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1.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 49(4): 483-491, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691664

ABSTRACT

Progress in the study of Covid-19 disease in rodents has been hampered by the lack of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2; virus entry route to the target cell) affinities for the virus spike proteins across species. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a modified protocol of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats can mimic both cell signalling pathways as well as severe disease phenotypes of Covid-19 disease. Rats were injected via intratracheal (IT) instillation with either 15 mg/kg of LPS (model group) or saline (control group) before being killed after 3 days. A severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like effect was observed in the model group as demonstrated by the development of a "cytokine storm" (>2.7 fold increase in blood levels of IL-6, IL-17A, GM-CSF, and TNF-α), high blood ferritin, demonstrable coagulopathy, including elevated D-dimer (approximately 10-fold increase), PAI-1, PT, and APTT (p < 0.0001). In addition, LPS increased the expression of lung angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R)-JAK-STAT axis (>4 fold increase). Chest imaging revealed bilateral small patchy opacities of the lungs. Severe lung injury was noted by the presence of both, alveolar collapse and haemorrhage, desquamation of epithelial cells in the airway lumen, infiltration of inflammatory cells (CD45+ leukocytes), widespread thickening of the interalveolar septa, and ultrastructural alterations similar to Covid-19. Thus, these findings demonstrate that IT injection of 15 mg/kg LPS into rats, induced an AT1R/JAK/STAT-mediated cytokine storm with resultant pneumonia and coagulopathy that was commensurate with moderate and severe Covid-19 disease noted in humans.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/etiology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hemorrhage/pathology , Janus Kinases , Lung Diseases/pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
2.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 18(3): 133-145, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608176

ABSTRACT

The four Janus kinase (JAK) proteins and seven signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) transcription factors mediate intracellular signal transduction downstream of cytokine receptors, which are implicated in the pathology of autoimmune, allergic and inflammatory diseases. Development of targeted small-molecule therapies such as JAK inhibitors, which have varied selective inhibitory profiles, has enabled a paradigm shift in the treatment of diverse disorders. JAK inhibitors suppress intracellular signalling mediated by multiple cytokines involved in the pathological processes of rheumatoid arthritis and many other immune and inflammatory diseases, and therefore have the capacity to target multiple aspects of those diseases. In addition to rheumatoid arthritis, JAK inhibition has potential for treatment of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, spondyloarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and alopecia areata, in which stimulation of innate immunity activates adaptive immunity, leading to generation of autoreactive T cells and activation and differentiation of B cells. JAK inhibitors are also effective in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as atopic dermatitis, and can even be used for the COVID-19-related cytokine storm. Mechanism-based treatments targeting JAK-STAT pathways have the potential to provide positive outcomes by minimizing the use of glucocorticoids and/or non-specific immunosuppressants in the treatment of systemic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatology , Humans , Janus Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism
3.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 925-928.e4, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575253
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574265

ABSTRACT

Modulation of the antiviral innate immune response has been proposed as a putative cellular target for the development of novel pan-viral therapeutic strategies. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is especially relevant due to its essential role in the regulation of local and systemic inflammation in response to viral infections, being, therefore, a putative therapeutic target. Here, we review the extraordinary diversity of strategies that viruses have evolved to interfere with JAK-STAT signaling, stressing the relevance of this pathway as a putative antiviral target. Moreover, due to the recent remarkable progress on the development of novel JAK inhibitors (JAKi), the current knowledge on its efficacy against distinct viral infections is also discussed. JAKi have a proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of disorders and exhibit safety profiles comparable to biologics, therefore representing good candidates for drug repurposing strategies, including viral infections.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects
5.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538383

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, and their function is essential to configure adaptative immunity and avoid excessive inflammation. DCs are predicted to play a crucial role in the clinical evolution of the infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV)-2. DCs interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, which mediates cell receptor binding and subsequent fusion of the viral particle with host cell, is a key step to induce effective immunity against this virus and in the S protein-based vaccination protocols. Here we evaluated human DCs in response to SARS-CoV-2 S protein, or to a fragment encompassing the receptor binding domain (RBD) challenge. Both proteins increased the expression of maturation markers, including MHC molecules and costimulatory receptors. DCs interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 S protein promotes activation of key signaling molecules involved in inflammation, including MAPK, AKT, STAT1, and NFκB, which correlates with the expression and secretion of distinctive proinflammatory cytokines. Differences in the expression of ACE2 along the differentiation of human monocytes to mature DCs and inter-donor were found. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 S protein promotes inflammatory response and provides molecular links between individual variations and the degree of response against this virus.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells/pathology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Protein Domains , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tissue Donors
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334934

ABSTRACT

The positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in a global pandemic with horrendous health and economic consequences not seen in a century. At a finer scale, immunologically, many of these devastating effects by SARS-CoV-2 can be traced to a "cytokine storm" resulting in the simultaneous activation of Janus Kinases (JAKs) and Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) proteins downstream of the many cytokine receptor families triggered by elevated cytokines found in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this report, cytokines found in the storm are discussed in relation to the JAK-STAT pathway in response to SARS-CoV-2 and the lessons learned from RNA viruses and previous Coronaviruses (CoVs). Therapeutic strategies to counteract the SARS-CoV-2 mediated storm are discussed with an emphasis on cell signaling and JAK inhibition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264471

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise different fibrotic lung disorders characterized by cellular proliferation, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis. The JAK/STAT molecular pathway is activated under the interaction of a broad number of profibrotic/pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-11, and IL-13, among others, which are increased in different ILDs. Similarly, several growth factors over-expressed in ILDs, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activate JAK/STAT by canonical or non-canonical pathways, which indicates a predominant role of JAK/STAT in ILDs. Between the different JAK/STAT isoforms, it appears that JAK2/STAT3 are predominant, initiating cellular changes observed in ILDs. This review analyzes the expression and distribution of different JAK/STAT isoforms in ILDs lung tissue and different cell types related to ILDs, such as lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial type II cells and analyzes JAK/STAT activation. The effect of JAK/STAT phosphorylation on cellular fibrotic processes, such as proliferation, senescence, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or epithelial/fibroblast to mesenchymal transition will be described. The small molecules directed to inhibit JAK/STAT activation were assayed in vitro and in in vivo models of pulmonary fibrosis, and different JAK inhibitors are currently approved for myeloproliferative disorders. Recent evidence indicates that JAK inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed to block IL-6 are used as compassionate use to attenuate the excessive inflammation and lung fibrosis related to SARS-CoV-2 virus. These altogether indicate that JAK/STAT pathway is an attractive target to be proven in future clinical trials of lung fibrotic disorders.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Cellular Senescence , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Interleukins/metabolism , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2512, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054059

ABSTRACT

Whenever some phenomenon can be represented as a graph or a network it seems pertinent to explore how much the mathematical properties of that network impact the phenomenon. In this study we explore the same philosophy in the context of immunology. Our objective was to assess the correlation of "size" (number of edges and minimum vertex cover) of the JAK/STAT network with treatment effect in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), phenotype of viral infection and effect of immunosuppressive agents on a system infected with the coronavirus. We extracted the JAK/STAT pathway from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, hsa04630). The effects of the following drugs, and their combinations, commonly used in RA were tested: methotrexate, prednisolone, rituximab, tocilizumab, tofacitinib and baricitinib. Following viral systems were also tested for their ability to evade the JAK/STAT pathway: Measles, Influenza A, West Nile virus, Japanese B virus, Yellow Fever virus, respiratory syncytial virus, Kaposi's sarcoma virus, Hepatitis B and C virus, cytomegalovirus, Hendra and Nipah virus and Coronavirus. Good correlation of edges and minimum vertex cover with clinical efficacy were observed (for edge, rho = - 0.815, R2 = 0.676, p = 0.007, for vertex cover rho = - 0.793, R2 = 0.635, p = 0.011). In the viral systems both edges and vertex cover were associated with acuteness of viral infections. In the JAK/STAT system already infected with coronavirus, maximum reduction in size was achieved with baricitinib. To conclude, algebraic and combinatorial invariant of a network may explain its biological behaviour. At least theoretically, baricitinib may be an attractive target for treatment of coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Azetidines/pharmacology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Janus Kinases/genetics , Methotrexate/pharmacology , Models, Statistical , Piperidines/pharmacology , Prednisolone/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Rituximab/pharmacology , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 271: 113854, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049827

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Since the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, COVID-19 has been quickly spreading out to other provinces and countries. Considering that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) played an important role during outbreak of SARS and H1N1, finding potential alternative approaches for COVID-19 treatment is necessary before vaccines are developed. According to previous studies, Maxing Shigan decoction (MXSGD) present a prominent antivirus effect and is often used to treat pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, we collected 115 open prescriptions for COVID-19 therapy from the National Health Commission, State Administration of TCM and other organizations, MXSGD was identified as the key formula. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of MXSGD against COVID-19 is still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic mechanism of MXSGD against COVID-19 by network pharmacology and in vitro experiment verification, and screen the potential components which could bind to key targets of COVID-19 via molecular docking method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple open-source databases related to TCM or compounds were employed to screen active ingredients and potential targets of MXSGD. Network pharmacology analysis methods were used to initially predict the antivirus and anti-inflammatory effects of MXSGD against COVID-19. IL-6 induced rat lung epithelial type Ⅱ cells (RLE-6TN) damage was established to explore the anti-inflammatory damage activity of MXSGD. After MXSGD intervention, the expression level of related proteins and their phosphorylation in the IL-6 mediated JAK-STAT signaling pathway were detected by Western blot. Molecular docking technique was used to further identify the potential substances which could bind to three key targets (ACE2, Mpro and RdRp) of COVID-19. RESULTS: In this study, 105 active ingredients and 1025 candidate targets were selected for MXSGD, 83 overlapping targets related to MXSGD and COVID-19 were identified, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of MXSGD against COVID-19 was constructed. According to the results of biological enrichment analysis, 63 significant KEGG pathways were enriched, and most of them were related to signal transduction, immune system and virus infection. Furthermore, according the relationship between signal pathways, we confirmed MXSGD could effectively inhibit IL-6 mediated JAK-STAT signal pathway related protein expression level, decreased the protein expression levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, Bax and Caspase 3, and increased the protein expression level of Bcl-2, thereby inhibiting RLE-6TN cells damage. In addition, according to the LibDock scores screening results, the components with strong potential affinity (Top 10) with ACE2, Mpro and RdRp are mainly from glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese name: Gancao) and semen armeniacae amarum (Chinese name: Kuxingren). Among them, amygdalin was selected as the optimal candidate component bind to all three key targets, and euchrenone, glycyrrhizin, and glycyrol also exhibited superior affinity interactions with ACE2, Mpro and RdRp, respectively. CONCLUSION: This work explained the positive characteristics of multi-component, multi-target, and multi-approach intervention with MXSGD in combating COVID-19, and preliminary revealed the antiviral and anti-inflammatory pharmacodynamic substances and mechanism of MXSGD, which might provide insights into the vital role of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
10.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 925-928.e4, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977281
11.
Gene ; 768: 145325, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947226

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a novel identified coronavirus disease due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronaviruses 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection, has posed a significant threat to public health worldwide. It has been reported COVID-19 keeps substantial nucleotide similarity and shares common receptor, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-Cov). Here, we investigated the gene expression of ACE2 and identified associated pathways of SARS-Cov as a useful reference for a deepening understanding of COVID-19. The results indicated the ACE2 was overexpressed in human airway epithelial cells (HAEs), especially at 72 h after SARS-Cov infection. We found ACE2 might regulate immune response through immunological activation-associated pathways in the process of in both SARS-Cov and SARS-Cov-2 infection, where the activation of B cells, macrophages, helper T cells 1 (Th1 cells) and the inhibition of Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD8 + T cells were found to be prominent. Finally, significant correlation between ACE2 and JAK-STAT signaling pathway was identified which indicate that JAK-STAT signaling pathway might involve in the downstream action of the overactivation of ACE2. These findings are expected to gain a further insight into the action mechanism of COVID-19 infection and provide a promising target for designing effective therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome
12.
Theranostics ; 11(1): 316-329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922935

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by systemic hyper-inflammation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure. Cytokine storm refers to a set of clinical conditions caused by excessive immune reactions and has been recognized as a leading cause of severe COVID-19. While comparisons have been made between COVID-19 cytokine storm and other kinds of cytokine storm such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and cytokine release syndrome, the pathogenesis of cytokine storm has not been clearly elucidated yet. Recent studies have shown that impaired response of type-1 IFNs in early stage of COVID-19 infection played a major role in the development of cytokine storm, and various cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1 were involved in severe COVID-19. Furthermore, many clinical evidences have indicated the importance of anti-inflammatory therapy in severe COVID-19. Several approaches are currently being used to treat the observed cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, and expectations are especially high for new cytokine-targeted therapies, such as tocilizumab, anakinra, and baricitinib. Although a number of studies have been conducted on anti-inflammatory treatments for severe COVID-19, no specific recommendations have been made on which drugs should be used for which patients and when. In this review, we provide an overview of cytokine storm in COVID-19 and treatments currently being used to address it. In addition, we discuss the potential therapeutic role of extracorporeal cytokine removal to treat the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
13.
Cell Death Differ ; 27(12): 3209-3225, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841179

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and characterized by diverse clinical symptoms. Type I interferon (IFN-I) production is impaired and severe cases lead to ARDS and widespread coagulopathy. We propose that COVID-19 pathophysiology is initiated by SARS-CoV-2 gene products, the NSP1 and ORF6 proteins, leading to a catastrophic cascade of failures. These viral components induce signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) dysfunction and compensatory hyperactivation of STAT3. In SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, a positive feedback loop established between STAT3 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may lead to an escalating cycle of activation in common with the interdependent signaling networks affected in COVID-19. Specifically, PAI-1 upregulation leads to coagulopathy characterized by intravascular thrombi. Overproduced PAI-1 binds to TLR4 on macrophages, inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The recruitment and subsequent activation of innate immune cells within an infected lung drives the destruction of lung architecture, which leads to the infection of regional endothelial cells and produces a hypoxic environment that further stimulates PAI-1 production. Acute lung injury also activates EGFR and leads to the phosphorylation of STAT3. COVID-19 patients' autopsies frequently exhibit diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and increased hyaluronan (HA) production which also leads to higher levels of PAI-1. COVID-19 risk factors are consistent with this scenario, as PAI-1 levels are increased in hypertension, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and old age. We discuss the possibility of using various approved drugs, or drugs currently in clinical development, to treat COVID-19. This perspective suggests to enhance STAT1 activity and/or inhibit STAT3 functions for COVID-19 treatment. This might derail the escalating STAT3/PAI-1 cycle central to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
14.
Cell Rep ; 33(1): 108234, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778591

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication and host immune response determine coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but studies evaluating viral evasion of immune response are lacking. Here, we use unbiased screening to identify SARS-CoV-2 proteins that antagonize type I interferon (IFN-I) response. We found three proteins that antagonize IFN-I production via distinct mechanisms: nonstructural protein 6 (nsp6) binds TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to suppress interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation, nsp13 binds and blocks TBK1 phosphorylation, and open reading frame 6 (ORF6) binds importin Karyopherin α 2 (KPNA2) to inhibit IRF3 nuclear translocation. We identify two sets of viral proteins that antagonize IFN-I signaling through blocking signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)/STAT2 phosphorylation or nuclear translocation. Remarkably, SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 and nsp6 suppress IFN-I signaling more efficiently than SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Thus, when treated with IFN-I, a SARS-CoV-2 replicon replicates to a higher level than chimeric replicons containing nsp1 or nsp6 from SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV. Altogether, the study provides insights on SARS-CoV-2 evasion of IFN-I response and its potential impact on viral transmission and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune Evasion , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA Helicases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , alpha Karyopherins/metabolism
15.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 41(8): 531-543, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-600931

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the pathophysiologic understanding of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has indicated that patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might experience cytokine release syndrome (CRS), characterized by increased interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, etc. Therefore, the treatment of cytokine storm has been proposed as a critical part of rescuing severe COVID-19. Several of the cytokines involved in COVID-19 employ a distinct intracellular signaling pathway mediated by Janus kinases (JAKs). JAK inhibition, therefore, presents an attractive therapeutic strategy for CRS, which is a common cause of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Below, we review the possibilities and challenges of targeting the pathway in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
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