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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917467

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic became a global emergency, social distancing, quarantine, and limitations in outdoor activities have resulted in an environment of enforced physical inactivity (EPI). A prolonged period of EPI in older individuals accelerates the deterioration of skeletal muscle health, including loss of muscle mass and function, commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased likelihood of the progression of diabetes, obesity, and/or depression. Well-known approaches to mitigate the symptoms of sarcopenia include participation in resistance exercise training and/or intake of balanced essential amino acids (EAAs) and high-quality (i.e., containing high EEAs) protein. As the pandemic situation discourages physical exercise, nutritional approaches, especially dietary EAA intake, could be a good alternative for counteracting against EPI-promoted loss of muscle mass and function. Therefore, in the present review, we cover (1) the impact of EPI-induced muscle loss and function on health, (2) the therapeutic potential of dietary EAAs for muscle health (e.g., muscle mass and function) in the EPI condition in comparison with protein sources, and finally (3) practical guidelines of dietary EAA intake for optimal anabolic response in EPI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Amino Acids, Essential/metabolism , Amino Acids, Essential/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Dietary Proteins , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
2.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 38(3): 533-544, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914220

ABSTRACT

Long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by persistent COVID-19 symptoms that last for at least 2 months. In the elderly population, apart from the typical symptoms (fatigue, cough, or dyspnea), unspecific symptoms coexist (functional deterioration, cognitive impairment, or delirium) that can mitigate the prevalence of this syndrome in this age group. Its main consequence is the functional decline, leading to sarcopenia, frailty, and disability, in addition to the nutritional and cognitive disorders. Thus, a multicomponent and individualized program (exercise, diet, cognitive stimulation) should be designed for older people with persistent COVID, where new technologies could be useful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Frail Elderly , Humans , Sarcopenia/etiology , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 250, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759698

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The oldest-old are highly vulnerable to sarcopenia. Physical distancing remains a common and effective infection-control policy to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission during the pandemic. Sarcopenia is known to be associated with impaired immunity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and life-space mobility (LSM) are potential strategies for minimizing the risk of sarcopenia. However, a physical distancing policy might jeopardize the practice of MVPA and LSM. The purposes of this study were to identify the prevalence of sarcopenia and examine the association between MVPA and LSM with sarcopenia in the community-dwelling oldest-old during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional and observational design. The study was conducted in 10 community centres for older people in Hong Kong during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic (September to December 2020). Eligible participants were the oldest-old people aged ≥85 years, who were community-dwelling and had no overt symptoms of cognitive impairment or depression. Key variables included sarcopenia as measured by SARC-F, LSM as measured by a GPS built into smartphones, and MVPA as measured by a wrist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Variables were described by mean and frequency. A multiple linear regression was employed to test the hypotheses. The dependent variable was sarcopenia and the independent variables included LSM and MVPA. RESULTS: This study recruited 151 eligible participants. Their mean age was 89.8 years and the majority of them were female (n = 93/151, 61.6%). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 24.5% (n = 37/151) with a margin of error of 6.86%. MVPA was negatively associated with sarcopenia in older people (ß = - 0.002, SE = 0.001, p = 0.029). However, LSM was not associated with sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of sarcopenia in the community-dwelling oldest-old population is high. MVPA is negatively associated with sarcopenia. LSM is unrelated to sarcopenia. Sarcopenia should be recognized and the oldest-old with sarcopenia should be accorded priority treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Policy , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
4.
J Med Food ; 25(2): 117-120, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684475

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia and muscle wasting have many negative impacts on health and well-being. Evidence suggests that high rates of COVID-19 hospitalizations and lockdown conditions will lead to a marked increase in musculoskeletal disorders associated with sarcopenia in older adults. The molecular etiology of sarcopenia is complex, but physical inactivity, poor diet, and age diminished ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) remain important drivers. A body of evidence shows that, acting through the highly conserved nutrient sensor pathway mTORc1, the branch chain amino acid leucine can trigger and enhance MPS in older adults, and thus has a role in the medical management of sarcopenia. Whey protein-enriched enteral supplements are a low cost, easily accessible source of highly bioavailable leucine used clinically in older adults for preservation of lean body mass in long-term care setting. Therefore, given the evidence of leucine's ability to stimulate MPS in older adults, we argue that meal supplementation with whey-enriched enteral products, which can provide the 3-5 g of leucine necessary to trigger MPS in older adults, should be given serious consideration by medical and nutrition professionals to potentially mitigate muscle wasting and sarcopenia risk associated with prolonged COVID-19 lockdown measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Leucine , Muscle, Skeletal , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
5.
J Med Food ; 25(2): 117-120, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486037

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia and muscle wasting have many negative impacts on health and well-being. Evidence suggests that high rates of COVID-19 hospitalizations and lockdown conditions will lead to a marked increase in musculoskeletal disorders associated with sarcopenia in older adults. The molecular etiology of sarcopenia is complex, but physical inactivity, poor diet, and age diminished ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) remain important drivers. A body of evidence shows that, acting through the highly conserved nutrient sensor pathway mTORc1, the branch chain amino acid leucine can trigger and enhance MPS in older adults, and thus has a role in the medical management of sarcopenia. Whey protein-enriched enteral supplements are a low cost, easily accessible source of highly bioavailable leucine used clinically in older adults for preservation of lean body mass in long-term care setting. Therefore, given the evidence of leucine's ability to stimulate MPS in older adults, we argue that meal supplementation with whey-enriched enteral products, which can provide the 3-5 g of leucine necessary to trigger MPS in older adults, should be given serious consideration by medical and nutrition professionals to potentially mitigate muscle wasting and sarcopenia risk associated with prolonged COVID-19 lockdown measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Leucine , Muscle, Skeletal , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
6.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 344-355, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159771

ABSTRACT

The objectives are to present an updated synopsis on osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome and evaluate the roles of selected micronutrients in its prevention and management. OSA refers to the concurrent deterioration of bone (osteopenia/osteoporosis), muscle (sarcopenia) and adipose tissue expansion. It portrays the most advanced stage in a continuum of body composition disorders. Although OSA has been widely studied involving the populations of different backgrounds, its prevalence is hard to collate because different methodologies and criteria were used for its diagnosis. Another critical health aspect is the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) which contributes to OSA and vice versa. Nutrition is important in the prevention and management of both OSA and LGCI. Although micronutrients act in numerous metabolic and physiological processes, their roles here are presented in relation to OSA (and its components) and LGCI in general and relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. These include calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and vitamins D and K; their interactions, physiological ratios and synergism/antagonism are discussed as well. In conclusion, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D have a profound impact on OSA and its components, and the latter two also on LGCI. Potassium and vitamin K are vital in bone, muscle functioning and possibly adipose tissue modification. Both, but particularly vitamin D, surfaced as important modulators of immune system with application in COVID-19 infections. While both phosphorus and sodium have important roles in bone, muscle and can impact adiposity, due to their abundance in food, their intake should be curbed to prevent possible damaging effects.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Obesity , Osteoporosis , Sarcopenia , Trace Elements , Vitamins , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diet therapy , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Humans , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Sarcopenia/diet therapy , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Syndrome , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/metabolism , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/physiology
8.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 8375096, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949232

ABSTRACT

Recently, the novel coronavirus epidemic occurred in China and spread worldwide to become a global pandemic. COVID-19 is a fatal viral infection causing death, particularly in aged individuals, due to impaired immunity. To date, no intervention is available to prevent COVID-19 and its manifestations. Physical exercise training generally has health benefits, and it assists in the prevention of several chronic diseases. Therefore, this review is aimed at exploring the role of physical exercise training in the face of COVID-19 in older adults and elderly individuals. From this point of view, this review suggests that physical exercise training plays a key role in promoting immune system regulation, delaying immunity dysfunction, reducing circulatory inflammation markers, and preventing sarcopenia and thus could prevent the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection and reduce the complications of recommended self-isolation in older adults and elderly individuals. Additionally, immunity biomarkers were optimistically demonstrated in older adults following physical exercise training, thereby reducing mortality and morbidity rates. Finally, in accordance with recommendations to stay home and perform self-isolation to prevent the spread of COVID-19, all populations are strongly recommended to practice regular home exercise training at home to promote immune system functioning.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Exercise/psychology , Psychosocial Functioning , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Frail Elderly/psychology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Patient Isolation , Psychosocial Deprivation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
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