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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(10): 2887-2898, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333144

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the pathophysiologic and management aspects of acute sarcopenia in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 is as a multi-organ infectious disease characterized by a severe inflammatory and highly catabolic status, influencing the deep changes in the body build, especially the amount, structure, and function of skeletal muscles which would amount to acutely developed sarcopenia. Acute sarcopenia may largely impact patients' in-hospital prognosis as well as the vulnerability to the post-COVID-19 functional and physical deterioration. The individual outcome of the COVID-19 and the degree of muscle mass and functional loss may be influenced by multiple factors, including the patient's general pre-infection medical and functional condition, especially in older adults. This paper gathers the information about how the SARS-CoV-2 hyper-inflammatory involvement exacerbates the immunosenescence process, enhances the endothelial damage, and due to mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy, induces myofibrillar breakdown and muscle degradation. The aftermath of these acute and complex immunological SARS-CoV-2-related phenomena, augmented by anosmia, ageusia and altered microbiota may lead to decreased food intake and exacerbated catabolism. Moreover, the imposed physical inactivity, lock-down, quarantine or acute hospitalization with bedrest would intensify the acute sarcopenia process. All these deleterious mechanisms must be swiftly put to a check by a multidisciplinary approach including nutritional support, early physical as well cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation, and psychological support and cognitive training. The proposed holistic and early management of COVID-19 patients appears essential to minimize the disastrous functional outcomes of this disease and allow avoiding the long COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/therapy
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Post Covid-19 syndrome (PCS) is a major cause of morbidity. In this article we intend to review the association and consequences of PCS and diabetes. METHODS: We reviewed all studies on "Long Covid", "Post COVID-19 Syndrome" and diabetes in PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: The symptoms of PCS can be due to organ dysfunction, effects of hospitalisation and drugs, or unrelated to these. Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a bidirectional relationship with COVID-19. Presence of diabetes also influences PCS via various pathophysiological mechanisms. COVID-19 can add to or exacerbate tachycardia, sarcopenia (and muscle fatigue), and microvascular dysfunction (and organ damage) in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: PCS in patients with diabetes could be detrimental in multiple ways. Strict control of diabetes and other comorbidities, supervised rehabilitation and physical exercise, and optimal nutrition could help in reducing and managing PCS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Sarcopenia/therapy , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/epidemiology , Tachycardia/etiology , Tachycardia/therapy
3.
Nutrition ; 84: 111104, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014738

ABSTRACT

The role of skeletal muscle mass in modulating immune response and supporting metabolic stress has been increasingly confirmed. Patients with sarcopenia, characterized by reduced muscle mass and muscle strength, were reported to have poor immune response and metabolic stress when facing acute infection, major surgeries, and other attacks. Based on empirical data, patients with sarcopenia are speculated to have increased infection rates and dismal prognoses amid the current 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic. COVID-19 infection also aggravates sarcopenia because of the increased muscle wasting caused by systematic inflammation and the reduced physical activity and inadequate nutrient intake caused by social isolation. Notably, the interventions targeting skeletal muscle are anticipated to break the vicious circle and benefit the treatment of both conditions. We recommend sarcopenia assessment for populations with advanced age, inactivity, chronic disease, cancers, and nutritional deficiency. Patients with sarcopenia and COVID-19 infection need intensive care and aggressive treatments. The provision of at-home physical activities together with protein supplementation is anticipated to reverse sarcopenia and promote the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The recommended protocols on nutritional support and physical activities are provided in detail.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Nutritional Support , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/therapy , Sarcopenia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Inflammation , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/virology , Wasting Syndrome/virology
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