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1.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 183-195, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605311

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, most U.S. colleges closed their campuses-including residence halls-causing significant disruption to students' lives. Two waves of data were collected from undergraduate students enrolled at a large U.S. Midwestern university: Wave 1 was a confidential online survey of 4989 randomly sampled undergraduate students collected in January/February 2020; Wave 2 was collected in April/May 2020 following campus closure. Our research aimed to: (1) assess how the COVID-19 related campus closure affected college students' romantic/sexual relationships, (2) examine students' past month sexual behaviors prior to the pandemic in comparison with their sexual behaviors during campus closure, and (3) compare participants' pre-pandemic event-level sexual behaviors with those occurring during campus closure. Of 2137 participants who completed both waves (49.8% women, mean age = 20.9), 2.6% were living at home in Wave 1 compared to 71.0% at Wave 2. Of those in relationships, 14.5% experienced a breakup and 25.3% stayed in their relationship but returned home to different cities. There were no statistically significant differences in participants' prior month reports of solo masturbation or sending/receiving nude/sexy images between Waves 1 and 2; however, participation in oral, vaginal, and anal sex significantly decreased across waves. Examining participants' most recent sexual events, Wave 2 sex more often occurred with a cohabiting or relationship partner and was rated as more wanted, emotionally intimate, and orgasmic. Implications for sexual health professionals are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(9): 1918-1927, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172643

ABSTRACT

Serological surveys can provide evidence of cases that were not previously detected, depict the spectrum of disease severity, and estimate the proportion of asymptomatic infections. To capture these parameters, survey sample sizes may need to be very large, especially when the overall infection rate is still low. Therefore, we propose the use of "snowball sampling" to enrich serological surveys by testing contacts of infected persons identified in the early stages of an outbreak. For future emerging pandemics, this observational study sampling design can answer many key questions, such as estimation of the asymptomatic proportion of all infected cases, the probability of a given clinical presentation for a seropositive individual, or the association between characteristics of either the host or the infection and seropositivity among contacts of index individuals. We provide examples, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, of studies and analysis methods that use a snowball sample and perform a simulation study that demonstrates scenarios where snowball sampling can answer these questions more efficiently than other sampling schemes. We hope such study designs can be applied to provide valuable information to slow the present pandemic as it enters its next stage and in early stages of future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Contact Tracing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 300: 113920, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164352

ABSTRACT

In a large (n=10918), national, longitudinal probability-based sample of UK adults the prevalence of clinically significant psychological distress rose from prepandemic levels of 20.8% in 2019 to 29.5% in April 2020 and then declined significantly to prepandemic levels by September (20.8%). Longitudinal analyses showed that all demographic groups examined (age, sex, race/ethnicity, income) experienced increases in distress after the onset of the pandemic followed by significant decreases. By September 2020 distress levels were indistinguishable from prepandemic levels for all groups. This recovery may reflect the influence of the easing of restrictions and psychological adaptation to the demands of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , COVID-19/psychology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Sampling Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2246-2248, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153148

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic requires accurate identification and isolation of confirmed cases for effective control. This report describes the effectiveness of our testing strategy and highlights the importance of repeat testing in suspected cases in our cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Radiography , Sampling Studies , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors
5.
Acta Trop ; 214: 105782, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064690

ABSTRACT

Originated in Wuhan, China, the coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) has quickly spread worldwide, reaching countries that already faced other endemics and epidemics. In Brazil, such a concerning situation includes arboviruses, among which the dengue virus stands out. Here, we determined the rate of SARS-CoV-2/dengue virus co-infection in a total of 178 patients with COVID-19 symtoms admitted into a large public hospital of the Federal District of Brazil. Furthermore, we evaluated whether prior or active dengue virus infection influenced hematological, biochemical, and clinical parameters of such patients. One hundred and twelve (63%) individuals tested positive for COVID-19, of which 43 (38.4%) were co-infected with dengue virus, and 50 (44.6%) had antibodies indicative of previous dengue infection. Co-infected patients showed lower numbers of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes, higher glucose rates, and a worse pulmonary condition. Of note, prior infections with dengue virus did not influence clinical parameters, but active dengue fever resulted in higher hospitalization rate. In conclusion, amid the current complex epidemiological scenario in Brazil, our data support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 and dengue co-infection affects an important percentage of COVID-19 patients and leads to worse clinical parameters, requiring greater attention from health authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/diagnosis , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil , Coinfection/diagnosis , Creatine Kinase/blood , Dengue/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Sampling Studies
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19684, 2020 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its outbreak in January 2020, COVID-19 has quickly spread worldwide and has become a global pandemic. Social media platforms have been recognized as important tools for health-promoting practices in public health, and the use of social media is widespread among the public. However, little is known about the effects of social media use on health promotion during a pandemic such as COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the predictive role of social media use on public preventive behaviors in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and how disease knowledge and eHealth literacy moderated the relationship between social media use and preventive behaviors. METHODS: A national web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted by a proportionate probability sampling among 802 Chinese internet users ("netizens") in February 2020. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to examine and explore the relationships among all the variables. RESULTS: Almost half the 802 study participants were male (416, 51.9%), and the average age of the participants was 32.65 years. Most of the 802 participants had high education levels (624, 77.7%), had high income >¥5000 (US $736.29) (525, 65.3%), were married (496, 61.8%), and were in good health (486, 60.6%). The average time of social media use was approximately 2 to 3 hours per day (mean 2.34 hours, SD 1.11), and the most frequently used media types were public social media (mean score 4.49/5, SD 0.78) and aggregated social media (mean score 4.07/5, SD 1.07). Social media use frequency (ß=.20, P<.001) rather than time significantly predicted preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Respondents were also equipped with high levels of disease knowledge (mean score 8.15/10, SD 1.43) and eHealth literacy (mean score 3.79/5, SD 0.59). Disease knowledge (ß=.11, P=.001) and eHealth literacy (ß=.27, P<.001) were also significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Furthermore, eHealth literacy (P=.038) and disease knowledge (P=.03) positively moderated the relationship between social media use frequency and preventive behaviors, while eHealth literacy (ß=.07) affected this relationship positively and disease knowledge (ß=-.07) affected it negatively. Different social media types differed in predicting an individual's preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Aggregated social media (ß=.22, P<.001) was the best predictor, followed by public social media (ß=.14, P<.001) and professional social media (ß=.11, P=.002). However, official social media (ß=.02, P=.597) was an insignificant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Social media is an effective tool to promote behaviors to prevent COVID-19 among the public. Health literacy is essential for promotion of individual health and influences the extent to which the public engages in preventive behaviors during a pandemic. Our results not only enrich the theoretical paradigm of public health management and health communication but also have practical implications in pandemic control for China and other countries.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Communication , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Young Adult
7.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 11, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The disease burden of SARS-CoV-2 as measured by tests from various localities, and at different time points present varying estimates of infection and fatality rates. Models based on these acquired data may suffer from systematic errors and large estimation variances due to the biases associated with testing. An unbiased randomized testing to estimate the true fatality rate is still missing. METHODS: Here, we characterize the effect of incidental sampling bias in the estimation of epidemic dynamics. Towards this, we explicitly modeled for sampling bias in an augmented compartment model to predict epidemic dynamics. We further calculate the bias from differences in disease prediction from biased, and randomized sampling, proposing a strategy to obtain unbiased estimates. RESULTS: Our simulations demonstrate that sampling biases in favor of patients with higher disease manifestation could significantly affect direct estimates of infection and fatality rates calculated from the numbers of confirmed cases and deaths, and serological testing can partially mitigate these biased estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The augmented compartmental model allows the explicit modeling of different testing policies and their effects on disease estimates. Our calculations for the dependence of expected confidence on a randomized sample sizes, show that relatively small sample sizes can provide statistically significant estimates for SARS-CoV-2 related death rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Bias , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies
8.
J Addict Dis ; 39(2): 215-225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975146

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nationwide lockdown during the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on an average volume of alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. A survey was conducted with a random sample of 4072 people. The authors found a significant influence of the pandemic period on alcohol consumption compared to the pre-pandemic period. The vast majority of respondents reduced the frequency of consumption of all types of alcohol. However, when the population was divided into subgroups, this differentiation demonstrated that particular groups are more vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Higher frequency of alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown was most often found in the group of men, people aged 18-24 years, inhabitants of big cities, and remote workers. Besides, significant differences were observed in subpopulations concerning different types of alcohol. Results emphasized the importance of monitoring and implementation of actions aimed at reducing the potential psychosocial impact of COVID-19, including alcohol-related disorders.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Social Isolation , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , Prognosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/enzymology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Sampling Studies , Survival Rate , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901288

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 represents a great source of concern and a new threat for immunocompromised patients. Limited studies are available on COVID-19 in immunocompromised children. This case series aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics, management and outcomes of COVID-19 in five children immunocompromised due to different underlying conditions. All had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic at presentation. All had a benign course of illness. No changes or delays in their treatment regimens occurred, and none experienced a relapse of the original disease, developed severe COVID-19 or died. However, these cases showed a prolonged duration of virus shedding. This report suggests that immunocompromised paediatric patients may not be at a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19. However, further studies are required to elaborate on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Age Factors , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Sampling Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Psicothema ; 32(4): 490-500, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has highlighted the importance of studying the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. The aim of this study is to examine the role of age in the early psychological responses to the pandemic in a Spanish community sample, focusing on how different generations coped with it. METHOD: An online survey was conducted during the early stages of the quarantine. Sociodemographic, health and behavioral variables were compared for five age groups. Mental health was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and psychological impacts were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: 3,524 participants were included (Mage = 39.24, SDage = 12.00). Participants aged between 18 and 33 years old showed more hyperactivation and evitation, were more depressed, anxious and stressed. Those aged between 26 and 33 years old showed more intrusion. Those aged between 18 and 25 years old suffered more sleep disturbances, claustrophobia and somatization and maintained worse routines. Elderly people showed better psychological responses in general. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence that the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic hits young people harder. These results should be taken into account when developing specific evidence-based strategies.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Aging/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Habits , Health Behavior , Humans , Life Change Events , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(6): 24-31, 2020 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-869248

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be a life-threatening lung disease or a trivial upper respiratory infection depending on whether the alveoli are involved. Emergency department (ED) evaluation of symptomatic patients with normal vital signs is frequently limited to chest auscultation and oro-nasopharyngeal swabs. We tested the null hypothesis that patients being screened for COVID-19 in the ED with normal vital signs and without hypoxia would have a point-of-care lung ultrasound (LUS) consistent with COVID-19 less than 2% of the time. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, structured, blinded ultrasound review and chart review in patients 14 years or older with symptoms prompting ED evaluation for COVID-19. We excluded those with known congestive heart failure or other chronic lung conditions likely to cause excessive B-lines on LUS. We used a two-sided exact hypothesis test for binomial random variables. We measured LUS diagnostic performance using computed tomography as the gold standard. RESULTS: We reviewed 77 charts; 49 met inclusion criteria. Vital signs were normal in 30/49 patients; 10 (33%) of these patients had LUS consistent with viral pneumonitis. We rejected the null hypothesis (p-value <0.001). The treating physicians' interpretations of their own point-of-care LUS had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval (CI), 74%, 100%), specificity 88% (95% CI, 47%, 100%), likelihood ratio (LR) positive of 5.8 (95% CI, 1.3, 25), and LR negative of 0.05 (95% CI, 0.03, 0.71) when compared to CT findings. CONCLUSION: LUS had a meaningful detection rate for pneumonitis in symptomatic ED patients with normal vital signs who were being evaluated for COVID-19. We recommend at least LUS be used in addition to polymerase chain reaction testing when evaluating symptomatic ED patients for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Systems , Ultrasonography , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 12(4): 1205-1223, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the face of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), people's adherence to precautionary behavioral measures (e.g. social distancing) largely influences the effectiveness of those measures in containing the spread of the coronavirus. The present study aims at testing the applicability of the health belief model (HBM) and generalised social beliefs (i.e. social axioms) to explore strategies for promoting adherence to COVID-19 precautionary measures. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey with a two-step stratified random sampling method and obtained a probability sample of 616 adults in Macao, China (18-87 years old; 60.9% women) in April 2020. RESULTS: Our participants showed stronger adherence to some COVID-19 precautionary measures (e.g. face mask wearing; 96.4%) but not others (e.g. social distancing; 42.3%). Their adherence to those measures was found to be significantly associated with four HBM factors and two social axioms, after controlling for gender, age, and years of education. CONCLUSIONS: The HBM and the generalised social beliefs of social cynicism and reward for application can be applied to understanding adherence to precautionary measures against COVID-19. Strategies based on beliefs were proposed to facilitate the promotion of precautionary measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Guideline Adherence , Health Surveys , Humans , Macau , Male , Middle Aged , Sampling Studies , Young Adult
14.
Perit Dial Int ; 40(5): 496-498, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809108

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease that increased the burden on health-care system. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 74,795 cases have been reported until 26 May 2020 and the number of cases is rapidly increasing. The mortality rate of COVID-19 worldwide is 6.37%. Here we report three cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to pneumonia of severe COVID-19; they were treated with automated peritoneal dialysis (PD) with full recovery. To the best of our knowledge, few reports in the literature have discussed the use of PD in AKI secondary to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Sampling Studies , Saudi Arabia , Treatment Outcome
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927304, 2020 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This case series describes 5 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in Ecuador who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) prior to their COVID-19 illness. CASE REPORT Case #1 reports a 29-year-old woman who had been treated with 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day for 1 year and presented with flu-like symptoms, chest pain, fever, odynophagia, asthenia, dry cough, and chills. Case #2 was a 34-year-old woman whose treatment for SLE included 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2017. She arrived at the clinic with a dry cough, asthenia, and myalgias. Case #3 was a 24-year-old woman who had been using 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2010. She presented with asthenia, myalgias, headaches, hypogeusia, and anosmia. Case #4 was a 39-year-old woman taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine every day for SLE who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, odynophagia, hypogeusia, anosmia, diarrhea, and fever. Case #5 was a 46-year-old woman who had been taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine since 2019. She came to our hospital complaining of chest pain, fever, and dyspnea. In all 5 patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed with a nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test using the Cepheid/GeneXpert system. CONCLUSIONS All 5 of our patients with SLE who were taking hydroxychloroquine presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of COVID-19. This case series provides support for a lack of prevention of COVID-19 by hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Ecuador , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Risk Assessment , Sampling Studies , Treatment Failure , Young Adult
16.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 1987-1997, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796294

ABSTRACT

Risk assessments of transfusion-transmitted emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are complicated by the fact that blood donors' demographics and behaviors can be different from the general population. Therefore, when assessing potential blood donor exposure to EIDs, the use of general population characteristics, such as U.S. travel statistics, may invoke uncertainties that result in inaccurate estimates of blood donor exposure. This may, in turn, lead to the creation of donor deferral policies that do not match actual risk. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This article reports on the development of a system to rapidly assess EID risks for a nationally representative portion of the U.S. blood donor population. To assess the effectiveness of this system, a test survey was developed and deployed to a statistically representative sample frame of blood donors from five blood collecting organizations. Donors were directed to an online survey to ascertain their recent travel and potential exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). RESULTS: A total of 7128 responses were received from 54 256 invitations. The age-adjusted estimated total number of blood donors potentially exposed to MERS-CoV was approximately 15 640 blood donors compared to a lower U.S. general population-based estimate of 9610 blood donors. CONCLUSION: The structured donor demographic sample-based data provided an assessment of blood donors' potential exposure to an emerging pathogen that was 63% larger than the U.S. population-based estimate. This illustrates the need for tailored blood donor-based EID risk assessments that provide more specific demographic risk intelligence and can inform appropriate regulatory decision making.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , Blood-Borne Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Risk Assessment/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel-Related Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood-Borne Infections/blood , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , Blood-Borne Infections/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/blood , Communicable Diseases, Imported/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Imported/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Sample Size , Sampling Studies , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 45, 2020 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are not rare among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, but there have been no reports regarding convalescent plasma therapy for the recovery of gastrointestinal problems in COVID-19 patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two cases of patients with COVID-19-associated recurrent diarrhea and positive fecal occult blood who successfully recovered after a one-time convalescent plasma administration. CONCLUSION: When COVID-19 patients develop recurrent or refractory gastrointestinal symptoms and fail to respond to the available treatment, alternative therapy with convalescent plasma administration may be considered.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Recurrence , Sampling Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Taiwan , Treatment Outcome
19.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742563

ABSTRACT

We describe 2 patients with coronavirus disease who had multiple clinical features suggestive of Kawasaki disease (KD). Both patients presented with fever lasting >5 days and were found to have rash, conjunctival injection, and swollen lips. One patient also had extremity swelling, whereas the other developed desquamation of the fingers. In both cases, laboratory results were similar to those seen in KD. These patients had highly unusual but similar features, and both appeared to respond favorably to treatment. It remains unclear whether these patients had true KD or manifestations of coronavirus disease that resembled KD.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Sampling Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620951053, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740353

ABSTRACT

Infection with novel SARS-CoV-2 carries significant morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary compromise, such as lung cancer, autoimmune disease, and pneumonia. For early stages of mild to moderate disease, care is entirely supportive.Antiviral drugs such as remdesivir may be of some benefit but are reserved for severe cases given limited availability and potential toxicity. Repurposing of safer, established medications that may have antiviral activity is a possible approach for treatment of earlier-stage disease. Tetracycline and its derivatives (e.g. doxycycline and minocycline) are nontraditional antibiotics with a well-established safety profile, potential efficacy against viral pathogens such as dengue fever and chikungunya, and may regulate pathways important in initial infection, replication, and systemic response to SARS-CoV-2. We present a series of four high-risk, symptomatic, COVID-19+ patients, with known pulmonary disease, treated with doxycycline with subsequent rapid clinical improvement. No safety issues were noted with use of doxycycline.Doxycycline is an attractive candidate as a repurposed drug in the treatment of COVID-19 infection, with an established safety profile, strong preclinical rationale, and compelling initial clinical experience described here.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Doxycycline/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/complications , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Risk Assessment , Sampling Studies , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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