Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 68
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(2): 87-104, 20200800.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-782573

ABSTRACT

Las manifestaciones clínicas del SARS-Cov-2 en niños difieren a la de los adultos, con afección respiratoria, gastrointestinal, dermatológica y/o cardiovascular. La mayoría de los niños son asintomáticos o presentan síntomas leves de la infección por COVID-19. Sin embargo, en los últimos meses se ha identificado un pequeño número de niños que desarrollan respuesta inflamatoria sistémica significativa. A continuación, realizamos una revisión sobre las manifestaciones extrapulmonares del SARS-Cov-2


The clinical manifestations of SARS-Cov-2 in children differ from that of adults, with respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatological and / or cardiovascular conditions. Most children are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, in recent months, a small number of children have been identified who develop a significant systemic inflammatory response. We review the extrapulmonary manifestations of SARS-Cov-2


Subject(s)
SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Pediatrics
2.
Virol Sin ; 35(3): 290-304, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618224

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already affected a large population of the world. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same family of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). COVID-19 has a complex pathology involving severe acute respiratory infection, hyper-immune response, and coagulopathy. At present, there is no therapeutic drug or vaccine approved for the disease. There is an urgent need for an ideal animal model that can reflect clinical symptoms and underlying etiopathogenesis similar to COVID-19 patients which can be further used for evaluation of underlying mechanisms, potential vaccines, and therapeutic strategies. The current review provides a paramount insight into the available animal models of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV for the management of the diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Camelids, New World , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Swine
3.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750656

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to an unprecedented pandemic, which demands urgent development of antiviral drugs and antibodies; as well as prophylactic approaches, namely vaccines. Algae biotechnology has much to offer in this scenario given the diversity of such organisms, which are a valuable source of antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds that can also be used to produce vaccines and antibodies. Antivirals with possible activity against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized, based on previously reported activity against Coronaviruses or other enveloped or respiratory viruses. Moreover, the potential of algae-derived anti-inflammatory compounds to treat severe cases of COVID-19 is contemplated. The scenario of producing biopharmaceuticals in recombinant algae is presented and the cases of algae-made vaccines targeting viral diseases is highlighted as valuable references for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Successful cases in the production of functional antibodies are described. Perspectives on how specific algae species and genetic engineering techniques can be applied for the production of anti-viral compounds antibodies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are provided.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lectins/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Cell Nucleus/chemistry , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/chemistry , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolism , Chloroplasts/chemistry , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Engineering/methods , Humans , Lectins/chemistry , Lectins/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
4.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737517

ABSTRACT

Three types of new coronaviruses (CoVs) have been identified recently as the causative viruses for the severe pneumonia-like respiratory illnesses, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and corona-virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Neither therapeutic agents nor vaccines have been developed to date, which is a major drawback in controlling the present global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in more than 20,439,814 cases and 744,385 deaths. Each of the 3C-like (3CL) proteases of the three CoVs is essential for the proliferation of the CoVs, and an inhibitor of the 3CL protease (3CLpro) is thought to be an ideal therapeutic agent against SARS, MERS, or COVID-19. Among these, SARS-CoV is the first corona-virus isolated and has been studied in detail since the first pandemic in 2003. This article briefly reviews a series of studies on SARS-CoV, focusing on the development of inhibitors for the SARS-CoV 3CLpro based on molecular interactions with the 3CL protease. Our recent approach, based on the structure-based rational design of a novel scaffold for SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitor, is also included. The achievements summarized in this short review would be useful for the design of a variety of novel inhibitors for corona-viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/classification , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Substrate Specificity , Thermodynamics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
5.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 224, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733042

ABSTRACT

Within two decades, there have emerged three highly pathogenic and deadly human coronaviruses, namely SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The economic burden and health threats caused by these coronaviruses are extremely dreadful and getting more serious as the increasing number of global infections and attributed deaths of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Unfortunately, specific medical countermeasures for these hCoVs remain absent. Moreover, the fast spread of misinformation about the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic uniquely places the virus alongside an annoying infodemic and causes unnecessary worldwide panic. SARS-CoV-2 shares many similarities with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, certainly, obvious differences exist as well. Lessons learnt from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, timely updated information of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, and summarized specific knowledge of these hCoVs are extremely invaluable for effectively and efficiently contain the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. By gaining a deeper understanding of hCoVs and the illnesses caused by them, we can bridge knowledge gaps, provide cultural weapons for fighting and controling the spread of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and prepare effective and robust defense lines against hCoVs that may emerge or reemerge in the future. To this end, the state-of-the-art knowledge and comparing the biological features of these lethal hCoVs and the clinical characteristics of illnesses caused by them are systematically summarized in the review.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Global Health , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , World Health Organization
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 1-29, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728129

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections. Most recently, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is the cause of a catastrophic pandemic, COVID-19, with more than 8 million infections diagnosed worldwide by mid-June 2020. Here we provide a brief introduction to CoVs discussing their replication, pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which are relevant for understanding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cattle , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Virion , Virus Replication
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1965-1973, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725731

ABSTRACT

Serology is a crucial part of the public health response to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we describe the development, validation and clinical evaluation of a protein micro-array as a quantitative multiplex immunoassay that can identify S and N-directed SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity and distinguish them from all currently circulating human coronaviruses. The method specificity was 100% for SARS-CoV-2 S1 and 96% for N antigen based on extensive syndromic (n=230 cases) and population panel (n=94) testing that also confirmed the high prevalence of seasonal human coronaviruses. To assess its potential role for both SARS-CoV-2 patient diagnostics and population studies, we evaluated a large heterogeneous COVID-19 cohort (n=330) and found an overall sensitivity of 89% (≥ 21 days post onset symptoms (dps)), ranging from 86% to 96% depending on severity of disease. For a subset of these patients longitudinal samples were provided up to 56 dps. Mild cases showed absent or delayed, and lower SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. Overall, we present the development and extensive clinical validation of a multiplex coronavirus serological assay for syndromic testing, to answer research questions regarding to antibody responses, to support SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics and to evaluate epidemiological developments efficiently and with high-throughput.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Aged , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Array Analysis , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717762

ABSTRACT

The fatal acute respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, infection and mortality rates have been rising steadily worldwide. The lack of a vaccine, as well as preventive and therapeutic strategies, emphasize the need to develop new strategies to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission and pathogenesis. Since mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 share a common genus, lessons learnt from MHV and SARS-CoV could offer mechanistic insights into SARS-CoV-2. This review provides a comprehensive review of MHV in mice and SARS-CoV-2 in humans, thereby highlighting further translational avenues in the development of innovative strategies in controlling the detrimental course of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, we have focused on various aspects, including host species, organotropism, transmission, clinical disease, pathogenesis, control and therapy, MHV as a model for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 as well as mouse models for infection with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. While MHV in mice and SARS-CoV-2 in humans share various similarities, there are also differences that need to be addressed when studying murine models. Translational approaches, such as humanized mouse models are pivotal in studying the clinical course and pathology observed in COVID-19 patients. Lessons from prior murine studies on coronavirus, coupled with novel murine models could offer new promising avenues for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Host Specificity , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
11.
J Med Virol ; 92(6): 584-588, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685102

ABSTRACT

Last December 2019, a new virus, named novel Coronavirus (COVID-2019) causing many cases of severe pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, China. The virus knowledge is limited and especially about COVID-2019 pathogenesis. The Open Reading Frame 1ab (ORF1ab) of COVID-2019 has been analyzed to evidence the presence of mutation caused by selective pressure on the virus. For selective pressure analysis fast-unconstrained Bayesian approximation (FUBAR) was used. Homology modelling has been performed by SwissModel and HHPred servers. The presence of transmembrane helical segments in Coronavirus ORF1ab non structural protein 2 (nsp2) and nsp3 was tested by TMHMM, MEMSAT, and MEMPACK tools. Three-dimensional structures have been analyzed and displayed using PyMOL. FUBAR analysis revealed the presence of potential sites under positive selective pressure (P < .05). Position 723 in the COVID-2019 has a serine instead a glycine residue, while at aminoacidic position 1010 a proline instead an isoleucine. Significant (P < .05) pervasive negative selection in 2416 sites (55%) was found. The positive selective pressure could account for some clinical features of this virus compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Bat SARS-like CoV. The stabilizing mutation falling in the endosome-associated-protein-like domain of the nsp2 protein could account for COVID-2019 high ability of contagious, while the destabilizing mutation in nsp3 proteins could suggest a potential mechanism differentiating COVID-2019 from SARS. These data could be helpful for further investigation aimed to identify potential therapeutic targets or vaccine strategy, especially in the actual moment when the epidemic is ongoing and the scientific community is trying to enrich knowledge about this new viral pathogen.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Male , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Selection, Genetic , Structural Homology, Protein , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
13.
Virol J ; 17(1): 117, 2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684739

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly across the world and become an international public health emergency. Both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV belong to subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae of the order Nidovirales and they are classified as the SARS-like species while belong to different cluster. Besides, viral structure, epidemiology characteristics and pathological characteristics are also different. We present a comprehensive survey of the latest coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2-from investigating its origin and evolution alongside SARS-CoV. Meanwhile, pathogenesis, cardiovascular disease in COVID-19 patients, myocardial injury and venous thromboembolism induced by SARS-CoV-2 as well as the treatment methods are summarized in this review.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/classification , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , Viral Proteins/chemistry
14.
Immunol Rev ; 296(1): 205-219, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641222

ABSTRACT

This article provides a review of studies evaluating the role of host (and viral) genetics (including variation in HLA genes) in the immune response to coronaviruses, as well as the clinical outcome of coronavirus-mediated disease. The initial sections focus on seasonal coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. We then examine the state of the knowledge regarding genetic polymorphisms and SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. The article concludes by discussing research areas with current knowledge gaps and proposes several avenues for future scientific exploration in order to develop new insights into the immunology of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Resistance/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
15.
Virol Sin ; 35(3): 311-320, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617330

ABSTRACT

The mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 causes severe multi-organ failure is largely unknown. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the frequent organ damage in severe COVID-19 patients. Previous studies have shown that human renal tubule cells could be the potential host cells targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Traditional cancer cell lines or immortalized cell lines are genetically and phenotypically different from host cells. Animal models are widely used, but often fail to reflect a physiological and pathogenic status because of species tropisms. There is an unmet need for normal human epithelial cells for disease modeling. In this study, we successfully established long term cultures of normal human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (KPTECs) in 2D and 3D culture systems using conditional reprogramming (CR) and organoids techniques. These cells had the ability to differentiate and repair DNA damage, and showed no transforming property. Importantly, the CR KPTECs maintained lineage function with expression of specific transporters (SLC34A3 and cubilin). They also expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. In contrast, cancer cell line did not express endogenous SLC34A3, cubilin and ACE2. Very interestingly, ACE2 expression was around twofold higher in 3D organoids culture compared to that in 2D CR culture condition. Pseudovirion assays demonstrated that SARS-CoV spike (S) protein was able to enter CR cells with luciferase reporter. This integrated 2D CR and 3D organoid cultures provide a physiological ex vivo model to study kidney functions, innate immune response of kidney cells to viruses, and a novel platform for drug discovery and safety evaluation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Kidney/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cell Line , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , DNA Damage , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Organoids , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIc/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Trends Biotechnol ; 38(9): 943-947, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597298

ABSTRACT

Vaccine solutions rarely reach the public until after an outbreak abates; an Ebola vaccine was approved 5 years after peak outbreak and SARS, MERS, and Zika vaccines are still in clinical development. Despite massive leaps forward in rapid science, other regulatory bottlenecks are hamstringing the global effort for pandemic vaccines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Approval/organization & administration , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ebola Vaccines/administration & dosage , Ebola Vaccines/biosynthesis , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Ebolavirus/immunology , Ebolavirus/pathogenicity , Europe/epidemiology , Global Health/trends , Government Regulation , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/biosynthesis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , United States/epidemiology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Zika Virus/drug effects , Zika Virus/immunology , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/virology
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 89, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595441

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections of multiple origins have spread to date worldwide, causing severe respiratory diseases. Seven coronaviruses that infect humans have been identified: HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Among them, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV caused outbreaks in 2002 and 2012, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is the most recently discovered. It has created a severe worldwide outbreak beginning in late 2019, leading to date to over 4 million cases globally. Viruses are genetically simple, yet highly diverse. However, the recent outbreaks of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and the ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, indicate that there remains a long way to go to identify and develop specific therapeutic treatments. Only after gaining a better understanding of their pathogenic mechanisms can we minimize viral pandemics. This paper mainly focuses on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Here, recent studies are summarized and reviewed, with a focus on virus-host interactions, vaccine-based and drug-targeted therapies, and the development of new approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(11)2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437281

ABSTRACT

"Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)", the novel coronavirus, is responsible for the ongoing worldwide pandemic. "World Health Organization (WHO)" assigned an "International Classification of Diseases (ICD)" code-"COVID-19"-as the name of the new disease. Coronaviruses are generally transferred by people and many diverse species of animals, including birds and mammals such as cattle, camels, cats, and bats. Infrequently, the coronavirus can be transferred from animals to humans, and then propagate among people, such as with "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)", "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV)", and now with this new virus, namely "SARS-CoV-2", or human coronavirus. Its rapid spreading has sent billions of people into lockdown as health services struggle to cope up. The COVID-19 outbreak comes along with an exponential growth of new infections, as well as a growing death count. A major goal to limit the further exponential spreading is to slow down the transmission rate, which is denoted by a "spread factor (f)", and we proposed an algorithm in this study for analyzing the same. This paper addresses the potential of data science to assess the risk factors correlated with COVID-19, after analyzing existing datasets available in "ourworldindata.org (Oxford University database)", and newly simulated datasets, following the analysis of different univariate "Long Short Term Memory (LSTM)" models for forecasting new cases and resulting deaths. The result shows that vanilla, stacked, and bidirectional LSTM models outperformed multilayer LSTM models. Besides, we discuss the findings related to the statistical analysis on simulated datasets. For correlation analysis, we included features, such as external temperature, rainfall, sunshine, population, infected cases, death, country, population, area, and population density of the past three months - January, February, and March in 2020. For univariate timeseries forecasting using LSTM, we used datasets from 1 January 2020, to 22 April 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Animals , Cats , Cattle , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , World Health Organization
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL