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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 223, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is characterized by diverse symptoms and abnormalities that persist beyond 12 weeks from the onset of acute COVID-19. Severity disease has been associated with more musculoskeletal alterations such as muscle weakness, dyspnea, and distance walking. The aim was to evaluate the impact of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) on body composition and investigate risk factors associated with sarcopenia in post-COVID-19 patients three months after moderate or severe COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. 530 patients with PCR-confirmed diagnoses of moderate to severe COVID-19, > 18 years old, oxygen saturation ≤ 93%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300, who required hospitalization and were discharged were included. We excluded those who died before the follow-up visit, declined to participate, or could not be contacted. RESULTS: The mean age was 53.79 ± 12.90 years. IMV subjects had lower phase angle and handgrip strength and higher impedance index, frequency of low muscle mass, and low muscle strength than those without IMV. The risk factors of sarcopenia were > 60 years of age, diabetes, obesity, IMV, and prolonged hospital stay. The multivariate model showed that age > 60 years (OR: 4.91, 95% CI: 2.26-10.63), obesity (OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.21-11.54), and interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV (OR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.21-7.02) were related to a higher risk of sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Obesity and the interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV are associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia at 3 months after severe or moderate COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855628

ABSTRACT

Older adults face the concern of developing frailty and sarcopenia due to an inactive lifestyle during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to reveal the preventive behaviors taken by older adults who perceived a decline in physical fitness during COVID-19 and analyze the background factors which promoted such behaviors using a qualitative study design in 2020. The participants were recruited through the cohort study of Japanese older adults who were aged 79-81 and had not been diagnosed with sarcopenia previously in 2019 and perceived their physical fitness to have declined during the pandemic. The interviews of 19 participants were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants engaged in five types of preventive behaviors to counter declining physical fitness: "walking", "exercising at home", "improving daily diet", "maintaining a daily routine", and "taking a good rest". Four themes were extracted pertaining to backgrounds of such preventive behaviors: "feeling anxiety and mental pressure", "available networks with family and neighbors", "prior experiences of behaviors", and "access to information". Anxiety due to lifestyle changes during the pandemic was the primary reason for the behaviors. This study can be a useful guide for undertaking possible measures to prevent frailty during future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Humans , Independent Living , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Fitness , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
3.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 140, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is defined as age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, and/or function in the context of aging. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is one of the most frequently used critical care technologies in critically ill patients. The prevalence of preexisting sarcopenia and the clinical impact of its prognostic value on patients with MV are unclear. This review sought to identify the prevalence and prognostic value of preexisting sarcopenia on MV patient health outcomes. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane library and were searched for all articles published as of December 2021. The prevalence of sarcopenia was determined using the authors' definitions from the original studies. Comparisons were made between patients who did and did not have sarcopenia for prognostic outcomes, including mortality, the number of days of MV, the length of intensive care unit stay, and the length of hospital stay. Odds ratios (ORs) and weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for pooled analyses of the relationships between sarcopenia and prognostic outcomes. RESULTS: The initial search identified 1333 studies, 17 of which met the eligibility criteria for the quantitative analysis, including 3582 patients. The pooled prevalence was 43.0% (95% CI 34.0-51.0%; I2 = 96.7%). The pooled analyses showed that sarcopenia was related to increased mortality (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.70, 2.67; I2 = 45.0%), longer duration of MV (MD = 1.22; 95% CI 0.39, 2.05; I2 = 97.0%), longer days of ICU stay (MD = 1.31; 95% CI 0.43, 2.19; I2 = 97.0%), and hospital stay (MD 2.73; 95% CI 0.58, 4.88; I2 = 98.0%) in patients with MV. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of sarcopenia is relatively high in patients with MV, and it will have a negative impact on the prognosis of patients. However, further, large-scale, high-quality prospective cohort studies are required.


Subject(s)
Respiration, Artificial , Sarcopenia , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
4.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2): 135-142, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811434

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia and frailty represent two burdensome conditions, contributing to a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) Task Force met virtually in September 2021 to discuss the challenges in the development of drugs for sarcopenia and frailty. Lifestyle interventions are the current mainstay of treatment options in the prevention and management of both conditions. However, pharmacological agents are needed for people who do not respond to lifestyle modifications, for those who are unable to adhere, or for whom such interventions are inaccessible/unfeasible. Preliminary results of ongoing trials were presented and discussed. Several pharmacological candidates are currently under clinical evaluation with promising early results, but none have been approved for either frailty or sarcopenia. The COVID-19 pandemic has reshaped how clinical trials are conducted, in particular by enhancing the usefulness of remote technologies and assessments/interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Advisory Committees , Humans , Pandemics , Sarcopenia/drug therapy
5.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2): 231-235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811431

ABSTRACT

Social detachment due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a decline in physical activity, leading to sarcopenia and frailty in older adults. This study aimed to compare muscle mass, strength, and function values in older women before and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-May 2020). Furthermore, changes in muscle measures across women who experienced different levels of impact on their social participation due to the COVID-19 pandemic were examined. Muscle mass (total, trunk, and appendicular muscle), grip strength, oral motor skills, social interactions (social network and participation), and social support were assessed in 46 Japanese community-dwelling older women (mean, 77.5 y; range 66-93 y) before and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trunk muscle mass significantly decreased after the first wave of the pandemic. When comparing changed values between the enhanced/maintained and reduced group during the pandemic, significant group difference was observed in trunk muscular mass, grip strength, and oral motor skills. Intriguingly, those who enhanced social participation had a positive change of grip strength values, showing that social participation might influence muscle function during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Pandemics , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809868

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The increasing aging of many populations requires a continuous evolution of assessment methods in geriatrics, especially methods for identifying sarcopenia. Early diagnosis of unfavorable changes in the condition of skeletal muscles and the implementation of therapeutic methods may reduce the risk of functional limitations in the elderly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the bioelectrical impedance phase angle and the occurrence of pre-sarcopenia in people aged 50 and above. METHODS: 1567 people aged 50-87 were examined. Anthropometric as well as muscle strength and walking speed measurements were performed. Using bioelectrical impedance analysis, the phase angle was measured and the appendicular skeletal muscle mass was estimated. The contribution of the phase angle in explaining the probability of the occurrence of pre-sarcopenia was verified by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 12 people (0.8%) and pre-sarcopenia in 276 people (17.6%). Significantly lower impedance phase angle and muscle functional quality were found in people with confirmed pre-sarcopenia compared to people without sarcopenia. The relative differences for the phase angle were greater than for the indicator of muscle functional quality. Significant logit models were obtained for the probability of occurrence of pre-sarcopenia, in which the strongest predictor was the phase angle, regardless of the type and number of covariates. The cut-off point of the phase angle for identification of pre-sarcopenia was 5.42° in men and 4.76° in women. CONCLUSION: The strong association between the risk of pre-sarcopenia and the phase angle, which can be easily and quickly assessed by bio-impedance analysis, suggests the necessity to include this parameter in routine geriatric evaluation in order to identify the risk of sarcopenia.


Subject(s)
Sarcopenia , Aged , Electric Impedance , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal , Poland/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6443, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799564

ABSTRACT

As most COVID-19 patients only receive thoracic CT scans, but body composition, which is relevant to detect sarcopenia, is determined in abdominal scans, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between thoracic and abdominal CT body composition parameters in a cohort of COVID-19 patients. This retrospective study included n = 46 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who received CT scans of the thorax and abdomen due to severe disease progression. The subcutaneous fat area (SF), the skeletal muscle area (SMA), and the muscle radiodensity attenuation (MRA) were measured at the level of the twelfth thoracic (T12) and the third lumbar (L3) vertebra. Necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), length of stay, or time to death (TTD) were noted. For statistics correlation, multivariable linear, logistic, and Cox regression analyses were employed. Correlation was excellent for the SF (r = 0.96) between T12 and L3, and good for the respective SMA (r = 0.80) and MRA (r = 0.82) values. With adjustment (adj.) for sex, age, and body-mass-index the variability of SF (adj. r2 = 0.93; adj. mean difference = 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-1.45]), of the SMA (adj. r2 = 0.76; 2.59 [95% CI 1.92-3.26]), and of the MRA (adj. r2 = 0.67; 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.88]) at L3 was well explained by the respective values at T12. There was no relevant influence of the SF, MRA, or SMA on the clinical outcome. If only thoracic CT scans are available, CT body composition values at T12 can be used to predict abdominal fat and muscle parameters, by which sarcopenia and obesity can be assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Abdomen , Body Composition , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Sarcopenia/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 50(2): 103-111, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 infection is a global pandemic that has affected the whole world population. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of cross-sectional area, muscle index, and muscle attenuation values in computed tomography-based skeletal groups [erector spinae muscle, pectoralis muscle, and total skeletal muscle] of patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 and with at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor. METHODS: A total of 232 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor were enrolled in the study, retrospectively. The cross-sectional area, muscle index, and attenuation of erector spine muscle, pectoralis muscle, and total skeletal muscle were automatically measured on computed tomography images. The study population was assigned into tertiles on the basis of the total SMcsa index. The relationship between the values obtained and the length of hospital stay, admission to intensive care unit, the need for invasive mechani cal ventilation, and mortality was investigated. RESULTS: Admission to intensive care unit, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and mor tality were higher at tertile 3 groups than in the other groups (all P values <.001). Statistically, all muscle measurements were significantly lower in tertile 3 (P <.001). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and total SMcsa index were predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 on the basis of Cox regression analysis. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis for the proportion of survivors relative to the total SMcsa index, tertile 3 had the highest mortal ity (survival rates 57%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia and attendant cardiovascular comorbidities can effectively assess dis ease severity and predict outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Sarcopenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia/complications , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
10.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785535

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia is a common complication affecting liver disease patients, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cellular mechanisms that drive sarcopenia progression using an in vitro model of liver disease. C2C12 myotubes were serum and amino acid starved for 1-h and subsequently conditioned with fasted ex vivo serum from four non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients (NAFLD), four decompensated end-stage liver disease patients (ESLD) and four age-matched healthy controls (CON) for 4- or 24-h. After 4-h C2C12 myotubes were treated with an anabolic stimulus (5 mM leucine) for 30-min. Myotube diameter was reduced following treatment with serum from ESLD compared with CON (-45%) and NAFLD (-35%; p < 0.001 for both). A reduction in maximal mitochondrial respiration (24% and 29%, respectively), coupling efficiency (~12%) and mitophagy (~13%) was identified in myotubes conditioned with NAFLD and ESLD serum compared with CON (p < 0.05 for both). Myostatin (43%, p = 0.04) and MuRF-1 (41%, p = 0.03) protein content was elevated in myotubes treated with ESLD serum compared with CON. Here we highlight a novel, experimental platform to further probe changes in circulating markers associated with liver disease that may drive sarcopenia and develop targeted therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
End Stage Liver Disease , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Sarcopenia , Humans , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Protein Biosynthesis , Sarcopenia/complications
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 705055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypertension may lead to disability and death by increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and dementia. This study aimed to determine the association between obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity, and hypertension in adults resident in Ravansar, a city in the west of Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4,021 subjects from the baseline data of the Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study, in the west region of Iran, from October 2014 up to February 2017. Body composition was categorized into obese, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obese, and normal based on measurements of muscle strength, skeletal muscle mass, and waist circumference. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships, using the STATA 15 software. RESULTS: The mean age of the participant was 47.9 years (SD: 8.4), the body mass index (BMI) was 26.84 kg/m2 (SD: 4.44), and the prevalence of hypertension was 15.12%. The prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity were 24.37, 22.01, and 6.91%, respectively. Body composition groups had significant differences in age, total calorie intake, BMI, skeletal muscle mass, and muscle strength (P-value ≤ 0.001). In crude model, the obese (OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 2.11-3.30), sarcopenic (OR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.94-3.08), and sarcopenic obese (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 2.81-5.22) groups had a higher odds of hypertension. However, in adjusted models, only the obese group had a higher likelihood of hypertension (OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.70-2.80). CONCLUSION: This study showed that obesity was associated with hypertension, whereas sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity had no significant relationship with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Sarcopenia , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia/complications , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760577

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a public health problem because it is characterized by several comorbidities, including uremic sarcopenia (US), and a poor quality of life. Currently, there are no standardized treatments available to counteract the onset of US but only some possible therapeutic approaches to slow its progression. The aim of this pilot study is to collect descriptive data in order to design a clinical trial based on the power analysis and simple size. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the possible beneficial action induced by the functional anti-inflammatory and antioxidant bars in combination with the adapted physical activity (APA), on the onset and progression of US and other related-CKD comorbidities. We enrolled 21 CKD patients under conservative therapy, divided into four groups: (A) the physical exercise program (PEP), three times a week, in combination with the daily consumption of the two functional bars group; (B) the PEP group; (C) the daily consumption of the two functional bars group; (D) the control group. The duration of the study protocol was 12 weeks. We observed an improvement trend of body composition, blood pressure levels, lipid metabolism, and functional test in A and B groups. These preliminary data would seem to confirm the effectiveness of APA and to demonstrate the additive role of the natural bioactive compound's assumption in countering US and other CKD comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sarcopenia , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 250, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759698

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The oldest-old are highly vulnerable to sarcopenia. Physical distancing remains a common and effective infection-control policy to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission during the pandemic. Sarcopenia is known to be associated with impaired immunity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and life-space mobility (LSM) are potential strategies for minimizing the risk of sarcopenia. However, a physical distancing policy might jeopardize the practice of MVPA and LSM. The purposes of this study were to identify the prevalence of sarcopenia and examine the association between MVPA and LSM with sarcopenia in the community-dwelling oldest-old during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional and observational design. The study was conducted in 10 community centres for older people in Hong Kong during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic (September to December 2020). Eligible participants were the oldest-old people aged ≥85 years, who were community-dwelling and had no overt symptoms of cognitive impairment or depression. Key variables included sarcopenia as measured by SARC-F, LSM as measured by a GPS built into smartphones, and MVPA as measured by a wrist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Variables were described by mean and frequency. A multiple linear regression was employed to test the hypotheses. The dependent variable was sarcopenia and the independent variables included LSM and MVPA. RESULTS: This study recruited 151 eligible participants. Their mean age was 89.8 years and the majority of them were female (n = 93/151, 61.6%). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 24.5% (n = 37/151) with a margin of error of 6.86%. MVPA was negatively associated with sarcopenia in older people (ß = - 0.002, SE = 0.001, p = 0.029). However, LSM was not associated with sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of sarcopenia in the community-dwelling oldest-old population is high. MVPA is negatively associated with sarcopenia. LSM is unrelated to sarcopenia. Sarcopenia should be recognized and the oldest-old with sarcopenia should be accorded priority treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Policy , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
14.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 13(3): 1653-1672, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750384

ABSTRACT

General muscle health declines with age, and in particular, sarcopenia-defined as progressive loss of muscle mass and strength/physical performance-is a growing issue in Asia with a rising population of community-dwelling older adults. Several guidelines have addressed early identification of sarcopenia and management, and although nutrition is central to treatment of sarcopenia, there are currently few guidelines that have examined this specifically in the Asian population. Therefore, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia established a special interest group (SIG) comprising seven experts across Asia and one from Australia, to develop an evidence-based expert consensus. A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE on the topic of muscle health, from 2016 (inclusive) to July 2021, in Asia or with relevance to healthy, Asian community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years old). Several key topics were identified: (1) nutritional status: malnutrition and screening; (2) diet and dietary factors; (3) nutritional supplementation; (4) lifestyle interventions plus nutrition; and (5) outcomes and assessment. Clinical questions were developed around these topics, leading to 14 consensus statements. Consensus was achieved using the modified Delphi method with two rounds of voting. Moreover, the consensus addressed the impacts of COVID-19 on nutrition, muscle health, and sarcopenia in Asia. These statements encompass clinical expertise and knowledge across Asia and are aligned with findings in the current literature, to provide a practical framework for addressing muscle health in the community, with the overall aim to encourage and facilitate broader access to equitable care for this target population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Humans , Independent Living , Middle Aged , Muscles , Nutritional Status , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/therapy
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 801133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: acute illnesses, like COVID-19, can act as a catabolic stimulus on muscles. So far, no study has evaluated muscle mass and quality through limb ultrasound in post-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: cross sectional observational study, including patients seen one month after hospital discharge for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The patients underwent a multidimensional evaluation. Moreover, we performed dominant medial gastrocnemius ultrasound (US) to characterize their muscle mass and quality. RESULTS: two hundred fifty-nine individuals (median age 67, 59.8% males) were included in the study. COVID-19 survivors with reduced muscle strength had a lower muscle US thickness (1.6 versus 1.73 cm, p =0.02) and a higher muscle stiffness (87 versus 76.3, p = 0.004) compared to patients with normal muscle strength. Also, patients with reduced Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores had a lower muscle US thickness (1.3 versus 1.71 cm, p = 0.01) and a higher muscle stiffness (104.9 versus 81.07, p = 0.04) compared to individuals with normal SPPB scores. The finding of increased muscle stiffness was also confirmed in patients with a pathological value (≥ 4) at the sarcopenia screening tool SARC-F (103.0 versus 79.55, p < 0.001). Muscle stiffness emerged as a significant predictor of probable sarcopenia (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% C.I. 1.002 - 1.04, p = 0.03). The optimal ultrasound cut-offs for probable sarcopenia were 1.51 cm for muscle thickness (p= 0.017) and 73.95 for muscle stiffness (p = 0.004). DISCUSSION: we described muscle ultrasound characteristics in post COVID-19 patients. Muscle ultrasound could be an innovative tool to assess muscle mass and quality in this population. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed by future studies comparing muscle ultrasound with already validated techniques for measuring muscle mass and quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Survivors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Extremities/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/pathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Organ Size , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography
16.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The post-COVID-19 condition, defined as COVID-19-related signs and symptoms lasting at least 2 months and persisting more than 3 months after infection, appears now as a public health issue in terms of frequency and quality of life alterations. Nevertheless, few data are available concerning long term evolution of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which deserve further attention. METHOD: Sarcopenia was investigated prospectively, together with weight evolution, at admission and at 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge in 139 COVID-19 patients, using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) criteria, associating both decreased muscle strength and muscle mass, assessed, respectively, with hand dynamometer and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Of the 139 patients, 22 presented with sarcopenia at 3 months; intensive care units (ICU) length of stay was the sole factor associated with sarcopenia after multivariate analysis. Although the entire group did not demonstrate significant weight change, weight decreased significantly in the sarcopenia group (Five and eight patients, showing, respectively, >5 or >10% weight decrease). Interestingly, at 6 months, 16 of the 22 patients recovered from sarcopenia and their weight returned toward baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia and malnutrition are frequently observed in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, even 3 months after infection occurrence, but can largely be reversed at 6 months after discharge. Enhanced patient care is needed in sarcopenic patients, particularly during long stays in an ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Hand Strength , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology
17.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(Spec No1): 37-45, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687678

ABSTRACT

Introduction: NutriCOVer is a global research program sponsored by Nutricia to support initiatives in clinical investigation in 16 countries worldwide. The program's objective is to adapt nutritional care to the needs of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from the intensive care unit. In Spain - a reference country for the NutriCOVer program - three research projects are being carried out. These studies analyze the clinical course of COVID-19 patients from a nutritional point of view, evaluating relevant aspects such as the prevalence and evolution of malnutrition and sarcopenia (the NUTRICOVID study), the prevalence and impact of dysphagia (the COVID-19-DN-OD study), or changes in corporal composition measured through nutritional ultrasound and bioimpedance analysis (the NUTRIECOMUSCLE study). In this article, the principal investigators of the three projects discuss the steps taken to develop these studies in the context of a worldwide pandemic: from initial concept, study design, and patient recruitment to problems in the execution of the project in day-to-day practice and publication policies. Also, they offer some insights on the initial results and the implications which these studies may have for current clinical practice.


Introducción: NutriCOVer es un programa de investigación impulsado por Nutricia a nivel global para apoyar iniciativas de investigación clínica en 16 países de todo el mundo. El programa tiene como objetivo adaptar el cuidado nutricional a las necesidades de los pacientes con COVID-19 dados de alta de la unidad de cuidados intensivos. En España se están desarrollando tres proyectos de investigación, siendo un país de referencia dentro del programa NutriCOVer. Estos estudios analizan la evolución de los pacientes tras una COVID-19 grave desde el punto de vista nutricional, evaluando aspectos relevantes como la prevalencia y evolución de la desnutrición y la sarcopenia (estudio NUTRICOVID), la prevalencia y el impacto de la disfagia (estudio COVID-19- DN-OD) y los cambios de la composición corporal medida por ecografía nutricional y bioimpedanciometría (estudio NUTRIECOMUSCLE). En este artículo, los investigadores que lideran estos tres proyectos discuten todos los pasos que han seguido para el desarrollo de los estudios en el contexto de una pandemia mundial: desde la idea inicial, el diseño y el reclutamiento de pacientes hasta los problemas de ejecución que se han encontrado en el día a día o la política de publicación de los resultados. Además, ofrecen algunas impresiones sobre los resultados iniciales y las implicaciones que pueden tener estos estudios para cambiar la práctica clínica habitual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Patient Discharge , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology
18.
J Med Food ; 25(2): 117-120, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684475

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia and muscle wasting have many negative impacts on health and well-being. Evidence suggests that high rates of COVID-19 hospitalizations and lockdown conditions will lead to a marked increase in musculoskeletal disorders associated with sarcopenia in older adults. The molecular etiology of sarcopenia is complex, but physical inactivity, poor diet, and age diminished ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) remain important drivers. A body of evidence shows that, acting through the highly conserved nutrient sensor pathway mTORc1, the branch chain amino acid leucine can trigger and enhance MPS in older adults, and thus has a role in the medical management of sarcopenia. Whey protein-enriched enteral supplements are a low cost, easily accessible source of highly bioavailable leucine used clinically in older adults for preservation of lean body mass in long-term care setting. Therefore, given the evidence of leucine's ability to stimulate MPS in older adults, we argue that meal supplementation with whey-enriched enteral products, which can provide the 3-5 g of leucine necessary to trigger MPS in older adults, should be given serious consideration by medical and nutrition professionals to potentially mitigate muscle wasting and sarcopenia risk associated with prolonged COVID-19 lockdown measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Leucine , Muscle, Skeletal , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662696

ABSTRACT

Magnesium (Mg) is a pivotal and very complex component of healthy aging in the cardiovascular-muscle-bone triad. Low Mg levels and low Mg intake are common in the general aging population and are associated with poorer outcomes than higher levels, including vascular calcification, endothelial dysfunction, osteoporosis, or muscle dysfunction/sarcopenia. While Mg supplementation appears to reverse these processes and benefit the triad, more randomized clinical trials are needed. These will allow improvement of preventive and curative strategies and propose guidelines regarding the pharmaceutical forms and the dosages and durations of treatment in order to optimize and adapt Mg prescription for healthy aging and for older vulnerable persons with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Magnesium/metabolism , Osteoporosis/metabolism , Sarcopenia/metabolism , Aging/metabolism , Animals , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Healthy Aging/metabolism , Humans , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 158-166, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia has been associated with patients' poor quality of life, disability, and hospitalization. As of today, evidence that highlights the association between sarcopenia and Covid-19 outcomes remains unclear. This study sought to analyze whether patients with sarcopenia are at higher risk for developing poor Covid-19 outcomes. METHODS: Using specific keywords, we comprehensively go through the potential articles on medRxiv, Europe PMC, and PubMed sources until July 31st, 2021. All published studies on sarcopenia and coronavirus disease 2019 were collected. We were using Review Manager 5.4 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3 software to conduct statistical analysis. RESULTS: There were 9 studies with 492,245 Covid-19 patients included in the analysis. Evaluation of the data gathered yielded an association between sarcopenia and increased severity of Covid-19 (OR 1.99; 95%CI: 1.37-2.90, p = 0.0003, I2 = 79%, random-effect modelling); and mortality from Covid-19 (OR 1.96; 95%CI: 1.11-3.46, p = 0.020, I2 = 49%, random-effect modelling). The increased risk of developing severe Covid-19 in a sarcopenic patient is also further influenced by cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes that patients with sarcopenia are at risk of developing poor Covid-19 outcomes. Patients with sarcopenia need special attention and should be prioritized to receive the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. REGISTRATION DETAILS: PROSPERO (CRD42021270725).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/etiology
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