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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(6): e022625, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770080

ABSTRACT

Background Excess mortality from cardiovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported. The mechanism is unclear but may include delay or deferral of care, or differential treatment during hospitalization because of strains on hospital capacity. Methods and Results We used emergency department and inpatient data from a 12-hospital health system to examine changes in volume, patient age and comorbidities, treatment (right- and left-heart catheterization), and outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with pre-COVID-19 (2018 and 2019), controlling for seasonal variation. We analyzed 27 427 emergency department visits or hospitalizations. Patient volume decreased during COVID-19 for both HF and AMI, but age, race, sex, and medical comorbidities were similar before and during COVID-19 for both groups. Acuity increased for AMI as measured by the proportion of patients with ST-segment elevation. There were no differences in right-heart catheterization for patients with HF or in left heart catheterization for patients with AMI. In-hospital mortality increased for AMI during COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.76), particularly among the ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.24-2.96), but was unchanged for HF (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.16). Conclusions Cardiovascular volume decreased during COVID-19. Despite similar patient age and comorbidities and in-hospital treatments during COVID-19, mortality increased for patients with AMI but not patients with HF. Given that AMI is a time-sensitive condition, delay or deferral of care rather than changes in hospital care delivery may have led to worse cardiovascular outcomes during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Missouri , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
2.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 321-334, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate both the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admission, and demographic, angiographic, procedural characteristics, and in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 positive STEMI in Turkey. METHODS: This was a multi-center and cross-sectional observational study. The study population included 1788 STEMI patients from 15 centers in Turkey. The patients were divided into two groups: COVID-19 era (March 11st-May 15st, 2020; n = 733) or pre- COVID-19 era group (March 11st-May 15st, 2019; n = 1055). Also, the patients in COVID-19 era were grouped as COVID-19 positive (n = 65) or negative (n = 668). RESULTS: There was a 30.5% drop in STEMI admission during COVID-19 era in comparison to pre-COVID-19 era. The patients admitted to the medical centers during COVID-19 era had a longer symptom-to-first medical contact time [120 (75-240) vs. 100 (60-180) minutes, p < 0.001]. COVID-19 positive STEMI patients had higher thrombus grade and lower left ventricular ejection fraction compared to COVID-19 negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients had higher mortality (28% vs. 6%, p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock (20% vs. 7%, p < 0.001) rates compared with those without COVID-19. Matching based on propensity scores showed higher mortality and high thrombus grade in STEMI patients who were infected by SARS-COV-2 (each p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We detected significantly lower STEMI hospitalization rates and significant delay in duration of symptom onset to first medical contact in the context of Turkey during the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, high thrombus grade and mortality were more common in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stroke Volume , Time-to-Treatment , Turkey/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
JAMA ; 326(19): 1940-1952, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544160

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: There has been limited research on patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with STEMI with vs without COVID-19 infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult patients admitted between January 2019 and December 2020 (end of follow-up in January 2021) with out-of-hospital or in-hospital STEMI at 509 US centers in the Vizient Clinical Database (N = 80 449). EXPOSURES: Active COVID-19 infection present during the same encounter. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Patients were propensity matched on the likelihood of COVID-19 diagnosis. In the main analysis, patients with COVID-19 were compared with those without COVID-19 during the previous calendar year. RESULTS: The out-of-hospital STEMI group included 76 434 patients (551 with COVID-19 vs 2755 without COVID-19 after matching) from 370 centers (64.1% aged 51-74 years; 70.3% men). The in-hospital STEMI group included 4015 patients (252 with COVID-19 vs 756 without COVID-19 after matching) from 353 centers (58.3% aged 51-74 years; 60.7% men). In patients with out-of-hospital STEMI, there was no significant difference in the likelihood of undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention by COVID-19 status; patients with in-hospital STEMI and COVID-19 were significantly less likely to undergo invasive diagnostic or therapeutic coronary procedures than those without COVID-19. Among patients with out-of-hospital STEMI and COVID-19 vs out-of-hospital STEMI without COVID-19, the rates of in-hospital mortality were 15.2% vs 11.2% (absolute difference, 4.1% [95% CI, 1.1%-7.0%]; P = .007). Among patients with in-hospital STEMI and COVID-19 vs in-hospital STEMI without COVID-19, the rates of in-hospital mortality were 78.5% vs 46.1% (absolute difference, 32.4% [95% CI, 29.0%-35.9%]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with out-of-hospital or in-hospital STEMI, a concomitant diagnosis of COVID-19 was significantly associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality compared with patients without a diagnosis of COVID-19 from the past year. Further research is required to understand the potential mechanisms underlying this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , United States/epidemiology
4.
Int Heart J ; 62(6): 1230-1234, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542216

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) should be treated as possibly infected individuals. Therefore, more time is considered necessary to conduct primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on primary PCI for STEMI. Between March 2019 and March 2021, 259 patients with STEMI underwent primary PCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the pre-pandemic group (March 2019-February 2020) and the pandemic group (March 2020-February 2021). The patient demographics, reperfusion time including onset-to-door time, door-to-balloon time (DTBT), computed tomography (CT), peak creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), and 30-day mortality rate were investigated. The mean age of the patients was 70.4 ± 12.9 years, and 71.6% were male. There were 117 patients before the pandemic and 142 during the pandemic. The median DTBT was 29 (21.25-41.25) minutes before the pandemic and 48 minutes (31-73 minutes) during the pandemic (P < 0.001). The median door-to-catheter-laboratory time was 13.5 (10-18.75) minutes before the pandemic and 29.5 (18-47.25) minutes during the pandemic (P < 0.001). CT evaluation was performed before PCI in 39 (33.3%) patients and 63 (44.4%) patients (P = 0.08); their peak CPK levels were 1480 (358-2737.5) IU and 1363 (621-2722.75) IU (P = 0.56), and the 30-day mortality rates were 4.3% and 2.1% (P = 0.48), respectively. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic changed the diagnostic procedure in the emergency department and affected the DTBT in patients with STEMI. Nonetheless, no adverse effects on the 30-day mortality rate were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Creatine Kinase/blood , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Health Impact Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends
5.
Heart ; 108(6): 458-466, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The initial data of the International Study on Acute Coronary Syndromes - ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction COVID-19 showed in Europe a remarkable reduction in primary percutaneous coronary intervention procedures and higher in-hospital mortality during the initial phase of the pandemic as compared with the prepandemic period. The aim of the current study was to provide the final results of the registry, subsequently extended outside Europe with a larger inclusion period (up to June 2020) and longer follow-up (up to 30 days). METHODS: This is a retrospective multicentre registry in 109 high-volume primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) centres from Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia and North Africa, enrolling 16 674 patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PPPCI in March/June 2019 and 2020. The main study outcomes were the incidence of PPCI, delayed treatment (ischaemia time >12 hours and door-to-balloon >30 min), in-hospital and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: In 2020, during the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in PPCI as compared with 2019 (incidence rate ratio 0.843, 95% CI 0.825 to 0.861, p<0.0001). This reduction was significantly associated with age, being higher in older adults (>75 years) (p=0.015), and was not related to the peak of cases or deaths due to COVID-19. The heterogeneity among centres was high (p<0.001). Furthermore, the pandemic was associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon time (40 (25-70) min vs 40 (25-64) min, p=0.01) and total ischaemia time (225 (135-410) min vs 196 (120-355) min, p<0.001), which may have contributed to the higher in-hospital (6.5% vs 5.3%, p<0.001) and 30-day (8% vs 6.5%, p=0.001) mortality observed during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous revascularisation for STEMI was significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a 16% reduction in PPCI procedures, especially among older patients (about 20%), and longer delays to treatment, which may have contributed to the increased in-hospital and 30-day mortality during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04412655.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
JAMA ; 326(19): 1940-1952, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490623

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: There has been limited research on patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with STEMI with vs without COVID-19 infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult patients admitted between January 2019 and December 2020 (end of follow-up in January 2021) with out-of-hospital or in-hospital STEMI at 509 US centers in the Vizient Clinical Database (N = 80 449). EXPOSURES: Active COVID-19 infection present during the same encounter. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Patients were propensity matched on the likelihood of COVID-19 diagnosis. In the main analysis, patients with COVID-19 were compared with those without COVID-19 during the previous calendar year. RESULTS: The out-of-hospital STEMI group included 76 434 patients (551 with COVID-19 vs 2755 without COVID-19 after matching) from 370 centers (64.1% aged 51-74 years; 70.3% men). The in-hospital STEMI group included 4015 patients (252 with COVID-19 vs 756 without COVID-19 after matching) from 353 centers (58.3% aged 51-74 years; 60.7% men). In patients with out-of-hospital STEMI, there was no significant difference in the likelihood of undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention by COVID-19 status; patients with in-hospital STEMI and COVID-19 were significantly less likely to undergo invasive diagnostic or therapeutic coronary procedures than those without COVID-19. Among patients with out-of-hospital STEMI and COVID-19 vs out-of-hospital STEMI without COVID-19, the rates of in-hospital mortality were 15.2% vs 11.2% (absolute difference, 4.1% [95% CI, 1.1%-7.0%]; P = .007). Among patients with in-hospital STEMI and COVID-19 vs in-hospital STEMI without COVID-19, the rates of in-hospital mortality were 78.5% vs 46.1% (absolute difference, 32.4% [95% CI, 29.0%-35.9%]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with out-of-hospital or in-hospital STEMI, a concomitant diagnosis of COVID-19 was significantly associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality compared with patients without a diagnosis of COVID-19 from the past year. Further research is required to understand the potential mechanisms underlying this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , United States/epidemiology
7.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(9): 1450-1459, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) worldwide. In this review we examine the global effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of STEMI admissions, and relationship between the pandemic and door to balloon time (D2B), all-cause mortality, and other secondary STEMI outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to primarily compare D2B time and in-hospital mortality of STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI during and before the pandemic. Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the influence of geographical region and income status of a country on STEMI care. An online database search included studies that compared the aforementioned outcomes of STEMI patients during and before the pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 32 articles were analyzed. Overall, 19,140 and 68,662 STEMI patients underwent primary PCI during and before the pandemic, respectively. Significant delay in D2B was observed during the pandemic (weighted mean difference, 8.10 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.90-12.30 minutes; P = 0.0002; I2 = 90%). In-hospital mortality was higher during the pandemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.49; P = 0.002; I2 = 36%), however this varied with factors such as geographical location and income status of a country. Subgroup analysis showed that low-middle-income countries observed a higher rate of mortality during the pandemic (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.13-2.05; P = 0.006), with a similar but insignificant trend seen among the high income countries (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.95-1.44; P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with worse STEMI performance metrics and clinical outcome, particularly in the Eastern low-middle-income status countries. Better strategies are needed to address these global trends in STEMI care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
8.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341341

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the introduction of important public health measures to minimise the spread of the virus. We aim to identify the impact government restrictions and hospital-based infection control procedures on ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Patients meeting ST elevation criteria and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention from 27 March 2020, the day initial national lockdown measures were announced in Ireland, were included in the study. Patients presenting after the lockdown period, from 18 May to 31 June 2020, were also examined. Time from symptom onset to first medical contact (FMC), transfer time and time of wire cross was noted. Additionally, patient characteristics, left ventricular ejection fraction, mortality and biochemical parameters were documented. Outcomes and characteristics were compared against a control group of patients meeting ST elevation criteria during the month of January. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients presented with STEMI during the lockdown period. A significant increase in total ischaemic time (TIT) was noted versus controls (8.81 hours (±16.4) vs 2.99 hours (±1.39), p=0.03), with increases driven largely by delays in seeking FMC (7.13 hours (±16.4) vs 1.98 hours (±1.46), p=0.049). TIT remained significantly elevated during the postlockdown period (6.1 hours (±5.3), p=0.05), however, an improvement in patient delays was seen versus the control group (3.99 hours (±4.5), p=0.06). There was no difference seen in transfer times and door to wire cross time during lockdown, however, a significant increase in transfer times was seen postlockdown versus controls (1.81 hours (±1.0) vs 1.1 hours (±0.87), p=0.004). CONCLUSION: A significant increase in TIT was seen during the lockdown period driven mainly by patient factors highlighting the significance of public health messages on public perception. Additionally, a significant delay in transfer times to our centre was seen postlockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Ireland , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Transfer/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(16): 1994-2003, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many aspects of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care, including timely access to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the NACMI (North American COVID-19 and STEMI) registry is to describe demographic characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with STEMI. METHODS: A prospective, ongoing observational registry was created under the guidance of 3 cardiology societies. STEMI patients with confirmed COVID+ (group 1) or suspected (person under investigation [PUI]) (group 2) COVID-19 infection were included. A group of age- and sex-matched STEMI patients (matched to COVID+ patients in a 2:1 ratio) treated in the pre-COVID era (2015 to 2019) serves as the control group for comparison of treatment strategies and outcomes (group 3). The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital death, stroke, recurrent myocardial infarction, or repeat unplanned revascularization. RESULTS: As of December 6, 2020, 1,185 patients were included in the NACMI registry (230 COVID+ patients, 495 PUIs, and 460 control patients). COVID+ patients were more likely to have minority ethnicity (Hispanic 23%, Black 24%) and had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (46%) (all p < 0.001 relative to PUIs). COVID+ patients were more likely to present with cardiogenic shock (18%) but were less likely to receive invasive angiography (78%) (all p < 0.001 relative to control patients). Among COVID+ patients who received angiography, 71% received PPCI and 20% received medical therapy (both p < 0.001 relative to control patients). The primary outcome occurred in 36% of COVID+ patients, 13% of PUIs, and 5% of control patients (p < 0.001 relative to control patients). CONCLUSIONS: COVID+ patients with STEMI represent a high-risk group of patients with unique demographic and clinical characteristics. PPCI is feasible and remains the predominant reperfusion strategy, supporting current recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North America/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of occult infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza in patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI) without COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS: We conducted an observational study from 28 June to 11 August 2020, enrolling patients admitted to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation MI who did not meet WHO criteria for suspected COVID-19. Samples were collected by nasopharyngeal swab to test for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. We followed up patients at 3 months (13 weeks) postadmission to record adverse cardiovascular outcomes: all-cause death, new MI, heart failure and new percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We enrolled 280 patients with MI, 79% male, mean age 54.5±11.8 years, 140 of whom were diagnosed with STEMI. We found 36 (13%) to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 1 with influenza. There was no significant difference between mortality rate observed among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients compared with non-infected (5 (14%) vs 26 (11%); p=0.564). A numerically shorter median time to a recurrent cardiovascular event was recorded among SARS-CoV-2 infected compared with non-infected patients (21 days, IQR: 8-46 vs 27 days, IQR: 7-44; p=0.378). CONCLUSION: We found a substantial rate of occult SARS-CoV-2 infection in the studied cohort, suggesting SARS-CoV-2 may precipitate MI. Asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 admitted with MI may contribute to disease transmission and warrants widespread testing of hospital admissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Undiagnosed Diseases , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111469, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised on a potential interaction between renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) and the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). No data have been so far reported on the prognostic impact of RASI in patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during COVID-19 pandemic, which was the aim of the present study. METHODS: STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and enrolled in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry were included in the present sub-analysis and divided according to RASI therapy at admission. RESULTS: Our population is represented by 6095 patients, of whom 3654 admitted in 2019 and 2441 in 2020. No difference in the prevalence of SARSCoV2 infection was observed according to RASI therapy at admission (2.5% vs 2.1%, p = 0.5), which was associated with a significantly lower mortality (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.68 [0.51-0.90], P = 0.006), confirmed in the analysis restricted to 2020 (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.5[0.33-0.74], P = 0.001). Among the 5388 patients in whom data on in-hospital medication were available, in-hospital RASI therapy was associated with a significantly lower mortality (2.1% vs 16.7%, OR [95% CI]=0.11 [0.084-0.14], p < 0.0001), confirmed after adjustment in both periods. Among the 62 SARSCoV-2 positive patients, RASI therapy, both at admission or in-hospital, showed no prognostic effect. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the impact of RASI therapy on the prognosis and SARSCoV2 infection of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both pre-admission and in-hospital RASI were associated with lower mortality. Among SARSCoV2-positive patients, both chronic and in-hospital RASI therapy showed no impact on survival.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Myocardial Reperfusion , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Registries , Renin-Angiotensin System , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
12.
Circ J ; 85(10): 1701-1707, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) may impair outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The extent of this phenomenon and its mechanisms are unclear.Methods and Results:This study prospectively included 50 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to our center for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the peak of the Italian COVID-19 outbreak. At admission, a COVID-19 test was positive in 24 patients (48%), negative in 26 (52%). The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Upon admission, COVID-19 subjects had lower PO2/FiO2 (169 [100-425] vs. 390 [302-477], P<0.01), more need for oxygen support (62.5% vs. 26.9%, P=0.02) and a higher rate of myocardial dysfunction (ejection fraction <30% in 45.8% vs. 19.2%, P=0.04). All patients underwent emergency angiography. In 12.5% of COVID-19 patients, no culprit lesions were detected, thus PCI was performed in 87.5% and 100% of COVID-19 positive and negative patients, respectively (P=0.10). Despite a higher rate of obstinate thrombosis in the COVID-19 group (47.6% vs. 11.5%, P<0.01), the PCI result was similar (TIMI 2-3 in 90.5% vs. 100%, P=0.19). In-hospital mortality was 41.7% and 3.8% in COVID-19 positive and negative patients, respectively (P<0.01). Respiratory failure was the leading cause of death (80%) in the COVID-19 group, frequently associated with severe myocardial dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients with STEMI remains high despite successful PCI, mainly due to coexisting severe respiratory failure. This may be a critical factor in patient management and treatment selection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Air Med J ; 40(3): 179-181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108010

ABSTRACT

A 42-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia was admitted to a small town hospital that did not have intensive care unit (ICU)-level resources available. Twelve hours later, the patient suddenly became agitated, and an extensive anterolateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction was detected by 12-lead electrocardiography and supported by a rise in serum cardiac enzymes. Low blood oxygen saturation (59%) and cardiac ejection fraction (ejection fraction = 20%) reflected criticality that could potentially require a catheterization laboratory, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and ICU-level resources. After the coordination of physicians with the nearest equipped hospital and air medical crew, a Mil Mi-17 medical helicopter unit was dispatched. About 20 minutes before reaching the destination hospital, his clinical condition declined; his heart was 50 beats/min, his blood pressure was 75/40 mm Hg, and he had jugular vein distention. Muffled heart sounds, decreased electrocardiographic voltage, and the accumulation of pericardial effusion on a bedside ultrasound indicated cardiac tamponade. The air medical crew resuscitated the patient through the interventions of intubation, mechanical ventilation, administration of intravenous fluids, and initiation of an epinephrine infusion. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis was performed in the helicopter, which kept him alive until pericardotomy could be performed at the destination hospital. Unfortunately, after pericardiotomy and coronary artery bypass graft surgery, the patient died 7 days later in the ICU due to severe cardiopulmonary failure.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiac Tamponade/mortality , Cardiac Tamponade/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Adult , Cardiac Tamponade/etiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Male , Pericardiectomy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Transportation of Patients
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 738-745, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107857

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause a wide range of cardiovascular diseases, including ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and STEMI-mimickers (such as myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, among others). We performed a systematic review to summarize the clinical features, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who had ST-segment elevation. We searched electronic databases from inception to September 30, 2020 for studies that reported clinical data about COVID-19 patients with ST-segment elevation. Differences between patients with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) on coronary angiography were evaluated. Forty-two studies (35 case reports and seven case series) involving 161 patients were included. The mean age was 62.7 ± 13.6 years and 75% were men. The most frequent symptom was chest pain (78%). Eighty-three percent of patients had obstructive CAD. Patients with non-obstructive CAD had more diffuse ST-segment elevation (13% versus 1%, p = 0.03) and diffuse left ventricular wall-motion abnormality (23% versus 3%, p = 0.02) compared to obstructive CAD. In patients with previous coronary stent (n = 17), the 76% presented with stent thrombosis. In the majority of cases, the main reperfusion strategy was primary percutaneous coronary intervention instead of fibrinolysis. The in-hospital mortality was 30% without difference between patients with (30%) or without (31%) obstructive CAD. Our data suggest that a relatively high proportion of COVID-19 patients with ST-segment elevation had non-obstructive CAD. The prognosis was poor across groups. However, our findings are based on case reports and case series that should be confirmed in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/instrumentation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although there are regional reports that the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a reduction in acute myocardial infarction presentations and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures, little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mechanical complications resulting from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and mortality. METHODS: This single-centre retrospective cohort study analysed presentations, incidence of mechanical complications, and mortality in patients with STEMI before and after a state of emergency was declared due to the COVID-19 pandemic by the Japanese government on 7 April 2020. RESULTS: We analysed 359 patients with STEMI hospitalised before the declaration and 63 patients hospitalised after the declaration. The proportion of patients with late presentation was significantly higher after the declaration than before (25.4% vs 14.2%, p=0.03). The incidence of late presentation was significantly higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 2.41; 95% CI, 1.37 to 4.05; p=0.001, even after adjusting for month (IRR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.13; p<0.01). Primary PCI was performed significantly less often after the declaration than before (68.3% vs 82.5%, p=0.009). The mechanical complication resulting from STEMI occurred in 13 of 359 (3.6%) patients before the declaration and 9 of 63 (14.3%) patients after the declaration (p<0.001). However, the incidence of in-hospital death (before, 6.2% vs after, 6.4%, p=0.95) was comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, an increased incidence of mechanical complications resulting from STEMI was observed. Instructing people to stay at home, without effectively educating them to immediately seek medical attention when suffering symptoms of a heart attack, may worsen outcomes in patients with STEMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 215, 2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested the COVID pandemic may have indirectly affected the treatment and outcome of STEMI patients, by avoidance or significant delays in contacting the emergency system. No data have been reported on the impact of diabetes on treatment and outcome of STEMI patients, that was therefore the aim of the current subanalysis conducted in patients included in the International Study on Acute Coronary Syndromes-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (ISACS-STEMI) COVID-19. METHODS: The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 is a retrospective registry performed in European centers with an annual volume of > 120 primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and assessed STEMI patients, treated with primary PCI during the same periods of the years 2019 versus 2020 (March and April). Main outcomes are the incidences of primary PCI, delayed treatment, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 6609 patients underwent primary PCI in 77 centers, located in 18 countries. Diabetes was observed in a total of 1356 patients (20.5%), with similar proportion between 2019 and 2020. During the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in primary PCI as compared to 2019, similar in both patients with (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.85, p < 0.0001) and without diabetes (IRR 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.85, p < 0.0001) (p int = 0.40). We observed a significant heterogeneity among centers in the population with and without diabetes (p < 0.001, respectively). The heterogeneity among centers was not related to the incidence of death due to COVID-19 in both groups of patients. Interaction was observed for Hypertension (p = 0.024) only in absence of diabetes. Furthermore, the pandemic was independently associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon and total ischemia times only among patients without diabetes, which may have contributed to the higher mortality, during the pandemic, observed in this group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the treatment of patients with STEMI, with a similar reduction in primary PCI procedures in both patients with and without diabetes. Hypertension had a significant impact on PCI reduction only among patients without diabetes. We observed a significant increase in ischemia time and door-to-balloon time mainly in absence of diabetes, that contributed to explain the increased mortality observed in this group of patients during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04412655.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e018379, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941677

ABSTRACT

Background Studies have reported significant reduction in acute myocardial infarction-related hospitalizations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, whether these trends are associated with increased incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in this population is unknown. Methods and Results Acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations with OHCA during the COVID-19 period (February 1-May 14, 2020) from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project and British Cardiovascular Intervention Society data sets were analyzed. Temporal trends were assessed using Poisson models with equivalent pre-COVID-19 period (February 1-May 14, 2019) as reference. Acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations during COVID-19 period were reduced by >50% (n=20 310 versus n=9325). OHCA was more prevalent during the COVID-19 period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period (5.6% versus 3.6%), with a 56% increase in the incidence of OHCA (incidence rate ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.39-1.74). Patients experiencing OHCA during COVID-19 period were likely to be older, likely to be women, likely to be of Asian ethnicity, and more likely to present with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The overall rates of invasive coronary angiography (58.4% versus 71.6%; P<0.001) were significantly lower among the OHCA group during COVID-19 period with increased time to reperfusion (mean, 2.1 versus 1.1 hours; P=0.05) in those with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The adjusted in-hospital mortality probability increased from 27.7% in February 2020 to 35.8% in May 2020 in the COVID-19 group (P<.001). Conclusions In this national cohort of hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction, we observed a significant increase in incidence of OHCA during COVID-19 period paralleled with reduced access to guideline-recommended care and increased in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medical Audit , Middle Aged , Myocardial Reperfusion/trends , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(11): e010027, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment strategy for treating ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unclear given the potential risk of occupational exposure during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We quantified the impact of different STEMI treatment strategies on patient outcomes and provider risk in context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using a decision-analytic framework, we evaluated the effect of PPCI versus the pharmaco-invasive strategy for managing STEMI on 30-day patient mortality and individual provider infection risk based on presence of cardiogenic shock, suspected coronary territory, and presence of known or presumptive COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: For patients with low suspicion for COVID-19, PPCI had mortality benefit over the pharmaco-invasive strategy, and the risk of cardiac catheterization laboratory provider infection remained very low (<0.25%) across all subgroups. For patients with presumptive COVID-19 with cardiogenic shock, PPCI offered substantial mortality benefit to patients relative to the pharmaco-invasive strategy (7.9% absolute decrease in 30-day mortality), but also greater risk of provider infection (2.3% absolute increase in risk of provider infection). For patients with presumptive COVID-19 with nonanterior STEMI without cardiogenic shock, PPCI offered a 0.4% absolute mortality benefit over the pharmaco-invasive strategy with a 0.2% greater absolute risk of provider infection, and the tradeoff between patient and provider risk with PPCI became more apparent in sensitivity analysis with more severe COVID-19 infections. CONCLUSIONS: Usual care with PPCI remains the appropriate treatment strategy in the majority of cases presenting with STEMI in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, utilization of a pharmaco-invasive strategy in selected patients with STEMI with presumptive COVID-19 and low likelihood of mortality from STEMI and use of preventive strategies such as preprocedural intubation in high risk patients when PPCI is the preferred strategy may be reasonable to reduce provider risk of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decision Support Techniques , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality
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