source of clinical respiratory disease infection. In one of the systematic reviews, it was not possible to establish a conclusive relationship between the use of the mask and protection against respiratory infection. Finally, another systematic review indicated that masks are effective in preventing the spread of respiratory viruses. Conclusion: Evidence points to the potential benefit of standard non-woven face masks. For the current pandemic scenario of COVID-19, education on the appropriate use of masks associated with individual protection measures is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112643, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778506

ABSTRACT

Detection of antibodies to upper respiratory pathogens is critical to surveillance, assessment of the immune status of individuals, vaccine development, and basic biology. The urgent need for antibody detection tools has proven particularly acute in the COVID-19 era. We report a multiplex label-free antigen microarray on the Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry (AIR) platform for detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS, three circulating coronavirus strains (HKU1, 229E, OC43) and three strains of influenza. We find that the array is readily able to distinguish uninfected from convalescent COVID-19 subjects, and provides quantitative information about total Ig, as well as IgG- and IgM-specific responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Equipment Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Array Analysis/instrumentation , Protein Array Analysis/methods , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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