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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 402, 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of adherence among pregnant women to the basic COVID-19 preventive measures, and to analyze the effect of risk perception and sociodemographic and clinical factors on adherence. METHOD: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted at the obstetrics clinics of 50 primary care centers selected using a multistage sampling method. An online-administered, structured questionnaire was used to collect self-reported levels of adherence to four basic preventive measures against COVID-19, along with perceived COVID-19 severity, infectiousness, and harmfulness to the baby, besides sociodemographic and clinical data including obstetrical and other medical history. RESULTS: A total of 2460 pregnant women were included with a mean (SD) age of 30.21 (6.11) years. Levels of self-reported compliance were highest for hand hygiene (95.7%), followed by social distancing (92.3%), masking (90.0%), and avoidance of contact with a COVID-19 infected person (70.3%). Perceived COVID-19 severity and infectiousness, and harmfulness to the baby were observed in 89.2%, 70.7%, and 85.0% of the participants, respectively, and were variably associated with compliance to preventive measures. Analysis of sociodemographic factors highlighted the significance of education and economic status in determining adherence to preventive measures, which represents a potential inequity in the risk of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of patients' education to enable functional perception of COVID-19 that promotes self-efficacy, besides investigating the specific social determinants of health to tackle inequalities in terms of prevention efficiency and the subsequent health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Infant , Humans , Female , Adult , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women , Educational Status
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 389, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) precaution, educational systems and learners' practices from all specialties have been negatively affected, especially university students. COVID-19 has a massive effect on the practice of allied health students. The students' hospital exposure has been severely affected by the cancelation of the clinical practice. This study aims to investigate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical practice of respiratory therapy students in different universities around Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional online questionnaire was distributed from August 2021 to November 2021 to respiratory therapy students. The study's sampling technique was non-probability consecutive, and the calculated sample size was 183 participants. The survey contained questions to identify the clinical exposure of the participants. The participants included RT students in their clinical training years from King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, and Batterjee Medical College in Jeddah. The survey evaluated the effects of the pandemic on students' clinical practice, confidence and clinical preparation, and education. RESULTS: A total of 187 respiratory therapy students completed the questionnaire. The results revealed that 145 (77.5%) of respiratory therapy students agreed that the pandemic had disrupted their clinical practice. The percentage of respiratory therapy students who felt that they were less confident and less prepared for the next academic year due to practical session cancellation was 141 (75.4%). Out of the total students, 135 (72.2%) students reported difficulty in connecting the clinical and theoretical part because of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The majority of respiratory therapy students from the three universities similarly reported that the pandemic disrupted their practice and interfered with their ability to connect between clinical and theoretical part. Moreover, it had affected their confidence and preparedness for the next year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Universities
3.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(5): 354-361, 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232771

ABSTRACT

Background: Neither COVID-19 vaccine acceptance nor income changes among migrant workers during the pandemic has been assessed in Saudi Arabia. Aims: To assess the correlates of willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine and a decrease in income during the pandemic among migrant workers in Saudi Arabia. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was administered to 2403 migrant workers from the Middle East and South Asia employed in agriculture, auto repair, construction, food service (restaurants), municipality, and poultry farms in Al-Qassim Province, Saudi Arabia. The interviews were conducted in the native languages of the workers in 2021. Chi-square was used to assess the associations, and a multiple logistic regression was used to generate the odds ratio. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 27. Results: South Asian workers were 2.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60-3.32] times more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine than those from the Middle East (reference group). Restaurant, agriculture and poultry workers were respectively 2.36 (95% CI: 1.41-3.95), 2.13 (95% CI: 1.29-3.51) and 14.56 (95% CI: 5.64-37.59) times more likely to accept the vaccine than construction workers (reference group). Older (≥ 56 years, reference group ≤ 25 years) workers were 2.23 (95% CI: 0.99-5.03) times, auto repair 6.75 (95% CI: 4.33-10.53) times, and restaurant workers 4.04 (95% CI: 2.61-6.25) times more likely to experience a reduction in income than construction workers. Conclusions: Workers from South Asia were more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine and less likely to experience an income reduction than those from the Middle East.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Middle East/epidemiology
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(10)2023 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232243

ABSTRACT

The epistemic uncertainty in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) model-based predictions using complex noisy data greatly affects the accuracy of pandemic trend and state estimations. Quantifying the uncertainty of COVID-19 trends caused by different unobserved hidden variables is needed to evaluate the accuracy of the predictions for complex compartmental epidemiological models. A new approach for estimating the measurement noise covariance from real COVID-19 pandemic data has been presented based on the marginal likelihood (Bayesian evidence) for Bayesian model selection of the stochastic part of the Extended Kalman filter (EKF), with a sixth-order nonlinear epidemic model, known as the SEIQRD (Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Quarantined-Recovered-Dead) compartmental model. This study presents a method for testing the noise covariance in cases of dependence or independence between the infected and death errors, to better understand their impact on the predictive accuracy and reliability of EKF statistical models. The proposed approach is able to reduce the error in the quantity of interest compared to the arbitrarily chosen values in the EKF estimation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Reproducibility of Results , COVID-19/epidemiology
5.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(4): 276-284, 2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232195

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy re-emerged as a critical public health issue during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aims: This study assessed the concerns of recovered COVID-19 patients about vaccination and the predictors of vaccine hesitancy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 319 adult patients who recovered from COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. It was conducted during 1 May to 1 October 2020 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. Each participant was interviewed 6-12 months post-recovery using the vaccination attitude examination scale. Data were collected on COVID-19 illness severity, sociodemographic characteristics, history of chronic disease, and post-COVID-19 vaccination. Level of vaccination concern was assessed based on the percentage mean score (PMS). Results: Most (85.3%) of the patients who recovered from COVID-19 expressed moderate overall concern (PMS = 68.96%) about vaccination. Concern was highest for mistrust in vaccine benefits (PMS = 90.28%), followed by natural immunity preference (PMS = 81.33%) and worries about the vaccine side-effects (PMS = 60.29%). Concern over commercial profiteering was low (PMS = 43.92%). The overall PMS for concern about vaccination was significantly higher among patients aged 45+ years (t = 3.12, P = 0.002) and among those who had experienced severe COVID-19 illness (t = 1.96, P = 0.05). Conclusion: Overall concern about vaccination was high, and specific concerns were prevalent. Patient education on how the vaccine protects against reinfection should be targeted at COVID-19 patients before being discharged from hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
6.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 29(5): 354-361, 2023-05.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-369347

ABSTRACT

Background: Neither COVID-19 vaccine acceptance nor income changes among migrant workers during the pandemic has been assessed in Saudi Arabia. Aims: To assess the correlates of willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine and a decrease in income during the pandemic among migrant workers in Saudi Arabia. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was administered to 2403 migrant workers from the Middle East and South Asia employed in agriculture, auto repair, construction, food service (restaurants), municipality, and poultry farms in Al-Qassim Province, Saudi Arabia. The interviews were conducted in the native languages of the workers in 2021. Chi-square was used to assess the associations, and a multiple logistic regression was used to generate the odds ratio. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 27. Results: South Asian workers were 2.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60–3.32] times more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine than those from the Middle East (reference group). Restaurant, agriculture and poultry workers were respectively 2.36 (95% CI: 1.41–3.95), 2.13 (95% CI: 1.29–3.51) and 14.56 (95% CI: 5.64–37.59) times more likely to accept the vaccine than construction workers (reference group). Older (≥ 56 years, reference group ≤ 25 years) workers were 2.23 (95% CI: 0.99–5.03) times, auto repair 6.75 (95% CI: 4.33–10.53) times, and restaurant workers 4.04 (95% CI: 2.61–6.25) times more likely to experience a reduction in income than construction workers. Conclusions: Workers from South Asia were more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine and less likely to experience an income reduction than those from the Middle East.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Disease Outbreaks , Middle East , Saudi Arabia , Transients and Migrants
7.
Front Public Health ; 11: 961060, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230923

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare systems have modified their strategies to manage their staff, supplies, and space to deal systematically with the COVID-19 pandemic. This research aimed to explore the nature of hospital adjustments and the concerns of healthcare providers and administrative staff working in Governmental and private hospitals throughout the Qassim Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the pandemic. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological study using semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 75 purposively selected healthcare providers and administrative staff working at three main hospitals in the Qassim Region, KSA. The maximum variation sampling technique was utilized. Recruitment of participants was continued until data saturation was reached. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: Four core themes were identified in this paper: (1) changes in hospital policy and procedures, (2) workforce management, (3) the well-being of the workforce, and (4) apprehensions and expectations of the workforce. The participants showed satisfaction with timely administrative decisions and new policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the psychological health of healthcare professionals was affected more than their physical state. Finally, the providers perceived the emergence of multiple concerns in the coming months. Conclusion: Although healthcare providers were initially overwhelmed, they gradually accepted new administrative policies. Numerous innovative interventions effectively reduced their physical workload and increased their productivity, but they remained significantly affected by a wide range of psychological disorders, with a high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder. There were some concerns about the new SARS-CoV-2 variant, but the majority were optimistic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel/psychology , Attitude of Health Personnel
8.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 29(4): 276-284, 2023-04.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-368522

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy re-emerged as a critical public health issue during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aims: This study assessed the concerns of recovered COVID-19 patients about vaccination and the predictors of vaccine hesitancy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 319 adult patients who recovered from COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. It was conducted during 1 May to 1 October 2020 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. Each participant was interviewed 6–12 months post-recovery using the vaccination attitude examination scale. Data were collected on COVID-19 illness severity, sociodemographic characteristics, history of chronic disease, and post-COVID-19 vaccination. Level of vaccination concern was assessed based on the percentage mean score (PMS). Results: Most (85.3%) of the patients who recovered from COVID-19 expressed moderate overall concern (PMS = 68.96%) about vaccination. Concern was highest for mistrust in vaccine benefits (PMS = 90.28%), followed by natural immunity preference (PMS = 81.33%) and worries about the vaccine side-effects (PMS = 60.29%). Concern over commercial profiteering was low (PMS = 43.92%). The overall PMS for concern about vaccination was significantly higher among patients aged 45+ years (t = 3.12, P = 0.002) and among those who had experienced severe COVID-19 illness (t = 1.96, P = 0.05). Conclusion: Overall concern about vaccination was high, and specific concerns were prevalent. Patient education on how the vaccine protects against reinfection should be targeted at COVID-19 patients before being discharged from hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Betacoronavirus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia , Vaccination
9.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 29(4): 276-284, 2023-04.
Article in English | WHOLIS, WHOIRIS | ID: covidwho-2321560

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy re-emerged as a critical public health issue during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aims: This study assessed the concerns of recovered COVID-19 patients about vaccination and the predictors of vaccine hesitancy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 319 adult patients who recovered from COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. It was conducted during 1 May to 1 October 2020 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. Each participant was interviewed 6–12 months post-recovery using the vaccination attitude examination scale. Data were collected on COVID-19 illness severity, sociodemographic characteristics, history of chronic disease, and post-COVID-19 vaccination. Level of vaccination concern was assessed based on the percentage mean score (PMS). Results: Most (85.3%) of the patients who recovered from COVID-19 expressed moderate overall concern (PMS = 68.96%) about vaccination. Concern was highest for mistrust in vaccine benefits (PMS = 90.28%), followed by natural immunity preference (PMS = 81.33%) and worries about the vaccine side-effects (PMS = 60.29%). Concern over commercial profiteering was low (PMS = 43.92%). The overall PMS for concern about vaccination was significantly higher among patients aged 45+ years (t = 3.12, P = 0.002) and among those who had experienced severe COVID-19 illness (t = 1.96, P = 0.05). Conclusion: Overall concern about vaccination was high, and specific concerns were prevalent. Patient education on how the vaccine protects against reinfection should be targeted at COVID-19 patients before being discharged from hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Betacoronavirus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia , Vaccination
10.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068650, 2023 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321735

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the level of resilience of medical workers in radiology departments in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the COVID-19 outbreak and to explore associated factors. SETTING: Medical staff, including nurses, technicians, radiology specialists and physicians, working in radiology departments at government hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted among 375 medical workers in radiology departments in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The data collection took place from 15 February 2022 to 31 March 2022. RESULTS: The total resilience score was 29.37±6.760 and the scores of each dimension showed that the higher mean score was observed in the domain of 'flexibility', while the lowest was observed in 'maintaining attention under stress'. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between resilience and perceived stress (r=-0.498, p<0.001). Finally, based on multiple linear regression analysis, factors affecting resilience among participants are the availability of psychological hotline (available, B=2.604, p<0.050), knowledge of COVID-19 protective measures (part of understanding, B=-5.283, p<0.001), availability of adequate protective materials (partial shortage, B=-2.237, p<0.050), stress (B=-0.837, p<0.001) and education (postgraduate, B=-1.812, p<0.050). CONCLUSIONS: This study sheds light on the level of resilience and the factors that contribute to resilience in radiology medical staff. Moderate levels of resilience call for health administrators to focus on developing strategies that can effectively help cope with workplace adversities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Radiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Medical Staff
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 330, 2023 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, many precautionary measures have been set to curb the transmission of the virus. That has led to changes, most notably in surgical education, like lack of surgical exposure and clinical activities. However, the question aiming at the impact of changes made by the COVID-19 pandemic on surgical education and its extent remains unanswered. MATERIALS & METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed among surgical residents and consultants from all over Saudi Arabia, starting from the 6th till the 21st of July, 2021. Descriptive statistics were presented using counts and proportions (%). Study subjects were compared with the different perspectives during the COVID-19 pandemic by using Chi-square test. A p-value cut-off point of 0.05 at 95% CI was used to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 243 out of 500 surgical residents and consultants responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 48.6%. The majority were general surgeons (50.5%) and cardiothoracic surgeons (21.8%). Nearly 66% of surgeons, both residents and consultants, strongly agreed on the importance of training for infectious disease outbreaks. 44.7% of the consultants and 48% of the residents showed their willingness to respond to the pandemic regardless of its severity. Over 70% of surgeons agreed that developing clinical skills was compromised by the COVID-19 pandemic, and 40% expected a negative impact of the COVID-19 on their operative skills. Simulation was ranked best for disaster medicine training by over 77% of the respondents. The most common concern among surgeons during the COVID-19 pandemic was their family's health and safety. Regarding virtual curriculum components, online practice questions and surgical videos were preferred by the surgical consultant and resident, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted surgical education, it has highlighted the alarming need for adopting new components. For surgical training programs, we recommend improving the virtual curriculum, incorporating disaster medicine training, providing psychological services, and prioritizing immunization and treatment access for surgeons' families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Consultants , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
12.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284857, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312372

ABSTRACT

This study investigates health-promoting messages in British and Saudi officials' social-media discourse during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Taking discourse as a constructivist conception, we examined the crisis-response strategies employed by these officials on social media, and the role of such strategies in promoting healthy behaviors and compliance with health regulations. The study presents a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of the tweets of a Saudi health official and a British health official that focuses on keyness, speech acts, and metaphor. We found that both officials utilized clear communication and persuasive rhetorical tactics to convey the procedures suggested by the World Health Organization. However, there were some differences in how the two officials used speech acts and metaphors to achieve their goals. The British official used empathy as the primary communication strategy, while the Saudi official emphasized health literacy. The British official also used conflict-based metaphors such as war and gaming, whereas the Saudi official used metaphors that reflected life as a journey interrupted by the pandemic. Despite these differences, both officials utilized directive speech acts to tell audiences the procedures they should follow to achieve the desired conclusion of healing patients and ending the pandemic. In addition, rhetorical questions and assertions were used to direct people to perform certain behaviors favored. Interestingly, the discourse used by both officials contained characteristics of both health communication and political discourse. War metaphors, which were utilized by the British Health official, are a common feature in political discourse as well as in health-care discourse. Overall, this study highlights the importance of effective communication strategies in promoting healthy behaviors and compliance with health regulations during a pandemic. By analyzing the discourse of health officials on social media, we can gain insights into the strategies employed to manage a crisis and effectively communicate with the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Linguistics , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285616, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) disrupted healthcare systems and medical care worldwide. This study attempts to assess the performance of three Saudi hospitals during COVID-19 by comparing waiting times for outpatient appointments and the volume of elective surgeries before and after COVID-19. METHODS: We used ADA'A data collected from three Saudi hospitals for this retrospective cohort study. The outcome variables were "Waiting Time for Appointment" and "Elective OR Utilization". The hospitals included in this study were: a 300-bed maternity and children's hospital; a 643-bed general hospital; and a 1230-bed tertiary hospital. We included all patients who visited the OPD and OR in the time period from September 2019 to December 2021. A two-way ANOVA test was used to examine the differences in the outcome variables by hospital and by the phase of COVID-19. RESULTS: For the elective OR utilization rate, the results showed that both the hospital and the phase of COVID-19 were significantly different (p-value < 0.05). On average, the elective OR utilization rate dipped considerably in the early phase of COVID-19 (33.2% vs 44.9%) and jumped sharply in the later phase (50.3%). The results showed that the waiting time for OPD appointment was significantly different across hospitals and before and after COVID-19 in each hospital (p-value < 0.05). the waiting time dropped during the early phase of COVID-19 for both the general hospital (GEN) (24.6 days vs 34.8 days) and the tertiary hospital (MDC) (40.3 days vs 48.6 days), while the maternity and children's hospital (MCH)'s score deteriorated sharply (24.6 days vs 9.5 days). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that COVID-19 led to a significant impact on elective surgery rates and waiting time for OPD appointments in the early stage of the pandemic when the lockdown strategy was implemented in the country. Although the elective surgery rate had decreased at the designated COVID-hospital, the waiting time for OPD appointment had improved. This is a clear indication that the careful planning and management of resources for essential services during pandemic was effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 79: 10098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290472

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to investigate hemostatic changes in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and their relationship to disease severity and survival. Methods: This study included 284 patients with COVID-19 who attended the Security Forces Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia between October 2020 and March 2021, and retrospectively reviewed their demographic, radiological, and laboratory findings. The coagulation profile was assayed at the time of diagnosis for platelet counts using an automated hematology analyzer; Sysmex XN2000 while international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, factor VIII, ristocetin cofactor (RiCoF), and von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF-Ag) were measured by Stago kits on a Stago automated coagulation analyzer (STA Compact Max®). Results: In this study, 32.3% of the cases had severe disease, while 8.8% of the cases died. D-dimer, factor VIII, and RiCoF were the only independent predictors of disease severity, with factor VIII and RiCoF having significantly higher areas under the curve (AUCs) than D-dimer (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, age, aPTT, and factor VIII were associated with an increased risk of mortality in multivariate Cox regression analysis, with factor VIII having a higher AUC of 0.98 than aPTT with an optimal cut-off value of >314 IU/dl in predicting mortality. Cases with factor VIII levels >314 IU/dl, compared to those with factor VIII levels <314 IU/dl, were associated with a significantly shorter mean overall survival time (20.08 vs. 31.35 days, p < 0.001), a lower survival rate (30.3% vs. 99.2%, p < 0.001), and a 16.62-fold increased mortality risk. Conclusion: RiCoF is a novel predictor of disease severity in COVID-19, while factor VIII is confirmed as a predictor of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients and is associated with lower overall survival and increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors , COVID-19 , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Factor VIII/analysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
15.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 28(2): 108-115, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in a Saudi Arabian context, how the COVID-19 pandemic psychologically impacted persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken during the period from October 2021 to March 2022. 738 participants resident in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) completed a self-administered online questionnaire. The research focused on persons diagnosed with MS. RESULTS: Participant ages spanned from 18 to over 55. The mean was 36.1±12.9 years old. Four hundred eighty-nine (66.3%) of the 738 participants were female. Two hundred sixty-four (35.8%) were single. Four hundred twelve (55.8%) were married. Six hundred eighty-five (92.8%) had received a COVID-19 vaccine. Regarding MS duration, 117 (15.9%) had been diagnosed for less than 2 years, 171 (23.2%) for 2-5 years, while 251 (34%) had the condition for 10 or more years. Regarding psychological health, 11.2% of participants complained of minimal/no depression, 33.3% of mild depression, 28.3% of moderate depression, and 27.1% of moderately severe to severe depression symptoms. Concerning anxiety, 17.2% of participants reported minimal anxiety, 36.9% mild, 23.3% moderate, while 22.6% suffered from severe anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of depression and anxiety was found, along with high prevalence of co-occurrence of these disorders among PwMS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology
16.
Georgian Med News ; (335): 6-12, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291104

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is part of the global pandemic. So, the current study used COVID-19 statistics to examine the COVID-19 prevalence in the GCC countries by the end of 2020, 2021, and 2022 and compare the findings to non-GCC Arab countries and also compare 2022's results globally. COVID-19 data per country, including the vaccination coverage rate, were obtained from well-known publicly online websites (such as Worldometer and Our World in Data). An Independent sample t-test was used to compare the means between the GCC and non-GCC Arab countries. By the end of 2022, most COVID-19 deaths in the GCC countries were recorded in Saudi Arabia but given the number of cases and deaths per million, Bahrain was the most affected. Saudi Arabia was the least testing country per population, while the United Arab of Emirates performed tests nearly 20 times more than its population. Qatar had the lowest case-fatality rate (0.14%). Statistically, the GCC countries had higher median age, higher mean cases per million, higher mean tests per population, and higher mean vaccination coverage (84.56%) than non-GCC Arab countries. Globally, the GCC countries recorded fewer deaths per million, performed more tests relative to the population, and had higher vaccination coverage. Globally, the GCC countries have been less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, statistics vary across the GCC countries. The average vaccination coverage in the Gulf countries was higher than in the global one. Given the natural immunity and the excellent vaccine coverage in the GCC countries, it is essential to reconsider the definition of a suspected case and establish more specific criteria for testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Prevalence , Middle East/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia
17.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 10(1)2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatic damage is one of the common forms of extra pulmonary organ destructions among patients with COVID-19 infections. AIM: To evaluate the prognosis of liver damage among COVID-19 patients based on their liver enzymes profile. METHODS: A retrospective study was done to evaluate the records of the hospitably admitted patient due to COVID-19 infection.Retrieved data included clinical presentation and investigation either imaging or laboratory with special investing in liver function tests. RESULT: We reviewed 442 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection.They were 64.5% of female patients and 35.5% of male patients. Their mean age was 54.5%, most of them were Saudi (76.7%) and the overall mortality reached up to (20.4%). CONCLUSION: This large cohort of 442 patients has shown that liver damage may be an independent prognostic factor for morbidities and mortality among COVID-19 patients. It also showed the importance of liver function enzymes screening as a predictor for the outcome of those patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology
18.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(6): 917-921, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Device-associated infections (DAIs) are important components of healthcare associated infection and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study describes DAIs across different intensive care units (ICUs) in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study was conducted between 2017 and 2020 and followed the definitions of National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) for DAIs. The calculated the rates of ventilator-associated events (VAE), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) followed NHSN definitions. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 82 DAIs in adult ICUs and of these 16 (19.5%) were CLABSI, 26 (31.7%) were CAUTI and 40 (48.7%) were VAE. The overall rates for adult ICUs were 1.6, 1.9, 3.8 per 1000 device-days for CAUTI, CLABSI and VAE, respectively. The device-utilization ratio was 0.5, 0.6, and 0.48 for urinary catheters, central lines, and ventilators, respectively. VAE rates for medical and surgical ICU were about 2.8 times the rate in the coronary care unit and the rates were high in 2020 corresponding with the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the adult ICUS, medical ICU had a CLABSI rate of 2.13/1000 device-days and was about double the rate in surgical and cardiac ICU. For CAUTI, the rates per 1000 device-days were 2.19, 1.73, and 1.65 for medical, surgical, and coronary ICUs, respectively. The rate of CLABSI per 1000 device-days for pediatric and neonatal ICUs were 3.38 and 2.28, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CAUTI was the most common infections among adult ICUs and medical ICU had higher rates than other adult ICUs. VAE rate was higher in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, indicating increased device-use, change in patients characteristics as well as possible change in practices across the ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Urinary Tract Infections , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Child , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2023: 3911907, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305394

ABSTRACT

Results: The level of good knowledge of the blood donation process and perceptions constituted more than 52.2% and 52.9%, respectively, of the participants. The biggest motivation for the donation process was the awareness campaigns, which amounted to 52.5%, and the biggest obstacle to the blood donation procedure is the lack of health fitness. It has been found that 43.0% of those who completed the questionnaire had donated blood during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Though the high level of awareness of the importance of blood donation for COVID-19 patients, as well as the satisfaction with the experience of blood donation for patients, the level of general knowledge remains average.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Donation , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1158979, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304748

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The association between oral and mental health is reciprocal, in which poor oral health may lead to several mental health issues, especially among patients with diabetes. The present study evaluated oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and its association with mental health conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: The Arabic version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21) were used to assess the OHRQOL and mental health status of patients with diabetes. We utilized logistic regression analysis to identify the predictors of poor OHRQOL, and Spearman's correlation test to identify any correlations between OHIP-14 and overall DASS-21 scores, as well as each subscale. Results: Of the 677 patients included in the present study, 52.7% had a poor OHRQOL, which was significantly higher (positive association) among patients with a longer duration of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-4.17) and those who did not periodically monitor their oral health (AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.76-3.89). Some forms (mild, moderate, severe, or extremely severe) of depression, anxiety, and stress were observed in 59.7, 71.1, and 67.1% of the participants, respectively. Furthermore, we found that the total OHRQOL scores had a significant positive association with depression (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.34-3.71, p = 0.001), anxiety (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22-2.79, p = 0.003), and stress (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.14-2.19, p = 0.026). Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest the importance of appropriate and targeted health education programs for T2DM patients to ensure periodic dental examinations and oral health. Additionally, we recommend counseling sessions for all T2DM patients with trained healthcare providers to improve their mental health status during follow-up visits at outpatient diabetes care centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics
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