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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(11): 1812-1815, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144248

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 vaccine acceptance is a psychological behavior influenced by many factors, including fear of an adverse effect on the reproductive system. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the COVID-19 vaccines effect on reproductive parameters among the male population of northern Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study among 100 volunteers who received two doses of COVID-19 vaccines. A pre- and post-vaccination blood sample was collected and analyzed for testosterone, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Semen samples were also collected and analyzed. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the values between pre- and post-vaccination. Results: Of the 100 samples analyzed, there was a significant increase in progressive sperm motility after the second dose of vaccination, but the increase was within the physiological limits (pre-55.03 [42.00-61.75] vs. post-57.50 [42.25-63.00], P = 0.008). Similarly, a significant increase in serum testosterone level after the second vaccination dose was observed (pre-380.65 [301.60-485.73] vs. post-410 [318.18-505.35], P = 0.016). Conclusion: These preliminary results show that the COVID-19 vaccines do not have any adverse effect on the reproductive parameters of men. A prospective long-term follow-up study will be necessary on all WHO -approved COVID vaccines to determine their long-term effect on men's reproductive health. The future follow-up study could strengthen our findings and encourage the men who have vaccine hesitancy to take due to fear of its effect on reproductive parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Semen Analysis , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Saudi Arabia , Sperm Motility , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Testosterone
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142970

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the present study is to examine the impact of job stress, role ambiguity, work-life imbalance and burnout on employee turnover intention. Moreover, the mediating role of burnout between job stress, role ambiguity, work-life imbalance and turnover intention is also examined. The data collection for this quantitative research was conducted through the "Questionnaire" technique. The questionnaire was developed based on previously established questions available in the literature. The data were collected using simple random sampling from the healthcare workers of KSA. From the distributed questionnaire, 73.5% of the usable questionnaires were returned. This study used SPSS and PLS for the analysis of the data to highlight the most significant variables that impact the employees' turnover intentions among KSA health workers. The findings show that job burnout is clearly related to turnover intentions and is positively affected by both role stress and role ambiguity. Moreover, a statistically positive association is found between work-life imbalance and burnout among the healthcare workers in KSA. Furthermore, the mediating role of burnout is also confirmed in this study. The study also indicates that role ambiguity and role stress due to COVID-19 may create burnout among employees, which may lead to turnover intention among healthcare workers. There is a lack of research on the assessment of the impact of the novel COVID-19-related job stress, role ambiguity and work-life imbalance on the medical staff's turnover intentions in hospitals. This study fills the gap of the limited studies conducted regarding the identification of the factors that can create turnover intention among healthcare workers of KSA by providing empirical evidence from a Gulf country, Saudi Arabia. This study provides managerial implications for hospital management and health policymakers to develop a strategy to retain the employees. Furthermore, healthcare administrators need to pay close attention to front line workers' turnover intentions as these medical heroes are the vital part of our society who assist patients to receive their initial treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Humans , Personnel Turnover , Intention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 992466, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142334

ABSTRACT

During this pandemic, it is crucial to implement early interventions to help nurses manage their mental wellbeing by providing them with information regarding coping skills, preventive risk assessment approaches (such as hospital preparedness and rapid risk assessment), and the ability to respond. This study evaluated the effect of fear and risk assessment management on nurses' mental wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. A total of 507 nurses who worked in tertiary public hospitals were asked to take a descriptive design survey. Three survey scales were used to assess the survey: the Risk Assessment Scale, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Independent t-tests and a one-way ANOVA were used to examine the association between fear of COVID-19 and nurses' demographic characteristics on their mental wellbeing. A multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the predictors associated with mental wellbeing. Findings revealed that almost half of the participants showed moderate positive mental wellbeing, 49.7%, while only 14% had low levels of fear on the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well being Scale. Most of the respondents had low levels of fear on the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, 45%, while only 15% had high levels of fear on the scale. Then, some demographic variables, such as "age," "nationality," "total years of experience in the current hospital," and "region you work at" had statistically significant differences with p < 0.5. Meanwhile, risk assessment is also associated with mental wellbeing scores. All items on the Fear of COVID-19 Scale showed no significant difference with a P > 0.05. In conclusion, most nurses providing direct patient care to a patient with COVID-19 emphasized the importance of wearing PPE and performing hand hygiene before and after any clean or aseptic procedure. Meanwhile, although almost all nurses were vaccinated, they were still afraid of a COVID-19 infection. Additionally, the results reported that the older the nurses are, the better their mental wellbeing scores. Non-Saudi nurses had higher perceived mental wellbeing scores than Saudi nurses, and different working environments corresponded to different mental wellbeing scores. Finally, nurses' risk assessment was associated with mental wellbeing scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Risk Assessment , Perception
4.
Rev Diabet Stud ; 18(3): 152-156, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated glycemic control among T1DM pediatric patients attending the endocrinology pediatrics clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) prior to and during COVID-19 restraining regulations. In addition, we assessed the trends and variations in the incidence of T1DM during 2017-2021, including the COVID-19 years by identifying newly diagnosed patients presenting to pediatrics emergency department (ED) in KFHU. METHODS: To estimate the effect of COVID-19 on the incidence of T1DM, we identified newly diagnosed cases of T1DM among pediatric patients attending the ED during the years 2017- 2021. The participants' data were collected through electronic medical records. Information collected included patient age, sex, and HbA1c readings. Three HbA1c readings of interest that were defined and collected are pre-COVID reading, in-COVID reading, and post-COVID reading. RESULTS: The difference of female participants' readings was statistically non-significant (Z= -0.416, p = 0.678), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.70 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.15), and 10.50 (Q1= 8.80, Q3= 12.35), respectively. In contrast, the difference was statistically significant among male participants (Z= -2.334, p = 0.02), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.20 (Q1= 8.70, Q3= 11.80), and 10.65 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.70), respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in HbA1c of persons > 11 years old (Z= -2.471, p= 0.013), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.40 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.10), and 10.90 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.60), respectively. Conversely, persons ≤ 11 years old showed no statistically significant change in HbA1c (Z= -.457, p= 0.648), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.45 (Q1= 8.70, Q3= 11.85), and 10.20 (Q1= 8.40, Q3= 12.075), respectively. Disregarding any influence of time, the effect of sex showed no statistically significant difference in HbA1c between males and females [F (1,125) = 0.008, p = 0.930]. Meanwhile, the age effect on HbA1c, regardless of time influence, was statistically significant [F (1,125) = 4.993, p = 0.027]. There was no statistically significant interaction between time and sex on HbA1c levels [F (1.74, 217) = 0.096, p = 0.883] and between age and time [F (3.92,289.57) = 1.693, p = 0.190]. CONCLUSIONS: The number of visits to healthcare facilities dropped significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the rate of newly diagnosed T1DM increased. There was a variable effect on HbA1c levels of those patients, which suggests that each demographic group in the population might have been affected differently by the pandemic. Future research should determine factors associated with better glycemic control and measures to sustain these changes the pandemic might have created.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Child , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Incidence , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Glycemic Control , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals, Teaching
5.
Saudi Med J ; 43(11): 1276-1279, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the emergent mutations involved in the evolutionary stages of the virus for better management of pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional genomic investigation was performed on February 28, 2022, at the Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Tabuk University. Numerous mutations were searched in genomic isolates of Omicron variant prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabian. Whole-genome sequences were retrieved from genomic databases and were subjected to the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID) CoVsurver for the Omicron variant detection and mutations. RESULTS: Approximately 8.755 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes were reported to GISAID on February 28, 2022, of which 1270 have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Among the 1270 genomes, 30 were Omicron variants. Among the Saudi Arabian genomes, 30 were detected as Omicron variants. Twenty-four unique mutations have been detected in membrane, envelope, spike and non-structural proteins (NSP) 12, NSP3, and NSP2. Ten of these unique mutations have been detected in spike protein. CONCLUSION: The current study provides useful information for further experimental investigation of mutation's effects on virus transmission, severity, and vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mutation , Genomics
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19551, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119159

ABSTRACT

Previous studies investigated the frequency of different adverse events of COVID-19 vaccines. However, this study compares these adverse events between the two main COVID-19 vaccines used in Saudi Arabia (Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca) using telemedicine technology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 958 individuals, 7 days after receiving either Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines during June 2021. Immediate adverse events were reported by 1.04% and 2.09% for Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines, respectively, with no serious events. Recipients of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had a higher percentage of local adverse events (24.8% versus 9.8% in AstraZeneca vaccine). The most common reported systemic adverse events in both vaccines respectively were general fatigue (23.1% and 25.1%), fever (18.5% and 27.2%), myalgia (20.6% and 20.3%), and headache (15.2% and 17.2%). No significant difference was recorded between both vaccines regarding overall systemic adverse events; however, they were more frequent following the first dose of AstraZeneca vaccine compared to Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, while the reverse was observed for the second dose. Adverse events were more frequent in females and younger age groups for both vaccines. Most of systemic and local adverse events were mild in nature. Further cohort studies are recommended to investigate the long-term adverse events of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Vaccines/adverse effects
7.
Saudi Med J ; 43(11): 1248-1253, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119154

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the side effects of Pizer- BioNTech mRNA (BNT162b2) and Spikevax (mRNA- 1273) Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines on adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was carried out among COVID-19 vaccine adolescent recipients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. After receiving at least one dose of each vaccine, general and demographic data were collected, and vaccine-related side effects were evaluated. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 604 participants with a majority age group of 16-17 years old. Approximately 89.1% of the study participants were female. Most participants reported pain at the injection site (85.1% 1st dose, 79.8% 2nd dose), feeling tired, and headache (58.6% 1st dose, 64.2% 2nd dose). Moreover, we found that patients who took the first dose and had a chronic disease had 2.4 times higher odds of having menstrual disorder (females) than non-chronic disease patients (p=0.03) and 4.5 times higher odds of exhibiting breathing congestion (p=0.01). In addition, patients with chronic disease had 2.4 times higher odds of exhibiting muscle and joint pain and dizziness than non-chronic disease patients (p=0.01, p=0.02). Males were less likely to have dizziness after the first dose than females (OR=0.26, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: This study investigates the adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines among adolescents in Riyadh. As a result, this study creates a database to inform people about the risk of experiencing side effects based on their gender, age, and the vaccine type; more investigation is needed to better understand the link between risk factors and the development of adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dizziness , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Arthralgia , Myalgia
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116042

ABSTRACT

The interest in the efficiency of online learning was and remains a major concern to researchers especially during the worldwide pandemic crisis (COVID-19). Nonetheless, there is a lack of studies focusing on students' perceptions in online physical education (PE) learning sessions. Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), the present investigation aimed to explore psychological need satisfaction (PNS) to understand the autonomy, competence, and relatedness of Saudi PE students during the online sessions undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. PE students (N = 321, 161 females and 160 males) completed an online questionnaire composed of demographic characteristics, grade point average (GPA), sleep and physical activity (PA) habits, and the physical education autonomy relatedness competence scales (PE-ARCS). A t-test and one-way ANOVA were conducted and revealed that female students presented higher PNS compared with males. Students practicing PA had higher autonomy values than those not practicing PA (p = 0.001). However, no differences were recorded concerning competence and relatedness perceptions. The groups practicing walking, aerobic exercise, muscular training, and specialty training had higher values in autonomy and relatedness. The groups that slept for more than six hours a night, had previous experience with online learning, and had a GPA of more than three recorded higher PNS values. Correlation analysis showed high interdependence of the three PNS variables as well as with the variables of gender, experience with online learning, sleep hours, and type of PA practiced, but not with GPA or frequency of PA practice. The PNS values regarding online PE sessions were (i) higher in female students compared with males and (ii) related to previous experience in online learning, GPA, sleep habits, and type of PA. Walking, aerobic exercise, muscular training, and training in a specialty affected both autonomy and competence perception; however, relatedness was mainly affected by walking activity. Therefore, it is necessary to support ICT knowledge of students with low GPAs and to encourage them to adopt balanced sleep and physical activity habits to increase their perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in online PE lessons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Male , Humans , Female , Physical Education and Training , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Students
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30799, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113721

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people worldwide, of which 5% required intensive care, especially mechanical ventilation. The prognosis depends on several factors including comorbidities. This study was conducted to identify the comorbidities associated with the intensive care unit (ICU) admission in elderly with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary academic hospital. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at KSUMC including all hospitalized patients (age ≥ 65 years) with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection admitted between March 2020 and August 2021. Data collection included sociodemographic characteristics, underlying comorbidities, and the Charlson comorbidity index. Comorbidities were compared between the elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU and those not admitted to the ICU. The odds ratios were calculated and a P value of < .05 and 95% confidence intervals were used to report the statistical significance A total of 444 patients (ICU = 147, non-ICU = 297) were included in the study. The study revealed that elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU had a higher rate of mortality (n = 64, 67.4%; P < .0001) and a higher proportion of them had shortness of breath (n = 97, 38.3%; P = .007) compared to the elderly patients not admitted to ICU. The mean length of stay (P < .0001), and weight (P = .02) among ICU patients were higher than the values for the non-ICU group, while the mean oxygen saturation (SpO2; P = .006) was lower among the ICU group. The comorbidities that demonstrated a statistically significant association with ICU admission were heart failure (P = .004, odd ratio (OR) = 2.02, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.263, 3540]), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; P = .027, OR = 3.361, 95% CI [1.080, 10.464]), and chronic kidney disease (P = .021, OR = 1.807, 95% CI [1.087, 3.006]). The current study identified that the comorbidities such as COPD, heart failure, and factors like SpO2 and length of stay are associated with an increased risk of ICU admission in elderly patients with COVID-19. These findings highlight the clinical implications of comorbidity among geriatric population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Failure/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Saudi Med J ; 43(9): 1000-1006, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the seroprevalence of the community-acquired bacterial that causes atypical pneumonia among confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) patients. METHODS: In this cohort study, we retrospectively investigated the seroprevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila among randomly selected 189 confirmed COVID-19 patients at their time of hospital presentation via commercial immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against these bacteria. We also carried out quantitative measurements of procalcitonin in patients' serum. RESULTS: The seropositivity for L. pneumophila was 12.6%, with significant distribution among patientsolder than 50 years (χ2 test, p=0.009), while those of M. pneumoniae was 6.3% and C. pneumoniae was 2.1%, indicating an overall co-infection rate of 21% among COVID-19 patients. No significant difference (χ2 test, p=0.628) in the distribution of bacterial co-infections existed between male and female patients. Procalcitonin positivity was confirmed amongst 5% of co-infected patients. CONCLUSION: Our study documented the seroprevalence of community-acquired bacteria co-infection among COVID-19 patients. In this study, procalcitonin was an inconclusive biomarker for non-severe bacterial co-infections among COVID-19 patients. Consideration and proper detection of community-acquired bacterial co-infection may minimize misdiagnosis during the current pandemic and positively reflect disease management and prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1533-1541, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110327

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of parents are still reluctant to have their children vaccinated against COVID-19. This study aimed to determine what factors influence parents' decision to get COVID-19 vaccine for the children of age group 5-11 years. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the region Qassim of Saudi Arabia, by using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire to assess the predicting factors of caregivers' readiness to get their children vaccinated against COVID-19. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the caregivers surveyed were unwilling to get their children vaccinated against COVID-19. The factors that influence the parents' decision to get their young children (5-11 years old) vaccinated against COVID-19 were: having secondary school education (p = 0.019), family members infected with SARS-CoV-2 (p = 0.016), caregivers completed the three doses of vaccination (p = 0.003) and those who received additional flu vaccine (p = 0.014), and not experiencing the side effects of COVID-19 vaccine (p = 0.0001). Additionally, no history of COVID-19 vaccine adverse events in older 12-18 year old children (p = 0.011) and no chronic diseases in the 5-11 year old children (p = 0.001) were predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers' preferences about the children's vaccination were influenced by multiple factors, including educational level, having family members infected with SARS-CoV-2, caregivers completing three doses of COVID-19 vaccine, receiving additional flu vaccine with no or mild adverse events, and history of chronic diseases in the child. Understanding these factors can help determine the likelihood of the caregivers getting their child vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Aged , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Caregivers , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110177

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of morbidity and hospital admission due to respiratory tract infection among infants and young children. The current study aims to describe the prevalence and the seasonal pattern of RSV during the previous seven years. Materials and Methods: Clinical data and RSV antigen and PCR test results were collected from patients' medical records at King Fahd Hospital of the University in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia between January 2015 and February 2022. Results: The overall percentage of RSV detection was 26.3% (336/1279) among the tested individuals. RSV infection was more common among children below five years and elderly above 60 years of age. Two-thirds of the cases required hospitalization. The average hospital stay due to RSV infection was 6.5 days (range 0-56 days). The rate of hospitalization was higher among infants and younger children and decreased with age (p-value < 0.001). RSV infection was more prevalent between August and February and decreased appreciably between March and July. The peak level of infection was during December and January. No RSV infections were reported during the COVID-19 pandemic and the following winter. The cases increased again in August 2021, with an unusual out-of-season peak. Conclusions: RSV infection is one of the important causes of morbidity and hospitalization among infants and young children in Saudi Arabia. The seasonal pattern of infection has changed after the COVID-19 pandemic, and the physicians should be aware that infection may happen currently at different times throughout the year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Infant , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Aged , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospitalization
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 927494, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121006

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has added a massive economic burden on health care systems worldwide. Saudi Arabia is one of the numerous countries that have been economically affected by this pandemic. The objective of this study was to provide real-world data on the health economic burden of COVID-19 on the Saudi health sector and assess the direct medical costs associated with the management of COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on data collected from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 across 10 institutions in eight different regions in Saudi Arabia. The study calculated the direct medical costs of all cases during the study period by using SAS statistical analysis software. These costs included costs directly related to medical services, such as the health care treatment, hospital stays, laboratory investigations, treatment, outcome, and other related care. Results: A total of 5,286 adult patients admitted with COVID-19 during the study period were included in the study. The average age of the patients was 54 years, and the majority were male (79%). Among the COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a general ward, the median hospital length of stay was 5.5 days (mean: 9.18 days), while the ICU stay was 4.2 days (mean: 7.94 days). The total medical costs for general ward and ICU patients were US$ 38,895 and US$ 24,207,296.9, respectively. The total laboratory investigations ranked as the highest-cost services US$ 588,975 followed by treatment US$ 3,886,509.8. Overall, the total cost of all medical services for patients hospitalized with COVID-19 was US$ 51,572,393.4. Conclusion: This national study found that COVID-19 was not only a serious concern for patients but also a serious economic burden on the health care system in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Stress , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disastrous impacts that impose the cultivation of knowledge and motivation of self-protection to foster disease containment. AIM: Evaluate the effect of digital self-learned educational intervention about COVID-19 using the protection motivation theory (PMT) on non-health students' knowledge and self-protective behaviors at Saudi Electronic University (SEU). METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was accomplished at three randomly chosen branches of SEU (Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah) using a multistage sampling technique to conveniently select 219 students. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was used, which included three scales for assessing the students' knowledge, self-protective behaviors, and the constructs of the PMT. The educational intervention was designed using four stages: need assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. A peer-reviewed digital educational content was developed after assessing the participants' educational needs using the pretest. Then, distributed through their university emails. A weekly synchronous Zoom cloud meeting and daily key health messages were shared with them. Finally, the post-test was conducted after two months. RESULTS: The mean participants' age (SD) among the experimental group was 28.94 (6.719), and the control group was 27.80 (7.256), with a high female percentage (63.4%, 73.8%) and a previous history of direct contact with verified COVID-19 patients (78.6%, 69.2%), respectively. A significant positive mean change (p = 0.000) was detected in the total COVID-19 knowledge of the experimental group post-intervention, either when it was adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 630.547) or the pretest (F1 = 8.585) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.745, η2 = 0.268, respectively). The same was proved by the ANCOVA test for the total self-protective behaviors either when it adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 66.671, p = 0.000) or the pretest (F1 = 5.873, p = 0.020) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.236, η2 = 0.164, respectively). The ANCOVA test proved that post-intervention, all the PMT constructs (perceived threats, reward appraisal, efficacy appraisal, response cost, and protection intention) and the total PMT score were significantly improved (p = 0.000) among the experimental group either when adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 83.835) or the pretest (F1 = 11.658) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.280, η2 = 0.561, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The digital PMT-based self-learned educational intervention effectively boosts non-health university students' COVID-19 knowledge, protection motivation, and self-protective behaviors. Thus, PMT is highly praised as a basis for COVID-19-related educational intervention and, on similar occasions, future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Humans , Female , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Self Efficacy , Students , Electronics
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures have substantially affected educational processes around the globe, resulting in psychological distress among students. The mental health of students in higher education is of paramount importance, and the COVID-19 pandemic has brought this vulnerable population into renewed focus. In this context, the evaluation of students' mental health at educational institutes has gained invaluable popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to ascertain the psychological health and coping strategies among students from a higher education institute in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An online study instrument was used to assess anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, GAD-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9), post-traumatic stress disorder-PTSD (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R) and coping strategies (Brief-COPE). The severity of the psychological distress was classified as per the scoring criteria and correlated with demographics using appropriate statistical methods. RESULTS: Of 1074 students (age 21.1 ± 2.1 years), 12.9% and 9.7% had severe anxiety and depression, respectively. The mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.50 ± 5.51 and 9.31 ± 6.72, respectively. About one-third (32%) of students reported suicidal ideation, with 8.4% students having such thoughts nearly every day. The average PTSD score was 21.64 ± 17.63, where avoidance scored higher (8.10 ± 6.94) than intrusion and hyperarousal. There was no association of anxiety, depression and PTSD score with the demographics of the study participants. Religious/spiritual coping (5.43 ± 2.15) was the most adoptive coping mechanism, followed by acceptance (5.15 ± 2.10). Male students were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with active copings, instrumental support, planning, humor, acceptance and religious coping. Substance use was the least adopted coping strategy but practiced by a considerable number of students. CONCLUSIONS: The long-lasting pandemic situation, onerous protective measures and uncertainties in educational procedures have resulted in a high prevalence of psychological ailments among university students, as indicated in this study. These findings accentuate the urgent need for telepsychiatry and appropriate population-specific mental health services to assess the extent of psychological impairment and to leverage positive coping behaviors among students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Students/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 280-286, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic that endanger the health and enforced social distancing for the whole world. Social distancing may generate stress, anxiety, and depression. Understanding the psychosocial consequences of COVID19 during social distancing may help decision-makers to take suitable decisions that help in increasing awareness. Evaluate the psychosocial consequences of COVID-19 pandemic during the social distancing period and explore the relationship between social media use and psychological stress during COVID-19 outbreak among Najran city population. Research design is descriptive correlational research design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A snowball sampling technique, was used to recruit participants live in Najran city during the COVID-19 pandemic (1508 participant). RESULTS: A statistically significant differences (P<0.05) are observed between Saudi and non-Saudi participants in all social aspects assessed except for time spent on social media. In addition, a high mean of depression, stress, and anxiety subscale scores are observed in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants with statistically significant differences (p=0.000). As well as high DASS-21 total scores in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants. Also, there are positive statistically significant correlations (≤0.05) between participants' time spent in social media and their depression, stress, anxiety, and total DASS scores during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that COVID-19 pandemic generates stress, anxiety and depression among Najran population especially, non-Saudi. This poor psychological condition is exaggerated with prolonged social media use. COVID-19 also has negative impact on social wellbeing and use of social media cannot replace direct contact with friends. The current study results may be utilized to formulate interventions that enhance psychosocial health and resilience during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cities , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
17.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276688, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098752

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to construct a new distribution known as the weighted Burr-Hatke distribution (WBHD). The PDF and CDF of the WBHD are derived in a closed form. Moments, incomplete moments, and the quantile function of the proposed distribution are derived mathematically. Eleven estimate techniques for estimating the distribution parameters are discussed, and numerical simulations are utilised to evaluate the various approaches using partial and overall rankings. According to the findings of this study, it is recommended that the maximum product of spacing (MPSE) estimator of the WBHD is the best estimator according to overall rank table. The actuarial measurements were derived to the suggested distribution. By contrasting the WBHD with other competitive distributions using two different actual data sets collected from the COVID-19 mortality rates, we show the importance and flexibility of the WBHD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Models, Statistical
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275397, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Very few previous studies have involved school students or their parents in the evaluation of virtual learning environment (VLE). Thus, this survey was performed to evaluate the satisfaction of both school students and their parents with the VLE in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was distributed online for VLE evaluation. The questionnaire was based on previous studies and expert opinions from validated instruments for assessing distance education, integrative and literature reviews of VLE environment. A median value >3 indicated participant satisfaction in each of the 5 domains of the questionnaire as well as overall VLE satisfaction. The used questionnaire was checked after its implementation by all possible statistical means and it was found to be of acceptable validity and reliability. RESULTS: Six hundred and ninety-three participants including 571 Saudi citizens and 122 non-Saudi residents participated in this survey. The number of school students who agreed or strongly agreed were significantly lower than the number of students who disagreed or strongly disagreed with preferring the VLE over traditional education (p<0.001). The participants evaluated the VLE experience as unsatisfactory with a median value ≤3 for 4 out of 5 questionnaire domains with an overall satisfaction value of 2.8. Among the 117 participants who gave further written opinions/comments, 42(35.9%) participants supported the VLE as an alternative to traditional classrooms, if equipment and internet are made available and for the safety of their children. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of few available adequate population-based studies for exploring the VLE satisfaction of both Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents school students and their parents. This study showed the participants' unsatisfactory VLE experience. The VLE is accepted as an alternative to traditional classrooms to keep up with learning and to maintain the safety of children and it can be a supplementary learning method but many measures are still needed to develop the VLE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Parents
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 751, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: A physical therapist may become infected while treating a patient since they are in direct contact with them or within a two-meter radius. In addition, physical therapists may feel that they are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection when applying rehabilitation practices, which often involve direct contact with patients. The physical therapist were surveyed on their level of anxiety and depression due to the Coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). METHODS: The physical therapists were asked to complete two reliable and validated scales, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), to identify the presence of anxiety and depression in the participants. In addition, logistic regression models were used to determine the general characteristics of anxiety or depression. RESULTS: Among the 117 physical therapists who completed and participated in the study, 74 (63%) and 65 (55.5%) physical therapists reported having symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. The prevalence of overall anxiety levels was higher; mild (OR = 2.09; P = 0.08), moderate (OR = 2.26; P = 0.15), and severe levels six times as high (OR = 6.28; P = 0.1) in females compared to male physical therapists. Females, younger age, unmarried individuals, not having children, and not living with family showed a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. Binary logistic regression analysis also revealed that the female gender, a single individual, and having no children were associated with anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of physical therapists reported symptoms of anxiety and depression, especially among females, younger age, single individuals, not having children, and not living with family. Thus, the mental health of physical therapists is suggested to be constantly and cautiously monitored, especially for those at high risk of developing psychological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e058180, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine is essential for protecting the world population and stopping the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aimed to measure public acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination and the factors that may play an important role in increasing the acceptance of vaccinations in future pandemics. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted through a survey designed using the Google Forms platform. In this study, a logistic regression analysis was used to study and detect the variables linked to the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. To meet inclusion criteria, participants had to be 18 years or older at the time of collecting the data, reside in Saudi Arabia at the time of the survey, agree to the consent form and be able to complete the survey in Arabic. SETTING: Randomly selected residents of Saudi Arabia. NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS: 1658. RESULTS: In general, the population of Saudi Arabia is supportive of the COVID-19 vaccine (72.0%) and has one of the highest acceptance rates, according to global studies. We found that men (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.97) were less likely to hesitate with regard to taking the vaccine, whereas previously infected individuals were more likely to hesitate (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.50). Those with a lower monthly income (<3000 Saudi riyal) were more likely to refuse the vaccine (OR 3.54; 95% CI: 1.81 to 6.91), while those living in cities (OR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.99) and the unemployed (OR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.83) were less likely to refuse it. Participants' history of viral infection and trust in the healthcare system were found to be important factors in the public's acceptance of the vaccine. CONCLUSION: In general, acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination is high in Saudi Arabia. Several factors have shown a method for predicting those who might reject the vaccine or hesitate to take it; thus, the healthcare system should target those residents throughout the campaign. Based on the conclusions of the current research, the acceptance of vaccinations could be increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Vaccination , Female
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