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1.
J Investig Med ; 70(4): 892-898, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784873

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of ST-segment re-elevation episodes registered with telemetric ECG monitoring in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with thrombolytic therapy (TLT). The study included 117 patients with STEMI following effective TLT. The elective coronary angiography followed by percutaneous coronary interventions was performed in the interval from 3 to 24 hours after a successful systemic TLT. Before and after cardiac catheterization, the telemetric ECG monitoring was performed using AstroCard Telemetry system (Meditec, Russia). During the study, two groups of patients were formed. Group 1 included 85 patients (72.6%) without new ST-segment deviations on telemetry. 77 patients (90.6%) had no recurrent coronary artery thrombosis at angiography. Eight patients (9.4%) from group 1 were diagnosed with thrombosis of the infarct-related coronary artery. Group 2 included 32 patients (27.4%) who underwent TLT and then had ST-segment re-elevation episodes of 1 mV or more in the infarct-related leads, lasting for at least 1 minute. In group 2, in 27 of 32 patients (84.4%), thrombosis of the infarct-related coronary artery was confirmed (p<0.01 compared with group 1). In 71.9% cases, the recurrent ischemic episodes were asymptomatic ('painless myocardial ischemia') (p<0.01). Thus, in patients with STEMI and successful TLT, re-elevation of ST-segment during remote ECG monitoring is strongly related to angiographically documented coronary artery thrombotic reocclusion. The absence of chest pain during recurrent myocardial ischemia requires continuous ECG telemetry to select patients for the rescue percutaneous coronary interventions at an earlier stage.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Electrocardiography , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects
2.
Int Heart J ; 63(2): 226-234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770813

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic occurred in several countries, making the conventional medical system difficult to maintain. Recent recommendations aim to prevent nosocomial infections and infections among health care workers. Therefore, establishing a cardiovascular medical system under an emergency for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is desired. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prognosis and door-to-balloon time (DBT) shortening based on the severity on arrival.This retrospective, multi-center, observational study included 1,127 consecutive patients with STEMI. These patients were transported by emergency medical services and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were stratified according to the Killip classification: Killip 1 (n = 738) and Killip ≥ 2 (n = 389) groups.Patients in the Killip ≥ 2 group were older, with more females, and more severity on arrival than those in the Killip 1 group. The 30-day mortality rate in the Killip 1 and Killip ≥ 2 groups was 2.2% and 18.0%, respectively. The Killip ≥ 2 group had a significant difference in the 30-day mortality between patients with DBT ≤ 90 minutes and those with DBT > 90 minutes; however, this did not occur in the Killip 1 group. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that DBT ≤ 90 minutes was not a significant predictive factor in the Killip 1 group; however, it was an independent predictive factor in the Killip ≥ 2 group.DBT shortening affected the 30-day mortality in STEMI patients with Killip ≥ 2, although not those with Killip 1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Time Factors
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(6): e022625, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770080

ABSTRACT

Background Excess mortality from cardiovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported. The mechanism is unclear but may include delay or deferral of care, or differential treatment during hospitalization because of strains on hospital capacity. Methods and Results We used emergency department and inpatient data from a 12-hospital health system to examine changes in volume, patient age and comorbidities, treatment (right- and left-heart catheterization), and outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with pre-COVID-19 (2018 and 2019), controlling for seasonal variation. We analyzed 27 427 emergency department visits or hospitalizations. Patient volume decreased during COVID-19 for both HF and AMI, but age, race, sex, and medical comorbidities were similar before and during COVID-19 for both groups. Acuity increased for AMI as measured by the proportion of patients with ST-segment elevation. There were no differences in right-heart catheterization for patients with HF or in left heart catheterization for patients with AMI. In-hospital mortality increased for AMI during COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.76), particularly among the ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.24-2.96), but was unchanged for HF (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.16). Conclusions Cardiovascular volume decreased during COVID-19. Despite similar patient age and comorbidities and in-hospital treatments during COVID-19, mortality increased for patients with AMI but not patients with HF. Given that AMI is a time-sensitive condition, delay or deferral of care rather than changes in hospital care delivery may have led to worse cardiovascular outcomes during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Missouri , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
4.
Kardiol Pol ; 80(3): 266-277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766359

ABSTRACT

ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the cardiac emergencies whose management has been most challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients presenting with the "lethal combo" of STEMI and concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection have faced dramatic issues related to the need for self-isolation, systemic inflammation with multi-organ disease and difficulties to obtain timely diagnosis and treatment. The interplay between these and other factors has partly neutralized the major advances in STEMI care achieved in the last decades, significantly impairing prognosis in these patients. In the present review article, we will provide an overview on mechanisms of myocardial injury, specific clinical and angiographic characteristics and contemporary management in different settings of STEMI patients with COVID-19, alongside the inherent implications in terms of in-hospital mortality and short-term clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
5.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(3): 190-199, 2022 Mar.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765603

ABSTRACT

Post-infarction mechanical complications include left ventricular free-wall rupture, ventricular septal rupture, and papillary muscle rupture. With the advent of early reperfusion strategies, including thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention, these events now occur in fewer than 0.3% of patients following acute myocardial infarction. However, unfortunately, there has been no parallel decrease in associated mortality rates over the past two decades. Moreover, during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic the incidence of mechanical complications resulting from ST-elevation myocardial infarction has possibly risen. Early diagnosis and prompt management are crucial to improving outcomes. Although some percutaneous device repair approaches are available, surgical treatment remains the gold standard for these catastrophic post-infarction complications. The timing of surgery, also related to the type of complication and patient's clinical conditions, and the possible role of mechanical circulatory supports before and after surgery, represent main topics of debate that still need to be fully addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/complications , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e052000, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occur while already in hospital ('in-hospital STEMI') face high mortality. However, data about this patient population are scarce. We sought to investigate differences in reperfusion and outcomes of in-hospital versus out-of-hospital STEMI. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients with STEMI all treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) across 30 centres were prospectively recruited into the Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry (2013-2018). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Patients with in-hospital STEMI were compared with patients with out-of-hospital STEMI with a primary endpoint of 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Secondary endpoints included ischaemic times, all-cause mortality and major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 7493 patients with PCI-treated STEMI, 494 (6.6%) occurred in-hospital. Patients with in-hospital STEMI were older (67.1 vs 62.4 years, p<0.001), more often women (32% vs 19.9%, p<0.001), with more comorbidities. Patients with in-hospital STEMI had higher 30-day MACE (20.4% vs 9.8%, p<0.001), mortality (12.1% vs 6.9%, p<0.001) and major bleeding (4.9% vs 2.3%, p<0.001), than patients with out-of-hospital STEMI. According to guideline criteria, patients with in-hospital STEMI achieved symptom-to-device times of ≤70 min and ≤90 min in 29% and 47%, respectively. Patients with out-of-hospital STEMI achieved door-to-device times of ≤90 min in 71%. Occurrence of STEMI while in hospital independently predicted higher MACE (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.36, p<0.001) and 12-month mortality (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.07, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with in-hospital STEMI experience delays to reperfusion with significantly higher MACE and mortality, compared with patients with out-of-hospital STEMI, after adjustment for confounders. Focused strategies are needed to improve recognition and outcomes in this high-risk and understudied population.


Subject(s)
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Registries , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 321-334, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate both the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admission, and demographic, angiographic, procedural characteristics, and in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 positive STEMI in Turkey. METHODS: This was a multi-center and cross-sectional observational study. The study population included 1788 STEMI patients from 15 centers in Turkey. The patients were divided into two groups: COVID-19 era (March 11st-May 15st, 2020; n = 733) or pre- COVID-19 era group (March 11st-May 15st, 2019; n = 1055). Also, the patients in COVID-19 era were grouped as COVID-19 positive (n = 65) or negative (n = 668). RESULTS: There was a 30.5% drop in STEMI admission during COVID-19 era in comparison to pre-COVID-19 era. The patients admitted to the medical centers during COVID-19 era had a longer symptom-to-first medical contact time [120 (75-240) vs. 100 (60-180) minutes, p < 0.001]. COVID-19 positive STEMI patients had higher thrombus grade and lower left ventricular ejection fraction compared to COVID-19 negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients had higher mortality (28% vs. 6%, p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock (20% vs. 7%, p < 0.001) rates compared with those without COVID-19. Matching based on propensity scores showed higher mortality and high thrombus grade in STEMI patients who were infected by SARS-COV-2 (each p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We detected significantly lower STEMI hospitalization rates and significant delay in duration of symptom onset to first medical contact in the context of Turkey during the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, high thrombus grade and mortality were more common in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stroke Volume , Time-to-Treatment , Turkey/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
10.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 26(2): 118-126, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Global studies report a significant decline in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) related hospitalization rates during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak. However, there have been several divergent reports on hospital outcomes. In this study, we aim to investigate the impact of the COVID 19 outbreak on hospitalizations because of STEMI and in-hospital outcomes in Albania. METHODS: This was a retrograde study, collecting data for hospitalizations because of STEMI from March 9, (first COVID 19 case in our country) to April 30, 2020, (period of total lockdown) compared with the same period in 2019 at our center. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) was used to compare admissions because of STEMI and procedures and the risk ratio (RR) to compare mortality and other complication rates. RESULTS: Admissions for STEMI declined during the COVID-19 period from a total of 217 in 2019 to 156 in 2020 (-28.1%) representing IRR 0.719 (p=0.033). PCIs also reduced from 168 procedures in 2019 to 113 in 2020 (-33%), representing an IRR of 0.67, p=0.021. The time from symptom onset to arrival at our intensive care unit was significantly higher in 2020 compared to 2019 (925.6±1097 vs. 438.7±385 minutes, p<0.001). The STEMI death rate during the pandemic compared to the control period was significantly increased to 14.1% vs. 7.8% (RR=1.91 p=0.037, but with no significant increase in primary PCI-STEMI death rate (8.9% vs. 4.8% RR=1.85 p=0.217). Cardiogenic shock also increased during the pandemic to 21.2% from 12.4% in 2019 (RR=1.70 p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Hospitalizations and revascularization procedures for STEMI significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic. We identified a substantial increase in the STEMI mortality rate and cardiogenic shock during the pandemic outbreak. Delayed timely reperfusion intervention might be responsible for the increased risk for complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am Heart J ; 247: 33-41, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1652480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activation of inflammatory pathways during acute myocardial infarction contributes to infarct size and left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The present prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to test the efficacy and safety of broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor to reduce infarct size. DESIGN: Controlled-Level EVERolimus in Acute Coronary Syndrome (CLEVER-ACS, clinicaltrials.gov NCT01529554) is a phase II randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of a 5-day course of oral everolimus on infarct size, LV remodeling, and inflammation in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Within 5 days of successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), patients are randomly assigned to everolimus (first 3 days: 7.5 mg every day; days 4 and 5: 5.0 mg every day) or placebo, respectively. The primary efficacy outcome is the change from baseline (defined as 12 hours to 5 days after pPCI) to 30-day follow-up in myocardial infarct size as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Secondary endpoints comprise corresponding changes in cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers as well as microvascular obstruction and LV volumes assessed by CMRI. Clinical events, laboratory parameters, and blood cell counts are reported as safety endpoints at 30 days. CONCLUSION: The CLEVER-ACS trial tests the hypothesis whether mTOR inhibition using everolimus at the time of an acute STEMI affects LV infarct size following successful pPCI.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Double-Blind Method , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Remodeling
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 169: 18-23, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635346

ABSTRACT

Fewer ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) presentations and increased delays in care occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in urban areas. Whether these associations occurred in a more rural population has not been previously reported. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on time-to-presentation for STEMI in rural locations. Patients presenting to a large STEMI network spanning 27 facilities and 13 predominantly rural counties between January 1, 2016 and April 30, 2020 were included. Presentation delays, defined as time from symptom onset to arrival at the first medical facility, classified as ≥12 and ≥24 hours from symptom onset were compared among patients in the pre-COVID-19 and the early COVID-19 eras. To account for patient-level differences, 2:1 propensity score matching was performed using binary logistic regression. Among 1,286 patients with STEMI, 1,245 patients presented in the pre-COVID-19 era and 41 presented during the early COVID-19 era. Presentation delays ≥12 hours (19.5% vs 4.0%) and ≥24 hours (14.6% and 0.2%) were more common in COVID-19 than pre-COVID-19 cohorts (p <0.001 for both), despite a low COVID-19 prevalence. Similar results were seen in propensity-matched comparisons (≥12 hours: 19.5% vs 2.4%, p = 0.002; ≥24 hours 14.6% vs 0.0%, p = 0.001). In a predominantly rural STEMI population, delays in seeking medical care after symptom onset were markedly more frequent during the COVID-19 era, despite low COVID-19 prevalence. Considering delays in reperfusion have multiple adverse downstream consequences, these findings may have important implications in rural communities during future pandemic resurgences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Prevalence , Rural Population , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
20.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(2): 391-396, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on the diagnosis and management of nonculprit lesions remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the management and outcomes of patients with nonculprit lesions during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway activations across the heart attack center network in London, UK. Data from the study period in 2020 were compared with prepandemic data in 2019. The primary outcome was the rate of nonculprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: A total of 788 patients undergoing PPCI were identified, 209 (60%) in 2020 cohort and 263 (60%) in 2019 cohort had nonculprit lesions (p = .89). There was less functional assessment of the significance of nonculprit lesions in the 2020 cohort compared to 2019 cohort; in 8% 2020 cohort versus 15% 2019 cohort (p = .01). There was no difference in rates of PCI for nonculprit disease in the 2019 and 2020 cohorts (31% vs 30%, p = .11). Patients in 2020 cohort underwent nonculprit lesion PCI sooner than the 2019 cohort (p < .001). At 6 months there was higher rates of unplanned revascularization (4% vs. 2%, p = .05) and repeat myocardial infarction (4% vs. 1%, p = .02) in the 2019 cohort compared to 2020 cohort. CONCLUSION: Changes to clinical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with reduced rates of unplanned revascularization and myocardial infarction at 6-months follow-up, and despite the pandemic, there was no difference in mortality, suggesting that it is not only safe but maybe more efficacious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , London/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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