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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1162936, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238773

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging evidence suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were more prone to acute skeletal muscle loss and suffer sequelae, including weakness, arthromyalgia, depression and anxiety. Meanwhile, it was observed that sarcopenia (SP) was associated with susceptibility, hospitalization and severity of COVID-19. However, it is not known whether there is causal relationship between COVID-19 and SP-related traits. Mendelian randomization (MR) was a valid method for inferring causality. Methods: Data was extracted from the COVID-19 Host Genetic Initiative and the UK Biobank without sample overlapping. The MR analysis was performed with inverse variance weighted, weighted median, MR-Egger, RAPS and CAUSE, MR-APSS. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with MR-Egger intercept test, Cochran's Q test, MR-PRESSO to eliminate pleiotropy. Results: There was insufficient result in the MR-APSS method to support a direct causal relationship after the Bonferroni correction. Most other MR results were also nominally consistent with the MR-APSS result. Conclusions: Our study first explored the causal relationship between COVID-19 and SP-related traits, but the result indicated that they may indirectly interact with each other. We highlighted that older people had better absorb enough nutrition and strengthen exercise to directly cope with SP during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Aged , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Pandemics , Muscle, Skeletal
2.
Nutrients ; 15(9)2023 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245095

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia is a common clinical problem in older people and often leads to severe adverse outcomes [...].


Subject(s)
Sarcopenia , Humans , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Sarcopenia/therapy
3.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 23(2): 196-204, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Skeletal muscle area (SMA) at T4 level on chest computed tomography (CT) is a newly available method that can be used as a surrogate sarcopenia marker. The objective of this study is to evaluate association of SMA with adverse COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients were prospectively recorded in a database containing age, gender, date of admission, date of outcome (discharge, mortality, presence of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, additional coding information (comorbidities, superimposed conditions). Admission CT-scans were retrospectively evaluated for segmentation (bilateral pectoralis major/minor, erector spinae, levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor and major and transversospinalis muscles) and SMA calculation using 3-D slicer software. RESULTS: 167 cases were evaluated (68 male, 72 female, 140 survived, 27 dead). Muscle area was lower in patients with ICU stay (p=0.023, p=0.018, p=0.008) and mortality outcome (p=0.004, p=0.007, p=0.002) for pectoralis, back and SMA. In multivariate Cox-regression analysis, hazard ratio (HR) value for the pectoralis muscle area value below 2800 mm2 was found to be 3.138(95% CI: 1.171-8.413) for mortality and 2.361(95% CI: 1.012-5.505) for ICU. CONCLUSIONS: Pectoralis muscle area measured at T4 level with 3-D slicer was closely associated with adverse outcomes (mortality, ICU stay) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Since early treatment methods for COVID-19 are being evaluated, this method may be a useful adjunct to clinical decision making in regard to prioritization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Male , Female , Pectoralis Muscles/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
4.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(4): 342-347, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322317

ABSTRACT

The Resilience is a construct receiving growing attention from the scientific community in geriatrics and gerontology. Older adults show extremely heterogeneous (and often unpredictable) responses to stressors. Such heterogeneity can (at least partly) be explained by differences in resilience (i.e., the capacity of the organism to cope with stressors). The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) Task Force met in Boston (MA,USA) on April 20, 2022 to discuss the biological and clinical significance of resilience in older adults. The identification of persons with low resilience and the prompt intervention in this at-risk population may be critical to develop and implement preventive strategies against adverse events. Unfortunately, to date, it is still challenging to capture resilience, especially due to its dynamic nature encompassing biological, clinical, subjective, and socioeconomic factors. Opportunities to dynamically measure resilience were discussed during the ICFSR Task Force meeting, emphasizing potential biomarkers and areas of intervention. This article reports the results of the meeting and may serve to support future actions in the field.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Geriatrics , Sarcopenia , Humans , Aged , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Advisory Committees , Adaptation, Psychological
6.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 14(3): 517-526, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to various manifestations beyond an inflammatory response, such as anorexia, hyposmia, and other symptoms that may increase the risk of nutritional disorders. Sarcopenia and cachexia are conditions that appear to influence COVID-19 evolution. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate sarcopenia and cachexia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, verifying their clinical impacts and relationship with prognostic markers. METHODS: This is a case-control study involving inpatients with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. The occurrence of sarcopenia was evaluated according to European Working Group on Sarcopenia 2 criteria. Cachexia was evaluated according to (Evans et al. in Clin Nutr 27:793-799, 2008) criteria. Inflammatory markers and the 4C Mortality Score were evaluated. RESULTS: Our study included 96 individuals, divided into two groups: COVID-19 (n = 32) and control (n = 64). The mean age of the COVID-19 group was 63.3 ± 11.8 years, and the control group had a mean age of 64.3 ± 5.5 years. No significant differences in mean age were found between the groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia and cachexia in patients with COVID-19 was 21.9% and 28.1%, respectively, while in the control group, it was 29.7% and 26.6%, respectively. Sarcopenic patients with COVID-19 had a higher risk of death (4C Mortality Score) (p = 0.038). The occurrence of sarcopenia or cachexia within the COVID-19 group was not associated with inflammatory biomarkers or a higher number of COVID-19 symptoms (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The presence of sarcopenia among COVID-19 patients increased the risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Cachexia/diagnosis , Cachexia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Inpatients , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 56: 1-8, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence shows that CT-derived sarcopenia can predict adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. However, discrepancies exist as to which vertebral level can be used to calculate sarcopenia which can effectively serve as a prognostic tool. Thus, we aim to investigate the difference in sarcopenia calculated at the Thoracic and Lumbar vertebral levels. METHODS: An online literature search was conducted on Electronic databases such as PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google scholar. Meta-analysis was performed by using Revman 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles were selected for meta-analysis. The prevalence of sarcopenia calculated at the Thoracic level was 31% (95%CI 24%-37%; p < 0.00001; I2 = 86%), while sarcopenia calculated at the Lumbar vertebral level was 63% (95%CI 51%-75%; p < 0.00001; I2 = 88%). Meanwhile, sarcopenia calculated at the Upper thoracic level was a significant predictor of mortality OR 3.47 (95%CI 1.74-6.91; p = 0.0004; I2 = 56%)as compared to sarcopenia calculated at the lower thoracic OR 1.74 (95%Cl 0.91-3.33; p = 0.10; I2 = 60%)or lumbar level OR 2.49 (95%CI 0.45-13.72; p = 0.30; I2 = 57%). In addition to this sarcopenia calculated at the Upper thoracic level was also a significant predictor of severe illness OR 3.92 (95%CI 2.33-6.58; p < 0.00001; I2 = 0%) as compared to lower thoracic OR 1.40 (95%CI 0.78-2.53; p = 0.26; I2 = 67%) or lumbar level OR 1.64 (95%CI 0.26-10.50; p = 0.60; I2 = 81%) CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia calculated at the thoracic vertebrae and lumber level has different prognostic values. Sarcopenia is prevalent at the lumbar level. Sarcopenia at the thoracic level has a higher mortality and severity rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Patients , Prevalence
9.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 141(4): e2022159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing has led to lifestyle changes among older adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence risk of sarcopenia (RS) and investigate its associated factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in older Brazilian adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional observational analysis of baseline data as part of the Remobilize Study. METHODS: Participants in the study were older adults (≥ 60 years), excluding those who were bedridden or institutionalized. The data collected consisted of answers about the RS (SARC-F), functional status, walking, sedentary behavior (SB), pain, comorbidity, and life space mobility. RESULTS: A total of 1,482 older adults (70 ± 8.14 years, 74% women) participated in the study, and an RS prevalence of 17.1% was found. (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.25-19.15%). The adjusted multivariate model showed a significant association between RS and functional limitation (odds ratio [OR]: 19.05; CI 13.00-28.32), comorbidity (OR: 5.11; CI 3.44-7.81), pain (OR: 4.56; CI 3.33-6.28), total walking (OR: 0.99; CI 0.99-1.00), SB of 8-10 hours (OR: 1.85; CI 1.15-2.93), and SB of > 10 hours (OR: 3.93; CI 2.48-6.22). RS was associated with mobility during the pandemic (OR: 0.97; CI 0.96-0.98). P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, the prevalence of RS in older Brazilians was estimated at 17.1%. Moderate to severe functional limitation, comorbidities, presence of pain, walking, longer SB period, and reduced life space mobility significantly contributed to RS in older adults during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pain , Pandemics , Prevalence , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
10.
Rofo ; 195(5): 393-405, 2023 05.
Article in English, German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome characterized by a loss of muscle mass and strength. As a result, the independence of the elderly is reduced and the hospitalization rate and mortality increase. The onset of sarcopenia often begins in middle age due to an unbalanced diet or malnutrition in association with a lack of physical activity. This effect is intensified by concomitant diseases such as obesity or metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitus. METHOD: With effective preventative diagnostic procedures and specific therapeutic treatment of sarcopenia, the negative effects on the individual can be reduced and the negative impact on health as well as socioeconomic effects can be prevented. Various diagnostic options are available for this purpose. In addition to basic clinical methods such as measuring muscle strength, sarcopenia can also be detected using imaging techniques like dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sonography. DXA, as a simple and cost-effective method, offers a low-dose option for assessing body composition. With cross-sectional imaging techniques such as CT and MRI, further diagnostic possibilities are available, including MR spectroscopy (MRS) for noninvasive molecular analysis of muscle tissue. CT can also be used in the context of examinations performed for other indications to acquire additional parameters of the skeletal muscles (opportunistic secondary use of CT data), such as abdominal muscle mass (total abdominal muscle area - TAMA) or the psoas as well as the pectoralis muscle index. The importance of sarcopenia is already well studied for patients with various tumor entities and also infections such as SARS-COV2. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia will become increasingly important, not least due to demographic changes in the population. In this review, the possibilities for the diagnosis of sarcopenia, the clinical significance, and therapeutic options are described. In particular, CT examinations, which are repeatedly performed on tumor patients, can be used for diagnostics. This opportunistic use can be supported by the use of artificial intelligence. KEY POINTS: · Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome with loss of muscle mass and strength.. · Early detection and therapy can prevent negative effects of sarcopenia.. · In addition to DEXA, cross-sectional imaging techniques (CT, MRI) are available for diagnostic purposes.. · The use of artificial intelligence (AI) offers further possibilities in sarcopenia diagnostics.. CITATION FORMAT: · Vogele D, Otto S, Sollmann N et al. Sarcopenia - Definition, Radiological Diagnosis, Clinical Significance. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2023; 195: 393 - 405.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Sarcopenia/pathology , Artificial Intelligence , Clinical Relevance , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , COVID-19 Testing
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 284, 2023 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, Lebanon has witnessed its worst economic crisis, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and a massive explosion of its capital. Amidst these stressors, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing hemodialysis in an academic hospital destroyed by the explosion. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted 6 months after the blast included adults on hemodialysis, with no previous diagnoses of dementia or intellectual disability. It explores prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, in addition to other medical and psychosocial variables such as frailty, malnutrition, sarcopenia, quality of life and religiosity. RESULTS: Forty two patients (mean age 66.1; SD: 11.2 years) undergoing hemodialysis for 6.12 years (SD:7.22 years) were included. Anxiety and depression rates reached 54.8% and 57.1% using cut-offs of 6 and 7 respectively on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale. 9.5% of the patients reported being in the hospital at the time of the blast and 7.1% reported being injured. 33.3% screened positively for PTSD using a cut-off of 23 on the PCL-5. 26.2% had passive death wishes and 7.1% had suicide plans, however no one had attempted it. 23.8% were found cognitively impaired as shown by the Mini-Cog (<3). Around two-third of participants were moderately to severely malnourished per the GLIM criteria. One third suffered from frailty, according to the FRAIL screening tool. Around 60% suffered from sarcopenia, based on handgrip strength measures. These findings contrast with "acceptable to good" quality of life subjectively reported by participants on the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey. While one-third of participants participated in organizational religious activities, 88% reported significant subjective meaning of religion in their heart. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD, suicidality, and cognitive impairment were found to be alarming in the setting of an urban dialysis unit following a major explosion. Psychiatric disorders were found to be compounded with increased prevalence of malnutrition, frailty, and sarcopenia. These findings urge healthcare providers to implement early diagnostic and intervention strategies to improve both mental and physical wellbeing of this vulnerable population, in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Humans , Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Frailty/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 69(4): e20221436, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300745

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess exercise capacity, lung and physical function in COVID-19 survivors, and the association of lesion-level characteristics assessed by chest computed tomography, probable sarcopenia, and percentage of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide with clinical and functional variables. METHODS: This study was conducted in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. All patients had a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 exposure history, pulmonary function, computed tomography, and functionality of the participants between 1 and 3 months of diagnosis of the disease were collected. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients after COVID-19 recovery were included in this study. Probable sarcopenia, reduction in percentage of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and a lower 6-min walk distance were observed after COVID-19 infection. Computed tomography>50% was associated with a longer length of stay and a lower percentage of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Probable sarcopenia diagnosis was associated with a worse percentage of the predicted 6-min walk distance in relation to the predicted, absolute 6-min walk distance (m), percentage of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and percentage of total lung capacity. CONCLUSION: Muscle disability and lung dysfunction are common in COVID-19 survivors. Hospitalization was associated with the worst muscle force and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Computed tomography characteristics could be a marker of prolonged hospital stay after the acute phase of COVID-19. Additionally, the probable diagnosis of sarcopenia could be a marker of impact on walking distance. These results highlight the need for long-term follow-up of those patients and rehabilitation programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging
13.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 14(3): 1259-1273, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is an age-related skeletal muscle disorder characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength leading to mobility disability. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a polyhydroxylated plant steroid that demonstrates pharmacological effects in many disease animal models including ageing/sarcopenia. BIO101 is a 20E purified investigational drug (≥97%) that previously demonstrated good toxicology profiles in rat and dog. BIO101 is evaluated in healthy young and older adults in a Phase 1 study. METHODS: This study is a Single Ascending Dose (SAD) followed by a 14-day Multiple Ascending Dose (MAD). In SAD, BIO101 was administered orally to 16 young adults at doses from 100 to 1400 mg and to 8 older adults (age ≥65 years) at 1400 mg. In MAD, doses of 350 mg once daily (qd), 350 mg twice daily (bid) and 450 mg bid were administered to 10 older adults. The primary objective was to evaluate safety and pharmacokinetics (PK), including dosing of circulating metabolites. Pharmacodynamic effects were investigated with regard to myostatin, procollagen-III-amino-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), myoglobin, creatine-kinase Muscle Brain (CKMB), renin and aldosterone plasma/serum levels. RESULTS: BIO101 showed a good safety profile with only mild to moderate adverse events and a satisfactory pharmacokinetic profile. In SAD, at 100 mg to 1400 mg, mean Cmax and areas under the curve increased less than dose-proportionally. Mean half-life was short (2.4-4.9 h), and mean renal clearance was comparable in all doses (4.05-5.05 L/h). Mean plasma exposure was slightly lower in older adults (22% lower for Cmax and 13%-15% lower for AUCs) compared with young subjects. In MAD, 350 and 450 mg bid led to a slight accumulation over 14 days (mean ratio of accumulation [Rac] of 1.31 in both cohorts). Reduction of biomarkers (myoglobin, CK-MB) mean serum levels (vs. baseline) was observed at 450 mg bid. Two major metabolites of 20E (14-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone and 14-deoxypoststerone) were identified and quantified. CONCLUSIONS: BIO101 shows a good safety and pharmacokinetic profile that led to the selection of doses for the subsequent interventional clinical trials of Phase 2 in age-related sarcopenia (SARA-INT) and Phase 3 in Covid-19 (COVA).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Animals , Dogs , Rats , Ecdysterone/pharmacology , Myoglobin , Double-Blind Method , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
15.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 38(3): 533-544, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278575

ABSTRACT

Long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by persistent COVID-19 symptoms that last for at least 2 months. In the elderly population, apart from the typical symptoms (fatigue, cough, or dyspnea), unspecific symptoms coexist (functional deterioration, cognitive impairment, or delirium) that can mitigate the prevalence of this syndrome in this age group. Its main consequence is the functional decline, leading to sarcopenia, frailty, and disability, in addition to the nutritional and cognitive disorders. Thus, a multicomponent and individualized program (exercise, diet, cognitive stimulation) should be designed for older people with persistent COVID, where new technologies could be useful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Frail Elderly , Humans , Sarcopenia/etiology , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
16.
Clin Interv Aging ; 18: 359-373, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286264

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly and became a severe global public health threat. Older adults have a high risk of COVID-19 and its associated mortality. Sarcopenia has emerged as a predictor of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients, including lengthy hospital stays, mortality, intensive care unit admission, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and poor rehabilitation outcomes. Chronic inflammation, immune dysfunction, respiratory muscle dysfunction, and swallowing dysfunction may underlie the association between sarcopenia and the poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Interleukin 6 receptor blockers (tocilizumab or sarilumab) are recommended for treating patients with severe COVID-19, and their therapeutic effects on sarcopenia are of great interest. This review aimed to analyze the current reports on the association between sarcopenia and COVID-19 and provide an update on the contribution of sarcopenia to the severity and adverse outcomes of COVID-19 and its underlying mechanisms. We also aimed to explore the different screening tools for sarcopenia concurrent with COVID-19, and advocate for early diagnosis and treatment of sarcopenia. Given that the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic may be long-term, further research into understanding the effects of sarcopenia in patients infected with the Omicron variant is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics
17.
Exp Gerontol ; 174: 112128, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted people's lifestyles and changed the delivery of health interventions, especially interventions for community-dwelling older people with sarcopenia. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the components and explore the effectiveness of home-based interventions for improving sarcopenia and other health-related outcomes among community-dwelling older people with sarcopenia. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Medline (via PubMed), and PsycINFO were searched for relevant papers published from January 1, 2010 to March 29, 2022. Only papers written in English were included. The modified version of Cochrane's risk-of-bias tool was used to assess the risks of bias in the included studies. The template for intervention description and replication checklist was used to summarize the intervention components. The mean difference (MD) or standard mean difference with a 95 % confidence interval (CI) was used to determine the effect size of studies using the same or different measuring methods. Random-effects models were in meta-analyses to pool the effects of home-based interventions on the included outcomes. RESULTS: After detailed screening and exclusion, 11 randomized controlled trials including 1136 older people with sarcopenia were included in our analyses. Three categories of home-based interventions were identified: exercise interventions, nutritional interventions, and combined exercise and nutritional interventions. The overall analysis of the outcomes (e.g., appendicular skeletal muscle mass index, lean mass, body fat mass, handgrip strength, and gait speed), showed that the effects of home-based exercise interventions were inconclusive. Compared with passive controls, home-based exercise interventions significantly improved knee extension strength (MD = 0.56 kg, 95 % CI: 0.09, 1.03, p = 0.020) and reduced the time required to complete the Timed Up and Go Test (MD = -1.41 s, 95 % CI: -2.28, -0.54, p = 0.001). Home-based nutritional interventions were effective in improving appendicular skeletal muscle mass (MD = 0.25 kg, 95 % CI: 0.02, 0.49, p = 0.030), gait speed (MD = 0.06 m/s, 95 % CI: 0.03, 0.09, p = 0.0001), and quality of life in terms of both the physical component summary (MD = 13.54, 95 % CI: 0.73, 26.34, p = 0.040) and mental component summary scores (MD = 8.69, 95 % CI: 2.98, 14.41, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Home-based exercise interventions have the potential to improve muscle strength and physical function, while home-based nutritional interventions are effective in increasing muscle mass, physical function, and quality of life. Both of these can be applied at home during and after the COVID-19 pandemic to alleviate sarcopenia and improve health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Aged , Sarcopenia/therapy , Independent Living , Quality of Life , Hand Strength , Postural Balance , Pandemics , Time and Motion Studies
18.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 58(3): 155-160, 2023.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, virus contention measures such as strict confinement were declared in nursing homes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of confinement on the incidence of falls and their associated factors in institutionalized older persons during the first year of the pandemic compared to the previous year. METHODS: A multicenter, comparative study was conducted between the pre-pandemic year (March 2019 to February 2020) and the first year (March 2020 to February 2021) in five nursing homes in Catalonia (Spain). The number of falls, date, placement and consequences were recorded, as well as sociodemographic and health information. A descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed, calculating odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals and statistical significance of p<0.05. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 80 individuals, with a mean age of 84.4 years, 83.7% being women. In the first year of the pandemic, the number of falls per person increased by 0.21% (32.0% in rooms). In multivariate analysis of the pre-pandemic period, the risk of sarcopenia (OR = 4.02; 95% CI [1.09-14.82], p = 0.036) was a risk factor for falls independently of age and hypertension. In the first year of pandemic no statistically significant associated factors were found. CONCLUSIONS: In the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a 15.6% increase in falls and an 8.7% increase in the number of people who fell compared to the previous year. The falls' location changed from common areas to bedrooms and increased in severity, with a 10.1% increase in fractures. Older age, risk of sarcopenia and arterial hypertension were associated with falls during the pre-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Accidental Falls , Incidence , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3514, 2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256589

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to map acquired peripheral and abdominal sarcopenia in mechanically ventilated adults with COVID-19 through ultrasound measurements. On Days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after admission to critical care, the muscle thickness and cross-sectional area of the quadriceps, rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, tibialis anterior, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, deltoid, biceps brachii, rectus abdominis, internal and external oblique, and transversus abdominis were measured using bedside ultrasound. A total of 5460 ultrasound images were analyzed from 30 patients (age: 59.8 ± 15.6 years; 70% men). Muscle thickness loss was found in the bilateral anterior tibial and medial gastrocnemius muscles (range 11.5-14.6%) between Days 1 and 3; in the bilateral quadriceps, rectus femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, deltoid, and biceps brachii (range 16.3-39.1%) between Days 1 and 5; in the internal oblique abdominal (25.9%) between Days 1 and 5; and in the rectus and transversus abdominis (29%) between Days 1 and 7. The cross-sectional area was reduced in the bilateral tibialis anterior and left biceps brachii (range 24.6-25.6%) between Days 1 and 5 and in the bilateral rectus femoris and right biceps brachii (range 22.9-27.7%) between Days 1 and 7. These findings indicate that the peripheral and abdominal muscle loss is progressive during the first week of mechanical ventilation and is significantly higher in the lower limbs, left quadriceps and right rectus femoris muscles in critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Adult , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial , Abdominal Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Abdomen
20.
FASEB J ; 36(11): e22614, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287057

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia is a progressive loss of muscle mass and function that is connected with increased hospital expenditures, falls, fractures, and mortality. Although muscle loss has been related to aging, injury, hormonal imbalances, and diseases such as malignancies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and kidney failure, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of sarcopenia are unclear. Exercise-based interventions and multimodal strategies are currently being considered as potential therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat these diseases. Although drug therapy research is ongoing, no drug has yet been proven to have a substantial safety and clinical value to be the first drug therapy to be licensed for sarcopenia. To better understand the molecular alterations underlying sarcopenia and effective treatments, we review leading research and available findings from the systemic change to the muscle-specific microenvironment. Furthermore, we explore possible mechanisms of sarcopenia and provide new knowledge for the development of novel cell-free and cell-based therapeutics. This review will assist researchers in developing better therapies to improve muscle health in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Sarcopenia , Aged , Aging/pathology , Heart Failure/pathology , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Sarcopenia/pathology , Sarcopenia/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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