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1.
J Sex Marital Ther ; 47(7): 731-737, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341041

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Given the important role of sexual activity in most people's lives, in response to the question of whether the coronavirus is transmitted through sexual contact, this study was conducted to investigate the association of coronavirus transition with sexual contact. METHODS: Based on the PRISMA checklist, we review published articles on sexual contact with the Corona virus until 15 February 2021. Electronic databases based on search strategy including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science was searched to identify relevant papers in English language. RESULTS: Retrieved from 4671, 29 titles and abstracts articles screened, eight were excluded. There were 21 articles in the selection criteria. Of the 21 studies whose full text was read, only 5 studies stated that coronavirus was not transmitted through sexual contact, and 16 articles argued that sexual transmission of the virus could not be ignored. Most studies have confirmed the transmission of the virus through semen, but its transmission through vaginal secretions is unknown. CONCLUSION: Transmission of the virus through semen should be taken seriously in patients and the necessary education should be given to men and their sexual partners. Health care providers need to increase their knowledge and awareness to provide the best practices to reduction the risks related to Covid-19 sexual transmission through counseling and appropriate approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Coitus , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Semen/virology , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Safe Sex , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/transmission , Vagina/metabolism , Vagina/virology
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(5): 1111-1118, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed how the Dutch restrictions imposed on March 15, 2020, affected sexual behavior, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and condom use among PrEP users in Amsterdam. METHODS: We used data on (1) PrEP use, (2) anal sex acts, and (3) condom use, per partner type [steady partners (SPs), known casual partners (KCPs), and unknown casual partners (UCPs)], collected daily through a mobile application used between December 1, 2019, and June 30, 2020. We compared the period before versus after March 15, 2020, regarding average proportion of days per week at which each end point was reported and average proportion of anal sex acts covered by PrEP and/or condoms. RESULTS: We included data from 136 men who have sex with men. After March 15, 2020, the proportion of days with anal sex increased with SPs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.44) and decreased with KCPs (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.82) and UCPs (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.61). Shifts in partner types were most profound immediately after March 15, 2020, whereas returning to prerestriction levels mid-May 2020. The proportion of days with PrEP use decreased from 74% before to 58% after March 15, 2020 (P < 0.001). After March 15, 2020, PrEP use during sex decreased with UCPs (ß = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.72 to 0.00) but not with SPs and KCPs. Condom use during sex decreased with KCPs (ß = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.67 to 0.04) and UCPs (ß = -0.24; 95% CI = -0.46 to 0.03) but not with SPs. CONCLUSIONS: MSM decreased sex with casual partners and increased sex with SP, but changes were transient. Decreases in sex acts with casual partners paralleled decreases in PrEP use. However, condom use during sex with casual partners decreased, indicating the importance of continued sexual health services, including sexually transmitted infections screening and PrEP care, during COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual Behavior , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Adult , Condoms , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Safe Sex , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/drug therapy
4.
AIDS Behav ; 25(11): 3605-3616, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252140

ABSTRACT

This systematic review of HIV/STI prevention interventions for women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) describes the interventions characteristics, impact on HIV-related outcomes, and whether the studies were designed for dissemination. Six intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomized controlled trials. The interventions consisted of between one and eight individual and/or group sessions. The interventions durations ranged from 10 minutes to 18 hours. The interventions impacts were assessed across 12 HIV-related outcomes. Two randomized control trials showed significantly fewer unprotected sexual episodes or consistent safer sex among abused women in the treatment conditions compared to the control groups. Two studies chose a delivery site for scalability purposes and three interventions were manualized. Three studies examined intervention acceptability, feasibility or fidelity. HIV/STI prevention interventions for women who have experienced IPV may be improved with randomized control designs and greater efforts to design the interventions for dissemination.


Esta revisión sistemática de las intervenciones de prevención del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/ infección transmitida sexualmente para mujeres que experimentan violencia de pareja íntima (IPV) describe las características de la intervención, el impacto de las intervenciones en los resultados relacionados con el VIH y si los estudios se diseñaron para su diseminación. Seis estudios de intervención cumplieron con nuestros criterios de inclusión. Dos estudios fueron ensayos controlados aleatorios. Las intervenciones consistieron en 1­8 sesiones individuales y/o de grupo. La duración total de la intervención osciló entre 10 minutos y 18 horas. El impacto de las intervenciones se evaluó en 12 resultados relacionados con el VIH. Dos ensayos de control aleatorio mostraron significativamente menos episodios sexuales sin protección o sexo más seguro consistente entre las mujeres abusadas en una condición de tratamiento en comparación con el grupo de control. Dos estudios eligieron un lugar de entrega con fines de escalabilidad y tres intervenciones fueron manualizadas. Tres estudios examinaron la aceptabilidad, viabilidad o fidelidad de la intervención. Las intervenciones de prevención del VIH/ITS para mujeres que experimentan violencia de pareja íntima (IPV) pueden mejorarse con diseños de control aleatorios y mayores esfuerzos para diseñar las intervenciones teniendo en cuenta la difusión.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Intimate Partner Violence , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Safe Sex , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(3): 899-911, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic indirectly impacts HIV epidemiology in Central/West Africa. We estimated the potential impact of COVID-19-related disruptions to HIV prevention/treatment services and sexual partnerships on HIV incidence and HIV-related deaths among key populations including female sex workers (FSW), their clients, men who have sex with men, and overall. SETTING: Yaoundé (Cameroon) and Cotonou (Benin). METHODS: We used mathematical models of HIV calibrated to city population-specific and risk population-specific demographic/behavioral/epidemic data. We estimated the relative change in 1-year HIV incidence and HIV-related deaths for various disruption scenarios of HIV prevention/treatment services and decreased casual/commercial partnerships, compared with a scenario without COVID-19. RESULTS: A 50% reduction in condom use in all partnerships over 6 months would increase 1-year HIV incidence by 39%, 42%, 31%, and 23% among men who have sex with men, FSW, clients, and overall in Yaoundé, respectively, and 69%, 49%, and 23% among FSW, clients, and overall, respectively, in Cotonou. Combining a 6-month interruption of ART initiation and 50% reduction in HIV prevention/treatment use would increase HIV incidence by 50% and HIV-related deaths by 20%. This increase in HIV infections would be halved by a simultaneous 50% reduction in casual and commercial partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in condom use after COVID-19 would increase infections among key populations disproportionately, particularly FSW in Cotonou, who need uninterrupted condom provision. Disruptions in HIV prevention/treatment services have the biggest impacts on HIV infections and deaths overall, only partially mitigated by equal reductions in casual/commercial sexual partnerships. Maintaining ART provision must be prioritized to minimize short-term excess HIV-related deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Condoms , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Biological , Risk Factors , Safe Sex , Sex Workers , Urban Population
6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(1): 639-643, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had unforeseen consequences on the delivery of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention services. However, little is known about how the pandemic has impacted pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-using men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Data come from an online cohort of PrEP-using MSM in the Southern United States from October 2019 to July 2020. Participants were administered 10 surveys in total, including 1 ad hoc survey specifically on COVID-19. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of this ad hoc survey (n = 56) and present changes in sexual behaviors and utilization of and access to sexual health services. Using linear mixed-effect regression models, we also analyzed data from the larger cohort and document how sexual behaviors and PrEP use varied longitudinally across several months. RESULTS: A fifth of participants discontinued or changed how often they take PrEP because of COVID-19. A quarter of the cohort documented challenges when attempting to access PrEP, HIV testing, or STD testing. For all sexual behaviors examined longitudinally-number of male sexual partners, anal sex acts, condomless anal sex, and oral sex (all measured in the past 2 weeks)-there was a decrease from February to April followed by an increase from April to June. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest reduced access to and utilization of STD and HIV services coupled with a continuation of behaviors which confer STD/HIV risk. Ensuring appropriate delivery of STD/HIV prevention services during this pandemic is imperative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Safe Sex , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(4): e25697, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168893

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting HIV care globally, with gaps in HIV treatment expected to increase HIV transmission and HIV-related mortality. We estimated how COVID-19-related disruptions could impact HIV transmission and mortality among men who have sex with men (MSM) in four cities in China, over a one- and five-year time horizon. METHODS: Regional data from China indicated that the number of MSM undergoing facility-based HIV testing reduced by 59% during the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside reductions in ART initiation (34%), numbers of all sexual partners (62%) and consistency of condom use (25%), but initial data indicated no change in viral suppression. A mathematical model of HIV transmission/treatment among MSM was used to estimate the impact of disruptions on HIV infections/HIV-related deaths. Disruption scenarios were assessed for their individual and combined impact over one and five years for 3/4/6-month disruption periods, starting from 1 January 2020. RESULTS: Our model predicted new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths would be increased most by disruptions to viral suppression, with 25% reductions (25% virally suppressed MSM stop taking ART) for a three-month period increasing HIV infections by 5% to 14% over one year and deaths by 7% to 12%. Observed reductions in condom use increased HIV infections by 5% to 14% but had minimal impact (<1%) on deaths. Smaller impacts on infections and deaths (<3%) were seen for disruptions to facility HIV testing and ART initiation, but reduced partner numbers resulted in 11% to 23% fewer infections and 0.4% to 1.0% fewer deaths. Longer disruption periods (4/6 months) amplified the impact of disruption scenarios. When realistic disruptions were modelled simultaneously, an overall decrease in new HIV infections occurred over one year (3% to 17%), but not for five years (1% increase to 4% decrease), whereas deaths mostly increased over one year (1% to 2%) and five years (1.2 increase to 0.3 decrease). CONCLUSIONS: The overall impact of COVID-19 on new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths is dependent on the nature, scale and length of the various disruptions. Resources should be directed to ensuring levels of viral suppression and condom use are maintained to mitigate any adverse effects of COVID-19-related disruption on HIV transmission and control among MSM in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Male , Safe Sex
8.
J Sex Res ; 58(8): 951-957, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117170

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 led to substantial changes in individuals' lives due to preventive measures, including social distancing and "stay at home" orders. One type of social interaction likely impacted is intimacy and sexual relationships. Sexual minority men have long navigated the impact of another pandemic, HIV, on their sexual lives. This study explored the impact of COVID-19 on Latinx sexual minority men's (LSMM) sexual behaviors in South Florida, an HIV and COVID-19 epicenter. A rapid qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with LSMM (N = 20) revealed five themes: (1) increased sex with a primary partner, (2) fewer sexual partners, (3) continued pre-COVID-19 sexual activity, often following "quarantine fatigue," (4) opportunities and challenges related to navigating COVID-19 prevention and sex, and (5) using sexual networking apps in new ways. The findings suggest LSMM's resilience and their ongoing health needs during COVID-19, with implications for interventions to promote LSMM's safe and satisfying sex.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Florida/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Safe Sex , Unsafe Sex , Young Adult
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(2): 153-156, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A second wave of COVID-19 began in late June in Victoria, Australia. Stage 3 then Stage 4 restrictions were introduced in July-August. This study aimed to compare the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and sexual practices among men who have sex with men taking PrEP between May-June (post-first lockdown) and July-August (second lockdown). METHODS: This was an online survey conducted among men who have sex with men who had their PrEP managed at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. A short message service with a link to the survey was sent to 503 PrEP clients who provided consent to receive a short message service from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in August 2020. RESULTS: Of the 192 participants completed the survey, 153 (80%) did not change how they took PrEP. Of the 136 daily PrEP users, 111 (82%) continued to take daily PrEP, 3 (2%) switched to on-demand PrEP, and 22 (16%) stopped PrEP in July-August. Men generally reported that they had no partners or decreased sexual activities during second lockdown compared with post-first lockdown; the number of casual sex partners (43% decreased vs. 3% increased) and the number of kissing partners (36% decreased vs. 3% increased). Most men reported no chemsex (79%) or group sex (77%) in May-August. 10% (13/127) of men had ever worn face masks during sex in May-August. CONCLUSION: During the second wave of COVID-19 in Victoria, most men did not change the way they used PrEP but the majority had no risks or reduced sexual practices while one in 10 men wore a face mask during sex.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Masks , Safe Sex , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Australia , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Sex Health ; 17(4): 384-386, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729023

ABSTRACT

Sex workers confront unique challenges in the face of COVID-19. Data from an international sex work website popular with cisgender men and transgender men and women suggest that, after a period of physical distancing, many sex workers are returning to in-person work: from May to August 2020, active sex work profiles increased 9.4% (P < 0.001) and newly created profiles increased by 35.6% (P < 0.001). Analysis of sex work and COVID-19 guidelines published by five community-based organisations found that they focused on altering sexual practices, enhancing hygiene and pivoting to virtual work. To capitalise on these guidelines, funding and research for implementation and evaluation are needed to support COVID-19 risk reduction strategies for sex workers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sex Work/statistics & numerical data , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Safe Sex , Social Support , Transgender Persons/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
13.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(2)2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620123

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the coronavirus that causes an infectious disease, called COVID-19, first detected in patients with pneumonia in Wuhan (People's Republic of China) on December 2019. Italy was the first European country to state the outbreak of the infection and its Council of Ministers declared the state of health emergency on 31.01.2020, then the World Health Organization ruled a global pandemic on 11.03.2020. The nasopharyngeal swab is based on the detection of virus RNA and is the only reliable one for declaring COVID-19 infection. The most common symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients before hospitalization may be fever, chills, cough, dyspnea, asthenia, myalgia and/or arthralgia. This symptomatology can be often complicated in a dramatically increasing manner such as to require hospitalization starting from the third-fourth week. COVID-19 outbreak has dramatically affected the quality of life by changing inter-personal relationships, community life and obviously sexual health. The purpose of this work, based on available evidence, is to provide recommendations to help the population to face their sexual life in this critical period.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sexual Behavior , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Fear , Female , Happiness , Humans , Italy , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quality of Life , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Safe Sex/psychology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Symptom Assessment
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