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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233198

ABSTRACT

In this study, the intrinsic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based approach coupled with chemometric analysis was adopted to establish the biochemical fingerprint of SARS-CoV-2 infected human fluids: saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs. The numerical methods, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine classification (SVMC), facilitated the spectroscopic identification of the viral-specific molecules, molecular changes, and distinct physiological signatures of pathetically altered fluids. Next, we developed the reliable classification model for fast identification and differentiation of negative CoV(-) and positive CoV(+) groups. The PLS-DA calibration model was described by a great statistical value-RMSEC and RMSECV below 0.3 and R2cal at the level of ~0.7 for both type of body fluids. The calculated diagnostic parameters for SVMC and PLS-DA at the stage of preparation of calibration model and classification of external samples simulating real diagnostic conditions evinced high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for saliva specimens. Here, we outlined the significant role of neopterin as the biomarker in the prediction of COVID-19 infection from nasopharyngeal swab. We also observed the increased content of nucleic acids of DNA/RNA and proteins such as ferritin as well as specific immunoglobulins. The developed SERS for SARS-CoV-2 approach allows: (i) fast, simple and non-invasive collection of analyzed specimens; (ii) fast response with the time of analysis below 15 min, and (iii) sensitive and reliable SERS-based screening of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19 Testing
2.
Anal Chem ; 95(19): 7620-7629, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315422

ABSTRACT

A sensor capable of quantifying both anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody levels and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in saliva and serum was developed. This was accomplished by exploiting the enzymatic reaction of maltose and orthophosphate (PO43-) in the presence of maltose phosphorylase to generate an equivalent amount of glucose that was detected using a commercial glucometer test strip and a potentiostat. Important for this approach is the ability to generate PO43- in an amount that is directly related to the concentration of the analytes. RBD-modified magnetic microparticles were used to capture anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibodies, while particles modified with anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies were used to capture SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein from inactivated virus samples. A magnet was used to isolate and purify the magnetic microparticles (with analyte attached), and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibodies were bound to the analytes attached to the respective magnetic microparticles. Finally, through enzymatic reactions, specific amounts of PO43- (and subsequently glucose) were generated in proportion to the analyte concentration, which was then quantified using a commercial glucometer test strip. Utilizing glucose test strips makes the sensor relatively inexpensive, with a cost per test of ∼US $7 and ∼US $12 for quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibody and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. Our sensor exhibited a limit of detection of 0.42 ng/mL for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibody, which is sensitive enough to quantify typical concentrations of antibodies in COVID-19-infected or vaccinated individuals (>1 µg/mL). The limit of detection for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is 300 pfu/mL (5.4 × 106 RNA copies/mL), which exceeds the performance recommended by the WHO (500 pfu/mL). In addition, the sensor exhibited good selectivity when challenged with competing analytes and could be used to quantify analytes in saliva and serum matrices with an accuracy of >94% compared to RT-qPCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Saliva/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Glucose
3.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282976, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) remains the recommended sample type for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnosis. However, the collection procedure causes discomfort and irritation to the patients, lowering the quality of the sample and exposing healthcare workers to risk. Furthermore, there is also a shortage of flocked swabs and personnel protective equipment in low-income settings. Therefore, this necessitates an alternative diagnostic specimen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of saliva against NPS for SARS-CoV-2 detection using RT-qPCR among COVID-19 suspected patients at Jigjiga, Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: Comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from June 28 to July 30, 2022. A total of 227 paired saliva and NPS samples were collected from 227 COVID-19 suspected patients. Saliva and NPS samples were collected and transported to the Somali Regional Molecular Laboratory. Extraction was conducted using DaAn kit (DaAn Gene Co., Ltd China). Veri-Q RT-qPCR was used for amplification and detection (Mico BioMed Co, Ltd, Republic of Korea). The data were entered into Epi-data version 4.6 and analyzed using SPSS 25. McNemar's test was used to compare the detection rate. Agreement between NPS and saliva was performed using Cohen's Kappa. The mean and median of cycle threshold values were compared using paired t-tests and the correlation between cycle threshold values was measured using Pearson correlation coefficient. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The overall positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was 22.5% (95% CI 17-28%). Saliva showed higher sensitivity (83.8%, 95% CI, 73-94.5%) than NPS (68.9%, 95% CI 60.8-76.8%). The specificity of saliva was 92.6% (95% CI, 80.6% - 100%) compared to NPS (96.7%, 95% CI, 87% - 100%). The positive, negative, and overall percent agreement between NPS and saliva was 83.8%, 92.6%, and 91.2% respectively (κ = 0.703, 95% CI 0.58-0.825, P = 0.00). The concordance rate between the two samples was 60.8%. NPS showed a higher viral load than saliva. There was low positive correlation between the cycle threshold values of the two samples (r = 0.41, 95% CI -1.69 to -0.98, P >0.05). CONCLUSION: Saliva showed a higher detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis than NPS and there was significant agreement between the two specimens. Therefore, saliva could be suitable and easily obtainable alternative diagnostic specimen for SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Nasopharynx
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3075, 2023 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285816

ABSTRACT

In response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we developed a multiplexed, paired-pool droplet digital PCR (MP4) screening assay. Key features of our assay are the use of minimally processed saliva, 8-sample paired pools, and reverse-transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) targeting the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid gene. The limit of detection was determined to be 2 and 12 copies per µl for individual and pooled samples, respectively. Using the MP4 assay, we routinely processed over 1,000 samples a day with a 24-h turnaround time and over the course of 17 months, screened over 250,000 saliva samples. Modeling studies showed that the efficiency of 8-sample pools was reduced with increased viral prevalence and that this could be mitigated by using 4-sample pools. We also present a strategy for, and modeling data supporting, the creation of a third paired pool as an additional strategy to employ under high viral prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , COVID-19 Testing
5.
Acta Virol ; 67(1): 3-12, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253310

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monitoring in air traffic is important in the prevention of the virus spreading from abroad. The gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection is RT-qPCR; however, for early and low viral load detection, a much more sensitive method, such as droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), is required. Our first step was to developed both, ddPCR and RT-qPCR methods, for sensitive SARS-CoV-2 detection. Analysis of ten swab/saliva samples of five Covid-19 patients in different stages of disease showed positivity in 6/10 samples with RT-qPCR and 9/10 with ddPCR. We also used our RT-qPCR method for SARS-CoV-2 detection without the need of RNA extraction, obtaining results in 90-120 minutes. We analyzed 116 self-collected saliva samples from passengers and airport staff arriving from abroad. All samples were negative by RT-qPCR, while 1 was positive, using ddPCR. Lastly, we developed ddPCR assays for SARS-CoV-2 variants identification (alpha, beta, gamma, delta/kappa) that are more economically advantageous when compared to NGS. Our findings demonstrated that saliva samples can be stored at ambient temperature, as we did not observe any significant difference between a fresh sample and the same sample after 24 hours (p = 0.23), hence, saliva collection is the optimal route for sampling airplane passengers. Our results also showed that droplet digital PCR is a more suitable method for detecting virus from saliva, compared to RT-qPCR. Keywords: COVID-19; RT-PCR; ddPCR; SARS-CoV-2; nasopharyngeal swab; saliva.


Subject(s)
Air Travel , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , Specimen Handling/methods
6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(1): 4-32, 2023 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263496

ABSTRACT

Saliva is a complex biological fluid with a variety of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites and microbiota, which can be used for the screening and diagnosis of many diseases. In addition, saliva has the characteristics of simple collection, non-invasive and convenient storage, which gives it the potential to replace blood as a new main body of fluid biopsy, and it is an excellent biological diagnostic fluid. This review integrates recent studies and summarizes the research contents of salivaomics and the research progress of saliva in early diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. This review aims to explore the value and prospect of saliva diagnosis in clinical application.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Saliva , Humans , Saliva/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Early Diagnosis , Biopsy
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2487, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242580

ABSTRACT

Mask-wearing is still recommended owing to the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Within the closed chamber created by the mask, people are increasingly self-aware of their oral malodor. In this prospective and cross-sectional study, we aimed to measure volatile sulfide compound (VSC) levels in patients with halitosis and investigate the oral microbiome profile on the inner surface of their KF94 masks. We also investigated which oral microbiota increases VSC levels and whether the oral microbiomes of oral saliva and mask are correlated. A total of 50 subjects (41 women, average age 38.12 ± 12.58 years old) were included in the study, 25 healthy subjects and 25 patients with halitosis who wore masks for more than 3 h. The dominant bacterial species, bacterial profile, and Shannon diversity index of whole unstimulated saliva and the inner surface of the mask were investigated. The bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes of the major oral bacterial species were analyzed using real-time PCR. Gas chromatography was used to measure hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), which are representative VSCs. The total bacterial DNA copy number was significantly higher in the saliva sample than in the mask sample (p < 0.001), and the average value was 276 times greater. Shannon diversity index was also significantly higher in saliva than in the inner surface of the mask (2.62 ± 0.81 vs. 1.15 ± 1.52, p < 0.001). The most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive species in the masks were Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Lactobacillus casei (Lc), respectively. The bacterial species with significant positive correlations between saliva and mask samples were Prevotella intermedia (Pi) (r = 0.324, p = 0.022), Eikenella corrodens (r = 0.309, p = 0.029), Lc (r = 0.293, p = 0.039), and Parvimonas micra (Pm) (r = 0.366, p = 0.009). The mean value of CH3SH was significantly higher in the halitosis group than in the non-halitosis group (17.84 ± 29.00 vs. 3.84 ± 10.57 ppb, p = 0.031). In the halitosis group, the DNA copy numbers and VSC levels showed highly positive correlation coefficients in the order Pg, Treponema denticola (Td), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Pi, and Prevotella nigrescens (Pn) (all p < 0.05). Regarding bacterial profiles of the mask, Td was strongly correlated with CH3SH (r = 0.414, p = 0.040) and total VSCs (r = 0.374, p = 0.033) only in halitosis group. Mask-wearing time was strongly correlated with total VSCs, H2S, and CH3SH (all r > 0.8, p < 0.001). Oral bacteria, whose association with halitosis has been identified, increased VSC levels in mask-wearing subjects during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly the number of Gram-negative anaerobes such as Pg and Td. Mask-wearing time was a major factor in increasing VSC levels. The study results suggest that people with halitosis could control these Gram-negative bacteria by improving oral hygiene and regularly changing masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Halitosis , Hydrogen Sulfide , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sulfur Compounds , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Sulfides/analysis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Hydrogen Sulfide/analysis , Saliva/chemistry , Treponema denticola
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 831744, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162960

ABSTRACT

The oral cavity remains an underappreciated site for SARS-CoV-2 infection despite the myriad oral conditions observed in COVID-19 patients. Recently, replicating SARS-CoV-2 was found inside salivary epithelial cells resulting in inflammation and atrophy of salivary glands. Saliva possesses healing properties crucial for maintaining the health of the oral mucosa. Specifically, salivary antimicrobial peptides, most notable, histatin-5 exclusively produced in salivary glands, plays a vital role in innate immunity against colonizing microbial species. The demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 destruction of gland tissue where histatin-5 is produced strongly indicate that histatin-5 production is compromised due to COVID-19. Here we present a case of a patient presenting with unexplained chronic oral dysesthesia and dysgeusia post-recovery from COVID-19. To explore potential physiological mechanisms behind the symptoms, we comparatively analyzed saliva samples from the patient and matched healthy subject for histatin-5 and key cytokines. Findings demonstrated significantly reduced histatin-5 levels in patient's saliva and activation of the Th17 inflammatory pathway. As histatin-5 exhibits potent activity against the opportunistic oral pathogen Candida albicans, we evaluated saliva potency against C. albicans ex vivo. Compared to control, patient saliva exhibited significantly reduced anti-candidal efficacy. Although speculative, based on history and salivary analysis we hypothesize that salivary histatin-5 production may be compromised due to SARS-CoV-2 mediated salivary gland destruction. With the current lack of emphasis on implications of COVID-19 on oral health, this report may provide lacking mechanistic insights that may lead to reassessment of risks for oral opportunistic infections and mucosal inflammatory processes in acutely-ill and recovered COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mouth , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/chemistry , Salivary Proteins and Peptides/analysis
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277367, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109332

ABSTRACT

The use of a non-invasive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based method on saliva for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 is evaluated in a proof-of-concept study and thereafter utilized in an outpatient setting with the Biotrack-MED® analyzer. For a proof-of-concept study, saliva samples were obtained from 28 persons with mild or moderate COVID-19-related symptoms who were tested RT-PCR positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. In an outpatient setting, 972 individual saliva samples were utilized. All saliva samples were FISHed with a Cy3-labeled SARS-CoV-2-specific DNA probe and were analyzed manually by fluorescence microscopy (proof-of-concept) or with the SARS-CoV-2 application of the Biotrack-MED® analyzer, a semi-autonomous multi-sample filter cytometer. The proof-of-concept study showed a sensitivity of 96.0% and a specificity of 98.5% and is therefore comparable to the RT-PCR analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs. The outpatient setting showed a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 94.5% and seems therefore a valid assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals that are healthy, mild or moderate symptomatic. In conclusion, the method evaluated in this study, the FISH-based SARS-CoV-2 application of the Biotrack-MED® analyzer, is a sensitive and reliable assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Nasopharynx , Specimen Handling/methods
10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(33): e2204246, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074902

ABSTRACT

The last pandemic exposed critical gaps in monitoring and mitigating the spread of viral respiratory infections at the point-of-need. A cost-effective multiplexed fluidic device (NFluidEX), as a home-test kit analogous to a glucometer, that uses saliva and blood for parallel quantitative detection of viral infection and body's immune response in an automated manner within 11 min is proposed. The technology integrates a versatile biomimetic receptor based on molecularly imprinted polymers in a core-shell structure with nano gold electrodes, a multiplexed fluidic-impedimetric readout, built-in saliva collection/preparation, and smartphone-enabled data acquisition and interpretation. NFluidEX is validated with Influenza A H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 (original strain and variants of concern), and achieves low detection limit in saliva and blood for the viral proteins and the anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM), respectively. It is demonstrated that nanoprotrusions of gold electrodes are essential for the fine templating of antibodies and spike proteins during molecular imprinting, and differentiation of IgG and IgM in whole blood. In the clinical setting, NFluidEX achieves 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity by testing 44 COVID-positive and 25 COVID-negative saliva and blood samples on par with the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (p < 0.001, 95% confidence) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Immunity
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065944

ABSTRACT

Chronic stress has been associated with a range of health disparities, but examination of occupational stress, especially in the wake of COVID-19, has been minimal for many careers. A novel methodology involving work stress diaries and collection of salivary cortisol was employed to determine correlations between occupations, occupational stressors, and how well these are related to the physiological response to stress exposure, the release of cortisol. While cortisol levels tended to follow typical circadian rhythm based on sampling times, cortisol levels also followed the subjective stress levels listed in the work stress diaries following linear regression analysis using the pooled study population data (p = 0.042). When comparing the stressors between the studied careers, participants who worked in the healthcare industry accounted for one-third of the total participants, but reported nearly half (42%) of the more severe occupational stressors listed in the diaries. Finally, the most commonly listed emotional reactions to exposures listed included feelings of stress, frustration, anger, anxiety, or overwhelm. As the workplace progresses from the pandemic, the opportunity to reduce occupational stress exposures in the workplace is at hand. Companies that work towards minimizing the stress faced by their workforce would have a healthier and more relaxed workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Saliva/chemistry , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Workplace/psychology
12.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114443, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049189

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the main receptor of the SARS-CoV-2. There is contradictory evidence on how the exposure to nicotine may module the concentration of soluble ACE2 (sACE2). The aim of this study was to assess the association between nicotine and sACE2 concentrations in saliva samples. METHODS: Pooled analysis performed with data retrieved from two studies (n = 634 and n = 302). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of sACE2, both total and relative to the total amount of protein in the sample, were compared according to sociodemographic variables and variables associated to nicotine. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to explore the associations of sACE2 with nicotine adjusting for sex, age and body mass index. Spearman's rank-correlation coefficients were estimated between the concentrations of nicotine and cotinine, and pack-years, the concentration of relative sACE2 and the isoforms of sACE2. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase of 0.108‰ and 0.087 ng/µl in the relative and absolute salivary sACE2 GM concentrations, respectively, between the lowest and highest nicotine levels. Similar results were observed for cotinine. These associations did not change in the multivariable linear models. There was a low correlation of nicotine and cotinine concentration with the concentration of relative salivary sACE2 (rs = 0.153 and rs = 0.132, respectively), pack-years (rs = 0.222 and rs = 0.235, respectively) and with the concentration of isoform 40 KDa (rs = 0.193 and rs = 0.140, respectively). CONCLUSION: Salivary nicotine concentration seems to be limitedly associated with the concentration of sACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Nicotine , Saliva , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Cotinine/analysis , Nicotine/analysis , Saliva/chemistry
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039870

ABSTRACT

Body fluid identification at crime scenes can be crucial in retrieving the appropriate evidence that leads to the perpetrator and, in some cases, the victim. For this purpose, immunochromatographic tests are simple, fast and suitable for crime scenes. The potential sample is retrieved with a swab, normally a cotton swab, moistened in a specific buffer. Nonetheless, there are other swab types available, which have been proven to be efficient for DNA isolation and analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of different swab types for body fluid identification as well as DNA isolation and characterization. Fifty microliters of human saliva were deposited in three different types of fabric (denim, cotton, and polyester). After 24 h at room temperature, samples were recovered by applying three different swab types, and the tests were performed. Subsequently, total DNA was recovered from the sample buffer. Cotton swabs performed worse in denim and cotton fabrics in both immunochromatography tests and DNA yield. No differences were observed for polyester. In contrast, and except for two replicates, it was possible to obtain a full DNA profile per fabric and swab type, and to identify the mtDNA haplogroup. In this paper, the impact of swab types on body fluid identification through the application of immunochromatographic tests is analyzed for the first time. This work corroborates previous research related to the influence of swab types in nuclear DNA isolation and characterization.


Subject(s)
DNA Fingerprinting , Specimen Handling , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Humans , Polyesters , Saliva/chemistry , Specimen Handling/methods
14.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(12): 1435-1440, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025233

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: The use of saliva samples for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection offers several advantages, including ease of sample collection, feasibility of self-collection, and minimization of medical staff exposure to infection. The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants has had an impact on the viral load of specimens and the results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). OBJECTIVE.­: To compare nasopharyngeal swab and saliva samples for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 using rRT-PCR. DESIGN.­: In this study, participants were recruited prospectively, and paired nasopharyngeal swab and saliva samples were collected simultaneously from each participant. After adding universal transport medium, RNA was extracted in an identical manner for both sample types, and samples were tested using rRT-PCR. In addition, samples with positive results were tested for SARS-CoV-2 variants. RESULTS.­: Of the 338 paired samples, 100 nasopharyngeal swab and 101 saliva samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The rRT-PCR results of the saliva and nasopharyngeal swab samples showed a positive percent agreement of 95.0% (95% CI, 88.7%-98.4%), a negative percent agreement of 97.9% (95% CI, 95.2%-99.3%), and an overall percent agreement of 96.8% (95% CI, 94.3%-98.4%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the saliva samples of 6 participants with negative nasopharyngeal sample results. In addition, the sensitivity of saliva samples was similar to that of nasopharyngeal samples for detecting various SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Omicron variant. CONCLUSIONS.­: Saliva samples can be used as an alternative to nasopharyngeal samples for convenient and effective detection of various SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis
15.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(5): 419-430, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022489

ABSTRACT

Background: Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) plays an important role in antiviral protective immunity. Although salivary testing has been used for many viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), its use has not yet been well established with the SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quantification of salivary IgA and IgG antibodies can elucidate mucosal and systemic immune responses after natural infection or vaccination. Here, we report the development and validation of a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 salivary IgA and serum IgG antibodies, and present quantitative results for immunized subjects both prior to or following COVID-19 infections. Objective: Total and serum SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG responses were compared with salivary spike-specific IgA and IgG responses in samples obtained from patients recently infected with SARS-CoV-2 and from subjects recently immunized with COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: A total of 52 paired saliva and serum samples were collected from 26 study participants: 7 subjects after COVID-19 infection and 19 subjects who were uninfected. The ELISA results from these samples were compared with five prepandemic control serum samples. Total IgG and SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG in the serum samples from the subjects who were infected and vaccinated were also measured in a commercial laboratory with an enzyme immunoassay. Results: A wide variation in antibody responses was seen in salivary and serum samples measured by both methods. Three groups of serum total and IgG spike-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were observed: (1) low, (2) intermediate, and (3) high antibody responders. A correlational analysis of salivary IgA (sIgA) responses with serum IgG concentrations showed a statistical correlation in the low and intermediate antibody responder groups but not in the high group (which we believe was a result of saturation). Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest measuring salivary and serum IgG and IgA merit further investigation as markers of current or recent SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 904-909, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018734

ABSTRACT

The need for oral health monitoring Point of Care (PoC) systems is ever growing. This is effectively highlighted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic where the lack of rapid PoC testing has placed an unsustainable burden on centralized laboratory testing. Urgent development has furthered pathogenic nucleic acid and antibody detection in oral samples throat swabs, but without corresponding advancements in biochemical monitoring through oral biosensing. We have recently reported two novel biosensor technologies for detection of high impact hormones: cortisol in saliva by organic electrolyte gated FETs (OEGFETs), and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) using molecularly imprinted electroimpedance spectroscopy biosensors (MIP EIS). In this work, we report a first stage integration of the two biosensors - previously bench-top proven - with a miniaturized semi-hermetically sealed soft-fluidic enclosure, onto a low-power (<300 mW) customized printed circuit board. Our findings established comparable detection thresholds for the miniaturized board-based configuration and a lab-based test setup, and their ability to characterize, calibrate, and operate these small footprint biosensors. Testing with the 8-isoprostane EBC MIP EIS biosensors showed the system-on-board had an effective frequency range of 100-100kHz, comparable to lab bench impedance analyzers. Despite internal impedance increases of 210%, the expected data features are present in the impedance graphs collected with the PCB. The system-on-board experiments using OEGFET aptasensor showed a predictable behavior and comparable sensor detection range and resolution using unadulterated supernatant and serial dilutions of cortisol over a range of 273 µM to 2.73pM. The portable, multi-analyte oral biosensor is a promising prototype for future packaging and clinical validation.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Saliva/chemistry
17.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1229: 340290, 2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995928

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the need for accurate, rapid, point-of-care diagnostics to control disease transmission. We have developed a simple, ultrasensitive single-particle surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) immunoassay to detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in saliva. This assay relies on the use of single chain Fv (scFv) recombinant antibody expressed in E. coli to bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Recombinant scFv labeled with a SERS-active dye in solution is mixed with unlabeled scFv conjugated to gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles and a sample to be tested. In the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, immunocomplexes form and concentrate the labeled scFv close to the gold surface of the nanoparticles, causing an increased SERS signal. The assay detects inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus and spike protein in saliva at concentrations of 1.94 × 103 genomes mL-1 and 4.7 fg mL-1, respectively, making this direct detection antigen test only 2-3 times less sensitive than some qRT-PCR tests. All tested SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, including those from alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron variants, were detected without recognition of the closely related SARS and MERS spike proteins. This 30 min, no-wash assay requires only mixing, a magnetic separation step, and signal measurements using a hand-held, battery-powered Raman spectrometer, making this assay ideal for ultrasensitive detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus at the point-of-care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Chain Antibodies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Escherichia coli , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272971, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993506

ABSTRACT

Viability of saliva samples stored for longer than 28 days has not been reported in the literature. The COVID-19 pandemic has spawned new research evaluating various sample types, thus large biobanks have been started. Residual saliva samples from university student surveillance testing were retested on SalivaDirect and compared with original RT-PCR (cycle threshold values) and quantitative antigen values for each month in storage. We conclude that saliva samples stored at -80°C are still viable in detecting SARS-CoV-2 after 12 months of storage, establishing the validity of these samples for future testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , Specimen Handling
19.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 101(4): 34-37, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988653

ABSTRACT

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to perform proteomic saliva assay in order to reveal mechanisms of the oral pathology caused by COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proteomic analysis was performed to compare saliva proteins profile in healthy individuals (10 samples) and patients with COVID-19 (30 samples). RESULTS: The obtained results of the saliva samples study in patients with COVID-19 indicate activation in the oral tissues the pathways of the cell renewal, apoptosis, DNA exchange processes and chromatin remodelling; there are also marked signs of immune response reactivation and immunostimulation. CONCLUSION: Of all the proteins presented, the saliva of patients with COVID-19 33 proteins have an intersection with GO-annotated proteins of inflammation and epithelial cornification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Humans , Proteome/analysis , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Saliva/chemistry
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12612, 2022 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956424

ABSTRACT

Saliva has been demonstrated as feasible alternative to naso-oropharyngeal swab (NOS) for SARS-CoV-2 detection through reverse transcription quantitative/real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). This study compared the diagnostic agreement of conventional NOS, saliva with RNA extraction (SE) and saliva without RNA extraction (SalivaDirect) processing for RT-qPCR in identifying SARS-CoV-2. All techniques were also compared, as separate index tests, to a composite reference standard (CRS) where positive and negative results were defined as SARS-CoV-2 detection in either one or no sample, respectively. Of 517 paired samples, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 150 (29.01%) NOS and 151 (29.21%) saliva specimens. The saliva-based tests were noted to have a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (95% confidence interval) of 92.67% (87.26%, 96.28%), 97.55% (95.40%, 98.87%) and 96.13% (94.09%, 97.62%), respectively, for SE RT-qPCR and 91.33% (85.64%, 95.30%), 98.91% (97.23%, 99.70%) and 96.71% (94.79%, 98.07%), respectively, for SalivaDirect RT-qPCR compared to NOS RT-qPCR. Compared to CRS, all platforms demonstrated statistically similar diagnostic performance. These findings suggest that both conventional and streamlined saliva RT-qPCR are at least non-inferior to conventional NOS RT-qPCR in detecting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods
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