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1.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(3): vo1, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709244

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial investment and effort by federal agencies and institutions to improve the diversity of the professoriate, progress is excruciatingly slow. One program that aims to enhance faculty diversity is the Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (IRACDA) funded by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences. IRACDA supports the training of a diverse cohort of postdoctoral scholars who will seek academic research and teaching careers. The San Diego IRACDA program has trained 109 postdoctoral scholars since its inception in 2003; 59% are women and 63% are underrepresented (UR) Black/African-American, Latinx/Mexican-American, and Indigenous scientists. Sixty-four percent obtained tenure-track faculty positions, including a substantial 32% at research-intensive institutions. However, the COVID-19 pandemic crisis threatens to upend IRACDA efforts to improve faculty diversity, and academia is at risk of losing a generation of diverse, talented scholars. Here, a group of San Diego IRACDA postdoctoral scholars reflects on these issues and discusses recommendations to enhance the retention of UR scientists to avoid a "lost generation" of promising UR faculty scholars.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cultural Diversity , Education, Graduate , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Fellowships and Scholarships/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities/statistics & numerical data , California , Education, Graduate/economics , Faculty, Medical/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U.S.) , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Research Personnel/economics , Research Personnel/education , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States , Universities/economics , Women/education
4.
New Solut ; 31(2): 113-124, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221723

ABSTRACT

Women make up the large majority of workers in global supply chains, especially factories in the apparel supply chain. These workers face significant inequalities in wages, workplace hazards, and a special burden of gender-based violence and harassment. These "normal" conditions have been compounded by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has exacerbated long-standing structural inequities. Decades of well-financed "corporate social responsibility" programs have failed because they do not address the underlying causes of illegal and abusive working conditions. New initiatives in the past half-decade offer promise in putting the needs and rights of workers front and center. Occupational health and safety professionals can assist in the global effort to improve working and social conditions, and respect for the rights and dignity of women workers, through advocacy and action on the job, in their professional associations, and in society at large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clothing , Manufacturing Industry/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Women , Workplace , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Harassment/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Women's Rights/statistics & numerical data , Women's Rights/trends
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e24591, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eliminating disparities in the burden of COVID-19 requires equitable access to control measures across socio-economic groups. Limited research on socio-economic differences in mobility hampers our ability to understand whether inequalities in social distancing are occurring during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess how mobility patterns have varied across the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify associations with socioeconomic factors of populations. METHODS: We used anonymized mobility data from tens of millions of devices to measure the speed and depth of social distancing at the county level in the United States between February and May 2020, the period during which social distancing was widespread in this country. Using linear mixed models, we assessed the associations between social distancing and socioeconomic variables, including the proportion of people in the population below the poverty level, the proportion of Black people, the proportion of essential workers, and the population density. RESULTS: We found that the speed, depth, and duration of social distancing in the United States are heterogeneous. We particularly show that social distancing is slower and less intense in counties with higher proportions of people below the poverty level and essential workers; in contrast, we show that social distancing is intensely adopted in counties with higher population densities and larger Black populations. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequalities appear to be associated with the levels of adoption of social distancing, potentially resulting in wide-ranging differences in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in communities across the United States. These inequalities are likely to amplify existing health disparities and must be addressed to ensure the success of ongoing pandemic mitigation efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Population Density , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
6.
AORN J ; 112(6): 605-622, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008207

ABSTRACT

AORN conducted its 18th annual compensation survey for perioperative nurses in June 2020. A multiple regression model was used to examine how several variables, including job title, education level, certification, experience, and geographic region, affect perioperative nurse compensation. Comparisons between the 2020 data and data from previous years are presented. The effects of other forms of compensation (eg, on-call compensation, overtime, bonuses, shift differentials, benefits) on total compensation are also examined. Additional analyses explore the current state of the nursing shortage, sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and the effects of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Job Satisfaction , Perioperative Nursing/economics , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Workforce/economics , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Personnel Turnover/statistics & numerical data , Societies, Nursing , United States
7.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1126-1132, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007088

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To characterize which occupations in the United States could likely work from home during a pandemic such as COVID-19.Methods. I merged 2018 US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) national employment and wage data with measures ranking the importance of computer use at work and the importance of working with or performing for the public from the BLS O*NET survey.Results. Approximately 25% (35.6 million) of US workers are employed in occupations (such as technology, administrative, financial, and engineering) that could be done from home; the remaining 75% work in occupations (including health care, manufacturing, retail, and food services) that are challenging to do from home.Conclusions. Most US workers are employed in occupations that cannot be done at home, putting 108.4 million workers at increased risk for adverse health outcomes related to working during a pandemic. These workers tend to be lower paid. The stress experienced by lower-income groups, coupled with job insecurity, could result in a large burden of mental health disorders in the United States in addition to increased cases of COVID-19 from workplace transmission.


Subject(s)
Occupations/classification , Pandemics , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Computers/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Occupational Stress , Occupations/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States
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