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1.
J Investig Med ; 70(4): 892-898, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784873

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of ST-segment re-elevation episodes registered with telemetric ECG monitoring in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with thrombolytic therapy (TLT). The study included 117 patients with STEMI following effective TLT. The elective coronary angiography followed by percutaneous coronary interventions was performed in the interval from 3 to 24 hours after a successful systemic TLT. Before and after cardiac catheterization, the telemetric ECG monitoring was performed using AstroCard Telemetry system (Meditec, Russia). During the study, two groups of patients were formed. Group 1 included 85 patients (72.6%) without new ST-segment deviations on telemetry. 77 patients (90.6%) had no recurrent coronary artery thrombosis at angiography. Eight patients (9.4%) from group 1 were diagnosed with thrombosis of the infarct-related coronary artery. Group 2 included 32 patients (27.4%) who underwent TLT and then had ST-segment re-elevation episodes of 1 mV or more in the infarct-related leads, lasting for at least 1 minute. In group 2, in 27 of 32 patients (84.4%), thrombosis of the infarct-related coronary artery was confirmed (p<0.01 compared with group 1). In 71.9% cases, the recurrent ischemic episodes were asymptomatic ('painless myocardial ischemia') (p<0.01). Thus, in patients with STEMI and successful TLT, re-elevation of ST-segment during remote ECG monitoring is strongly related to angiographically documented coronary artery thrombotic reocclusion. The absence of chest pain during recurrent myocardial ischemia requires continuous ECG telemetry to select patients for the rescue percutaneous coronary interventions at an earlier stage.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Electrocardiography , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects
3.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(3)2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580244

ABSTRACT

The coronary angiographic (CAG) findings of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from increased coronary artery thrombus burden to normal coronaries due to STEMI mimics. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old gentleman who presented with evolved inferior wall myocardial infarction with ongoing angina along with mild COVID-19. CAG showed normal epicardial coronaries except for distal right posterior descending coronary artery (RPDA) 100% occlusion on careful examination. He was treated for the myocardial infarction with medical management along with treatment of COVID-19. The importance of our case is to highlight the possibility of distal total occlusion of small coronary branches which may be missed if not carefully looked for as a normal CAG in COVID-19 patient will require only supportive therapy, while the finding of distal 100% occlusion of RPDA deemed us to prescribe optimal medical therapy as per acute myocardial infarction protocol along with treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
4.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(2): 391-396, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on the diagnosis and management of nonculprit lesions remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the management and outcomes of patients with nonculprit lesions during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway activations across the heart attack center network in London, UK. Data from the study period in 2020 were compared with prepandemic data in 2019. The primary outcome was the rate of nonculprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: A total of 788 patients undergoing PPCI were identified, 209 (60%) in 2020 cohort and 263 (60%) in 2019 cohort had nonculprit lesions (p = .89). There was less functional assessment of the significance of nonculprit lesions in the 2020 cohort compared to 2019 cohort; in 8% 2020 cohort versus 15% 2019 cohort (p = .01). There was no difference in rates of PCI for nonculprit disease in the 2019 and 2020 cohorts (31% vs 30%, p = .11). Patients in 2020 cohort underwent nonculprit lesion PCI sooner than the 2019 cohort (p < .001). At 6 months there was higher rates of unplanned revascularization (4% vs. 2%, p = .05) and repeat myocardial infarction (4% vs. 1%, p = .02) in the 2019 cohort compared to 2020 cohort. CONCLUSION: Changes to clinical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with reduced rates of unplanned revascularization and myocardial infarction at 6-months follow-up, and despite the pandemic, there was no difference in mortality, suggesting that it is not only safe but maybe more efficacious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , London/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561838

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, several cases have reported extensive multivessel coronary thrombosis as a cardiovascular manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This case describes a patient who developed non-ST elevation myocardial infarction during hospitalization for acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19. We review the immediate and delayed revascularisation strategies of culprit and non-culprit lesions in the setting of high intracoronary thrombus burden induced by SARS-CoV-2. Successful percutaneous intervention and stenting of a culprit lesion and resolution of an intracoronary thrombus using a delayed strategy of lesion passivation with adjuvant pharmacotherapy are demonstrated on index and follow-up angiography.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Thrombosis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Thrombosis/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Treatment Outcome
7.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341341

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the introduction of important public health measures to minimise the spread of the virus. We aim to identify the impact government restrictions and hospital-based infection control procedures on ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Patients meeting ST elevation criteria and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention from 27 March 2020, the day initial national lockdown measures were announced in Ireland, were included in the study. Patients presenting after the lockdown period, from 18 May to 31 June 2020, were also examined. Time from symptom onset to first medical contact (FMC), transfer time and time of wire cross was noted. Additionally, patient characteristics, left ventricular ejection fraction, mortality and biochemical parameters were documented. Outcomes and characteristics were compared against a control group of patients meeting ST elevation criteria during the month of January. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients presented with STEMI during the lockdown period. A significant increase in total ischaemic time (TIT) was noted versus controls (8.81 hours (±16.4) vs 2.99 hours (±1.39), p=0.03), with increases driven largely by delays in seeking FMC (7.13 hours (±16.4) vs 1.98 hours (±1.46), p=0.049). TIT remained significantly elevated during the postlockdown period (6.1 hours (±5.3), p=0.05), however, an improvement in patient delays was seen versus the control group (3.99 hours (±4.5), p=0.06). There was no difference seen in transfer times and door to wire cross time during lockdown, however, a significant increase in transfer times was seen postlockdown versus controls (1.81 hours (±1.0) vs 1.1 hours (±0.87), p=0.004). CONCLUSION: A significant increase in TIT was seen during the lockdown period driven mainly by patient factors highlighting the significance of public health messages on public perception. Additionally, a significant delay in transfer times to our centre was seen postlockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Ireland , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Transfer/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
9.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(3): E564-E574, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac symptoms, coronary angiographic results, and clinical outcomes of patients with confirmed COVID-19 and ST-segment elevation with myocardial infarction (STEMI) or myocardial ischemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients, who already were confirmed with COVID-19 using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), were admitted to our hospital due to chest pain with STEMI. The median patient age was 66 years (range: 27-84 years). Female/male ratio was 22/15. We performed a second RT-PCR test in all patients. We investigated myocardial enzymes (creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB), cardiac troponin-I (c-TnI), and C-reactive protein (CRP), and liver enzymes (alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) also were measured. Blood d-dimer, thromboplastin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and fibrinogen were investigated. Transcutaneous oxygen saturation was monitored for each patient in the emergency department (ED). To evaluate myocardial wall abnormalities, transthoracic echocardiography was performed. RESULTS: Coronary artery disorders requiring revascularization were detected in 25 patients (67.5%). There was no evidence of coronary artery disease in the remaining 12 patients. Out of 25, nine coronary artery disease patients had a history of coronary intervention (24.3%). All patients had high levels of myocardial enzyme release. Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) were performed in patients with culprit lesion(s). Success rate of PCI was 87.5% (N = 21). The median number of stent use was 2.9±0.7 (range: 1-4). Because PCI failed in four patients, we suggested elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery after medical treatment. Six patients required re-intervention owing to early stent thrombosis (30%). Seven patients died after PCI (33.3%). For patients with negative or positive RT-PCR test results, we performed thoracic computed tomography (CT), which is a sensitive diagnostic method for COVID-19. Interlobular septal and pleural thickening with patchy bronchiectasis in the bilateral or unilaterally lower and/or middle lobe(s) were the main pathologies in 24 patients. D-dimer, fibrinogen, and CRP levels were high in 11 PCI patients with bilaterally pulmonary involvement by COVID-19 (52.3%), while fibrin degradation products did not significantly change. For three patients with normal coronary arteries with a transient hypokinesia or hypokinesia as result of myocarditis, we decided to perform atypical Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We medically treated using inodilator (levosimendan), diuretic, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers. To prevent the risk of thromboembolism, we also administered a heparin drip. The myocardial contractility of the apex did improve, and patients were discharged from the hospital, with the exception of one young female patient. She is following in the ICU with stabil hemodynamics. CONCLUSION: Chest pain with STEMI can develop in patients with confirmed COVID-19. Nearly one-third of patients had COVID-19 with chest pain and concomitant STEMI and normal coronary angiography (32.4%). Urgent PCI may be performed in hemodynamically unstable patients with high mortality. Complications, including sudden cardiac arrest, severe ventricular arrhythmia, and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, related to COVID-19 patients with normal coronary arteries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Bypass , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Tests , Coronary Angiography , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(3)2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178484

ABSTRACT

The coronary angiographic (CAG) findings of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from increased coronary artery thrombus burden to normal coronaries due to STEMI mimics. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old gentleman who presented with evolved inferior wall myocardial infarction with ongoing angina along with mild COVID-19. CAG showed normal epicardial coronaries except for distal right posterior descending coronary artery (RPDA) 100% occlusion on careful examination. He was treated for the myocardial infarction with medical management along with treatment of COVID-19. The importance of our case is to highlight the possibility of distal total occlusion of small coronary branches which may be missed if not carefully looked for as a normal CAG in COVID-19 patient will require only supportive therapy, while the finding of distal 100% occlusion of RPDA deemed us to prescribe optimal medical therapy as per acute myocardial infarction protocol along with treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
14.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 247-256, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168426

ABSTRACT

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a common cardiovascular emergency for which timely reperfusion therapies are needed to minimize myocardial necrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and reorganization of chest pain centers (CPC) on the practice of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and prognosis of STEMI patients. This single-center retrospective survey included all patients with STEMI admitted to our CPC from January 22, 2020 to April 30, 2020 (during COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan), compared with those admitted during the analogous period in 2019, in respect of important time points of PPCI and clinical outcomes of STEMI patients. In the present article, we observed a descending trend in STEMI hospitalization and a longer time from symptom onset to first medical contact during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the control period (4.35 h versus 2.58 h). With a median delay of 17 minutes in the door to balloon time (D2B), the proportion of in-hospital cardiogenic shock was significantly higher in the COVID-19 era group (47.6% versus 19.5%), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) tend to increase in the 6-month follow-up period (14.3% versus 2.4%). Although the reorganization of CPC may prolong the D2B time, immediate revascularization of the infarct-related artery could be offered to most patients within 90 minutes upon arrival. PPCI remained the preferred treatment for patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic in the context of timely implementation and appropriate protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , China/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
15.
Clin Imaging ; 78: 117-120, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152311

ABSTRACT

Clinicians should be aware of the potential for cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19 infection. Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. While it primarily causes a respiratory illness, a number of important cardiovascular implications have been reported. We describe a patient presenting with COVID-19 whose hospital course was complicated by ST elevation myocardial infarction requiring percutaneous coronary intervention. The goal is to help clinicians gain awareness of the possibility of cardiovascular disease in COVID-19 infection, and maintain a high index of suspicion particularly for patients with risk factors or a prior history of cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146028

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has varied cardiovascular manifestations including microvascular and macrovascular thrombi leading to multiorgan system injury and failure. This case describes a patient presenting with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure from COVID-19 who abruptly developed a large thrombus in the right coronary artery leading to myocardial infarction. This case report reviews the ECG, heart catheterisation images prepercutaneous and postpercutaneous coronary intervention, critical care management and outcome in the context of the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Virginia area. A brief review of relevant literature regarding cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 is also provided. Unfortunately, the patient ultimately passed after 2 weeks of inability to wean off the ventilator.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Angiography , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Catheterization , Coronary Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Thrombosis/surgery , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug-Eluting Stents , Electrocardiography , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiography , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Thrombectomy
17.
Circ J ; 85(10): 1701-1707, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) may impair outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The extent of this phenomenon and its mechanisms are unclear.Methods and Results:This study prospectively included 50 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to our center for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the peak of the Italian COVID-19 outbreak. At admission, a COVID-19 test was positive in 24 patients (48%), negative in 26 (52%). The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Upon admission, COVID-19 subjects had lower PO2/FiO2 (169 [100-425] vs. 390 [302-477], P<0.01), more need for oxygen support (62.5% vs. 26.9%, P=0.02) and a higher rate of myocardial dysfunction (ejection fraction <30% in 45.8% vs. 19.2%, P=0.04). All patients underwent emergency angiography. In 12.5% of COVID-19 patients, no culprit lesions were detected, thus PCI was performed in 87.5% and 100% of COVID-19 positive and negative patients, respectively (P=0.10). Despite a higher rate of obstinate thrombosis in the COVID-19 group (47.6% vs. 11.5%, P<0.01), the PCI result was similar (TIMI 2-3 in 90.5% vs. 100%, P=0.19). In-hospital mortality was 41.7% and 3.8% in COVID-19 positive and negative patients, respectively (P<0.01). Respiratory failure was the leading cause of death (80%) in the COVID-19 group, frequently associated with severe myocardial dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients with STEMI remains high despite successful PCI, mainly due to coexisting severe respiratory failure. This may be a critical factor in patient management and treatment selection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 34: 80-85, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a highly contagious and lethal virus, devastating healthcare systems throughout the world. Following a period of stability, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic appears to be re-intensifying globally. As the virus continues to evolve, so does our understanding of its implications on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to describe a single center STEMI experience at one of the epicenters during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS/MATERIALS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study comparing STEMI patients during the pandemic period (March 1 to August 31, 2020) to those with STEMI during the pre-pandemic period (March 1 to August 31, 2019) at NYU Langone Hospital - Long Island, a tertiary-care center in Nassau County, New York. Additionally, we describe our subset of COVID-19 patients with STEMI during the pandemic. RESULTS: The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) team was activated for 183 patients during both periods. There were a similar number of AMI team activations during the pandemic period (n = 93) compared to the pre-pandemic period (n = 90). Baseline characteristics did not differ during both periods; however, infection control measures and additional investigation were required to clarify the diagnosis during the pandemic, resulting in a signal toward longer door-to-balloon times (95.9 min vs. 74.4 min, p = 0.0587). We observed similar inpatient length of stay (LOS) (3.6 days vs. 5.0 days, p = 0.0901) and mortality (13.2% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.5876). There were 6 COVID-19-positive patients who presented with STEMI, of whom 4 were emergently taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in 3 patients. The 2 patients who were not offered primary PCI expired, as both were treated medically, one with thrombolytics. CONCLUSIONS: Our single-center study, in New York, at one of the epicenters of the pandemic, demonstrated a similar number of AMI team activations, mimicking the seasonal variability seen in 2019, but with a signal toward longer door-to-balloon time. Despite this, inpatient LOS and mortality remained similar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
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