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1.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 27(1): 10-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess awareness of the neurological manifestation of COVID-19 on the Saudi population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted using a Google Form survey to obtain responses randomly from the Saudi population between February and March 2021 using social media. RESULTS: A total of 831 participants completed the questionnaire. The distribution of the identified isolated neurological manifestations of COVOD-19 infections by participants' age was assessed among the respondents. Loss of smell (88.9%), loss of taste (86.8%), and headache (72.6%) were the most identified first manifestations among all the age groups, while stroke (13.4%) was the least identified for all ages with no statistical significance (p>0.05 for all). Regarding COVID-19 related neurological symptoms, the same was reported: loss of smell, taste, and headache were the most identified symptoms among all the age groups, while stroke was the least identified for all ages with no statistical significance (p>0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: The study concluded that awareness of COVID-19's neurological symptoms could help detect an atypical case, which can help in early intervention and its medical treatment. Moreover, the study also suggested conducting educational programs that emphasize the early identification of neurological symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7709-7716, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe personal and family-related factors affecting undergraduate students' willingness to volunteer during the pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate medical students at Qassim University in Saudi Arabia through an online survey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A pre-validated online questionnaire on willingness to volunteer during the pandemic was distributed through various messenger groups and social media. The questionnaire comprised two sections to collect demographics and how likely the volunteers work during the pandemic in different circumstances. The distribution of these parameters was reported by frequency and proportion for categorical variables. In addition to descriptive analytics, a chi-square test was used to compare key explanatory parameters between the low and high likelihood of volunteering. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS statistical software (version 25, Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: There was a high likelihood of willingness (60.7%) to volunteer among undergraduate medical students. However, there was no statistically significant difference in baseline parameters like gender, academic year, age (in years), marital status, children, and elderly dependents between the high and low likelihood of volunteer (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference indicated the best description of one's living arrangement between volunteers' high and low probability (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that undergraduate medical students can be motivated to volunteer effectively in this pandemic by ensuring personal and family protection. This is vital to optimally redistribute the work burden and effectively channelize the workforce during a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Volunteers/psychology , Motivation , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Hospital Volunteers/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(52): e28334, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594572

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, research indicates that the COVID-19 disease susceptibility varies among individuals depending on their ABO blood groups. Researchers globally commenced investigating potential methods to stratify cases according to prognosis depending on several clinical parameters. Since there is evidence of a link between ABO blood groups and disease susceptibility, it could be argued that there is a link between blood groups and disease manifestation and progression. The current study investigates whether clinical manifestation, laboratory, and imaging findings vary among ABO blood groups of hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients.This retrospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021 in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre Riyadh and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Demographic information, clinical information, laboratory findings, and imaging investigations were extracted from the data warehouse for all confirmed COVID-19 patients.A total of 285 admitted patients were included in the study. Of these, 81 (28.4%) were blood group A, 43 (15.1%) were blood group B, 11 (3.9%) were blood group AB, and 150 (52.6%) were blood group O. This was almost consistent with the distribution of blood groups among the Saudi Arabia community. The majority of the study participants (79.6% [n = 227]) were asymptomatic. The upper respiratory tract infection (P = .014) and shortness of breath showed statistically significant differences between the ABO blood group (P = .009). Moreover, the incidence of the symptoms was highly observed in blood group O followed by A then B except for pharyngeal exudate observed in blood group A. The one-way ANOVA test indicated that among the studied hematological parameters, glucose (P = .004), absolute lymphocyte count (P = .001), and IgA (P = .036) showed statistically significant differences between the means of the ABO blood group. The differences in both X-ray and computed tomography scan findings were statistically nonsignificant among the ABO age group. Only 86 (30.3%) patients were admitted to an intensive care unit, and the majority of them were blood groups O 28.7% (n = 43) and A 37.0% (n = 30). However, the differences in complications' outcomes were statistically nonsignificant among the ABO age group.ABO blood groups among hospitalized COVID-19 patients are not associated with clinical, hematological, radiological, and complications abnormality.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19/blood , Disease Susceptibility , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(12): 4051-4056, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking and health-related quality of life among Saudi secondary vocational students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A convenience sample of 328 answered a web-based self-administered questionnaire based on the Youth Risky Behavior Monitoring System (YRBSS) plus the Short Form 12 (SF-12) were included in the study. The target population included all Saudi students enrolled at the Secondary Industrial Institute in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during December 2020 and February 2021. RESULTS: Out of the total of 328 male participants, representing a response rate of 38.59%, the highest percentage of respondents were in the first year (45.4%), the mean age of the participants was 17.73 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.85 years. The prevalence of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 30.2%, 21.3%, and 48.5%, respectively. First-year students reported relatively high levels of smoking prevalence and low physical scores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The overall mean of HRQoL of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 58.60, 58.38, and 63.66, respectively. In addition, current smokers reported a relatively low physical score of HRQoL 55.73. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to explore the impact of smoking on HRQoL of Secondary Industrial Institute students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate that smoking has a negative impact on the quality of life of vocational students. Therefore, a health strategies plan may be developed to improve the quality of life for vocational students in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking and health-related quality of life among Saudi secondary vocational students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A convenience sample of 328 answered a web-based self-administered questionnaire based on the Youth Risky Behavior Monitoring System (YRBSS) plus the Short Form 12 (SF-12) were included in the study. The target population included all Saudi students enrolled at the Secondary Industrial Institute in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during December 2020 and February 2021. RESULTS: Out of the total of 328 male participants, representing a response rate of 38.59%, the highest percentage of respondents were in the first year (45.4%), the mean age of the participants was 17.73 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.85 years. The prevalence of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 30.2%, 21.3%, and 48.5%, respectively. First-year students reported relatively high levels of smoking prevalence and low physical scores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The overall mean of HRQoL of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 58.60, 58.38, and 63.66, respectively. In addition, current smokers reported a relatively low physical score of HRQoL 55.73. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to explore the impact of smoking on HRQoL of Secondary Industrial Institute students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate that smoking has a negative impact on the quality of life of vocational students. Therefore, a health strategies plan may be developed to improve the quality of life for vocational students in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk-Taking , Saudi Arabia , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 6089677, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582880

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of the novel SARS-CoV-2 poses a challenge and has attracted worldwide attention. Artificial intelligence (AI) can be used to combat this pandemic and control the spread of the virus. In particular, deep learning-based time-series techniques are used to predict worldwide COVID-19 cases for short-term and medium-term dependencies using adaptive learning. This study aimed to predict daily COVID-19 cases and investigate the critical factors that increase the transmission rate of this outbreak by examining different influential factors. Furthermore, the study analyzed the effectiveness of COVID-19 prevention measures. A fully connected deep neural network, long short-term memory (LSTM), and transformer model were used as the AI models for the prediction of new COVID-19 cases. Initially, data preprocessing and feature extraction were performed using COVID-19 datasets from Saudi Arabia. The performance metrics for all models were computed, and the results were subjected to comparative analysis to detect the most reliable model. Additionally, statistical hypothesis analysis and correlation analysis were performed on the COVID-19 datasets by including features such as daily mobility, total cases, people fully vaccinated per hundred, weekly hospital admissions per million, intensive care unit patients, and new deaths per million. The results show that the LSTM algorithm had the highest accuracy of all the algorithms and an error of less than 2%. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of COVID-19 containment. This study also provides insights into the prevention of future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
6.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 247, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide, and the vaccine remains the ultimate cornerstone to overcoming its long-term impact. Vaccine hesitancy might obstruct the effort to achieve herd immunity and eradicate the virus. We assessed Saudi Arabian individuals' willingness, beliefs, and barriers regarding the COVID-19 vaccine and their adherence to preventive measures during and after the pandemic. METHODS: A self-administered electronic validated questionnaire was distributed among the five major regions in Saudi Arabia between November and December 2020. The questionnaire addressed the sociodemographic data, beliefs, potential barriers, parents' acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination for their children, and adherence to protective measures during and after the pandemic. RESULTS: Of 8,056 participants, 4,218 (52.4%) of a non-representative sample were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Being a young adult, male, having less than a high school degree, being a smoker, having a chronic disease, and having a history of seasonal influenza vaccine uptake were positive predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Hesitant participants reported concerns about vaccine side effects and safety as the main barriers to accepting the COVID-19 vaccine. Some refusers (26.1%) declared that they would reconsider vaccination only if the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine were reported by more studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a promising willingness to accept the vaccine among the population, with positive beliefs and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination. However, a considerable proportion of the population was reluctant to accept the vaccine. Thus, publicly providing information about vaccine safety and implementing health education programs is crucial for increasing the public's confidence in the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260698, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, world is suffering from a respiratory disease names as COVID-19. This is a novel coronavirus (n-CoV), a new strain which has not been previously identified in humans and it has spread in more than 100 locations internationally due to which it is termed as "public health emergency of international concern" (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization So far, no study done as yet to assess whether the dental workforce is aware about the facts and myths related to Covid-19 awareness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze and compare the level of awareness about the facts and myths related to COVID-19 amongst faculty, dental students and prep year students of the College of Dentistry (COD) as part of an awareness campaign. METHODS: An awareness test about COVID-19 was designed using information from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Myth Busters Awareness webpage. The questionnaire was administrated online to faculty and students, of the College of Dentistry and preparatory year students who had applied for the admission to the dental college using a secure enterprise online assessment platform (Blackboard). The tests were administered over a period of three months from March to June 2020. A written informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: The online COVID-19 awareness test was administered to 810 participants, out of which 325 (40%) were prep year students, 429(53%%) were dental students, and 56 (7%) were faculty members. Analysis of the results showed that 86% of the Faculty were able to correctly identify the facts and the myths related to COVID-19 followed by 81% of the prep year students and 74% of the dental students. Preparatory year student's knowledge related to COVID-19 was found to be high when compared to dental students (26.47±4.27, 23.67±6.2). Student to faculty knowledge score did not differ significantly (p = 0.808). CONCLUSION: This study reports about a successful pilot test conducted to assess the perceived knowledge about facts and myths related to corona virus amongst the dental workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Schools, Dental , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Saudi Arabia , Students, Dental/statistics & numerical data
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 733125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581128

ABSTRACT

Background: The Saudi government had implemented unprecedented preventive measures to deal with COVID-19. These measures included intermittent curfews, bans on public gatherings, limitations on many services, temporary suspension of Hajj, Umrah, and visit and launching awareness campaigns. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the KAP toward COVID-19 among residents of the border region of Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was distributed from May 4 to May 21, 2020, using a Google Form. The survey questionnaire covered demographic characteristics and KAP toward COVID-19. The KAP questions consisted of 17 items on knowledge, four items on attitude, and six items on practice. Results: A total of 597 participants responded to the survey questionnaire. Overall, participants demonstrated a good knowledge of COVID-19, correctly answering 77% of the knowledge questions. Most of the participants exhibited good attitudes and acceptable practices toward COVID-19. Multiple regression analysis revealed that participants with a university education (B = 1.75) or post-graduate education (B = 2.24), those with an income >SR 10,000-20,000 (B = 1.38) or >SR 20,000 (B = 2.07), and those who had received a personal health education (B = 1.19) had higher COVID-19 knowledge scores (p < 0.05). The ordinal logistic regression analysis found that compared to being female, being male was significantly associated with worrying about COVID-19 (p = 0.024, OR = 1.78), willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine (p = 0.003, OR = 1.81), and willingness to report potential symptoms of COVID-19 (p = 0.046, OR = 2.28). Worrying about COVID-19 was significantly associated with pre-university education vs. post-graduate education (p ≤ 0.001, OR = 7.94) and university education vs. post-graduate education (p ≤ 0.001, OR = 4.17). The binary logistic regression analysis found that compared to being female, being male was significantly associated with less face mask wearing in public (p = 0.009, OR = 0.31): Females were 3.23 times more likely to wear a face mask than were males. Conclusions: Most of the study participants had good knowledge, positive attitudes, and effective practices toward COVID-19. The findings of this study may help guide future awareness resources to the groups most in need in the Jazan region, particularly as the COVID-19 situation develops and changes. Further assessment should consider the groups omitted from this study, including immigrants and the elderly who have not adopted social media and technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580722

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the perceived stress levels in students, assistants, and faculty members of the College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal, University (IAU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using the Cohen's perceived stress scale (PSS) questionnaire (consisting of 14 items, hence called PSS-14), an online observational survey was conducted. The PSS 14 was rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (never) to 4 (very often). The scores ranging from 0-18 represented low stress, 19-37 represented moderate stress, and 38-56 represented high stress. The second-and third-year students were designated as junior year students, while fourth-year onwards were considered senior year students. Out of total 265 participants, 65% (173) were female, and the majority of the participants were dental students 70% (185) with a mean age of 26.71 ± 9.26 years. In the present study, the average PSS score for the participants was computed as 29.89 (range score: 0-56) which shows moderate stress levels among the respondents. The PSS score for the students was 31.03; for the faculty, it was 28, while for the assistants, it was 27.05. Among the three participant groups, the students were found more on the severe stress side (19%) (p-value = 0.002), and among them, the senior year students (6th year) showed significantly higher stress levels compared to the junior year students (p-value = 0.005). Age-wise, the participants below 20 years were most stressed (21%), followed by those 20-30 years old (18%). Female participants were more severely stressed than males (17% vs. 10%, respectively). It was concluded that the students experienced more stress, followed by the faculty members and dental assistants. In addition, younger participants, females, and senior year students were more stressed than their counterparts. Future studies directed at evaluating stress levels of these groups from different dental institutes could provide an opportunity for policymakers to offer various resources to improve their mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Faculty , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Students , Young Adult
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580713

ABSTRACT

A series of mitigation efforts were implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia, including the development of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) for the public. Assessing the acceptability of mHealth apps among the public is crucial. This study aimed to use Twitter to understand public perceptions around the use of six Saudi mHealth apps used during COVID-19: "Sehha", "Mawid", "Sehhaty", "Tetamman", "Tawakkalna", and "Tabaud". We used two methodological approaches: network and sentiment analysis. We retrieved Twitter data using specific mHealth apps-related keywords. After including relevant tweets, our final mHealth app networks consisted of a total of 4995 Twitter users and 8666 conversational relationships. The largest networks in size (i.e., the number of users) and volume (i.e., the conversational relationships) among all were "Tawakkalna" followed by "Tabaud", and their conversations were led by diverse governmental accounts. In contrast, the four remaining mHealth networks were mainly led by the health sector and media. Our sentiment analysis approach included five classes and showed that most conversations were neutral, which included facts or information pieces and general inquires. For the automated sentiment classifier, we used Support Vector Machine with AraVec embeddings as it outperformed the other tested classifiers. The sentiment classifier showed an accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score of 85%. Future studies can use social media and real-time analytics to improve mHealth apps' services and user experience, especially during health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580710

ABSTRACT

The Saudi ministry of health (MOH) started the preventive measures very early on before having a single case of COVID-19. There were very few studies regarding the awareness and adherence to the preventive measures against COVID-19 among the Saudi population in the literature. Objectives: The study aims to examine the awareness and commitment to the strict Saudi government preventive measures against COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey targeted Saudi and non-Saudi populations aged 18+ in March-April 2020. The online questionnaire was designed to explore the participant's sociodemographic data, washing hygiene habits, the general level of awareness regarding COVID-19, and the extent to which they adhere to the government's strict instructions. Results: Out of the 2958 participants in the survey, 23% washed their hands for between 20 and 30 s, 59.6% washed their hands after shaking hands with other people, 67.9% washed their hands after use of other's utilities, 65.9% had appropriately followed the MOH recommended guidelines for home quarantine and social distancing. People in different age groups differed significantly on their practiced hygienic practices score p < 0.001. Respondents' educational level had converged considerably and positively on their clean proper prevention practices score, f(2838.3) = 15.70. Conclusion: The majority of the participants adhere to the strict government instructions regarding COVID-19 as they have to obey the law. Health sector employees measured significantly greater hygienic preventive measures and precautions in comparison to other sectors. More public health efforts should increase hygienic best practice scores to achieve the best outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25404, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite Saudi Arabia's free and well-established cancer care program, breast cancer incidence and mortality are rising. Husbands' knowledge, and wives' attitudes and practices related to breast cancer screening are not well understood in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate husbands' knowledge, and wives' attitudes and practices related to breast cancer screening in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data from 403 husbands in the holy city of Makkah through an online self-reported questionnaire over a period of 2 months, from May 6 to July 7, 2020. Tabulation, bivariate, and multiple regression analyses were the major tools used for data analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between husbands' knowledge and wives' behavior regarding breast cancer screening methods. RESULTS: Husbands' knowledge score (a 1-point increase) was significantly associated with the wives' utilization of mammograms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.089, 95% CI 1.024-1.159) and breast self-examination (AOR 1.177, 95% CI 1.105-1.255). Husbands' knowledge also influenced the wives' attitudes toward learning about breast self-examination (AOR 1.138, 95% CI 1.084-1.195). There was no significant association between husbands' knowledge and wives' utilization of clinical breast examination. However, richer husbands showed a socioeconomic gradient concerning their wives' utilization of clinical breast examinations (AOR 2.603, 95% CI 1.269-5.341). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, husbands' knowledge of breast cancer influences wives' attitudes and practices related to breast cancer screening methods in Saudi Arabia. Thus, interventions delivered to husbands might increase breast cancer awareness and survival.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Internet Use/trends , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia , Self Report , Spouses , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574068

ABSTRACT

ß2-microglobulin (ß2-m), a 11.8 kDa protein, pairs non-covalently with the α3 domain of the major histocompatibility class (MHC) I α-chain and is essential for the conformation of the MHC class I protein complex. Shed ß2-m is measurable in circulation, and various disorders are accompanied by increases in ß2-m levels, including several viral infections. Therefore, we explored whether ß2-m levels could also be elevated in Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and whether they predict disease severity. Serum ß2-m levels were measured in a cohort of 34 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 on admission to a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as in an approximately age-sex matched group of 34 uninfected controls. Mean ß2-m level was 3.25±1.68 mg/l (reference range 0.8-2.2 mg/l) in patients (mean age 48.2±21.6) and 1.98±0.61 mg/l in controls (mean age 48.2±21.6). 17 patients (mean age 36.9± 18.0) with mean ß2-m levels of 2.27±0.64 mg/l had mild disease by WHO severity categorization, 12 patients (mean age 53.3±18.1) with mean ß2-m levels of 3.57±1.39 mg/l had moderate disease, and five patients (of whom 2 died; mean age 74.4±13.8) with mean ß2-m levels of 5.85±1.85 mg/l had severe disease (P < = 0.001, by ANOVA test for linear trend). In multivariate ordinal regression ß2-m levels were the only significant predictor of disease severity. Our findings suggest that higher ß2-m levels could be an early indicator of severity of disease and predict outcome of Covid-19. As the main limitations of the study are a single-center study, sample size and ethnicity, these results need confirmation in larger cohorts outside the Arabian Peninsula in order to delineate the value of ß2-m measurements. The role of ß2-m in the etiology and pathogenesis of severe Covid-19 remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Severity of Illness Index , beta 2-Microglobulin/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Saudi Arabia
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1646-1652, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572708

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is a life-threatening disease, especially for people suffering from chronic diseases. As the vaccine is considered an essential tool to confront pandemics, many international medical institutions have developed vaccines. Countries around the world started immunizing their citizens. This study aims to assess the acceptance and barriers of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among Saudi Arabian people who suffer from chronic diseases. METHODOLOGY: In February-March 2021, a cross-sectional study of Saudi Arabian people who have chronic diseases was undertaken. It was based on an Arabic self-administered online questionnaire and used a convenience sampling technique. 310 people were invited. The response rate was 97%. RESULTS: 51.95% of the participants agreed to take the COVID-19 vaccine, 33.5% were unsure about being vaccinated, and 14.5% refused. The most frequent concerns between participants and receiving the vaccine were about the side effects and the perceived misconception that following preventative measures is enough to protect against the virus. Significant associations between age, education, and occupation with acceptance rate were found (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although a higher acceptance for the targeted group was expected, the participants showed a moderate acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Addressing the barriers in the current study regarding vaccine uptake and focusing on building trust in the safety and efficacy of the vaccine will aid in hesitancy and resistance toward the vaccine, specifically if these measures were undertaken by an authority such as the Saudi Ministry of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1625-1629, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572705

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to measure the performance of early detection methods, which are usually used for infectious diseases. METHODOLOGY: By using real data of confirmed Coronavirus cases from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Italy, the moving epidemic method (MEM) and the moving average cumulative sums (Mov. Avg Cusum) methods are used in our simulation study. RESULTS: Our results suggested that the CUSUM method outperforms the MEM in detecting the start of the Coronavirus outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Early Diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Benchmarking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1618-1624, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The paper aims to estimate consumers' demand for personal protecting products (PPP) from COVID-19. Thus, the paper collected primary data on consumers' demand for PPP utilizing the timeframe of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The paper uses two sample t-test and Anova test to examine mean differences in the quantity consumed of PPP. Also, the paper uses Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) to estimate the responsiveness of quantity demanded of PPP for changes in prices and consumers' income. RESULTS: The results show that there is a significant difference in the mean of quantity demanded of facemasks among men and women. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in the mean of quantity demand for facemasks, gloves, and hand sanitizer based on respondents' level of education. In addition, the paper analyzed the effect of price and income changes on quantity demanded of PPP. The findings indicate that the quantity demanded of facemask and gloves are sensitive to changes in consumers' income. Also, soap, hand sanitizer, and gloves were recognized as complementary products. Furthermore, facemasks were identified as a complementary product with glove use. Lastly, the own-price elasticities of demand revealed that the demand for PPP is price insensitive. CONCLUSIONS: the paper recommends that the consumer protection unit closely monitor the prices of PPP since the sellers have an opportunity to increase those products prices and maximize their revenue by exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfectants/economics , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , N95 Respirators/economics , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 767517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572342

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) throughout the world leads to a series of modifications of several National Health Service organizations, with a potential series of psychological consequences among nurses. Methods: This study was undertaken to assess the psychological stress, anxiety factors, and coping mechanisms of critical care unit nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak. A cross-sectional research design was employed, and the convenience sample consisted of 469 nurses working at several hospitals in Saudi Arabia during the period from July to September 2020. This study used the Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Coping Mechanism, and Nursing Stress scale. Results: Interestingly, more than one-third and one-quarter of the studied nurses had severe and moderate anxiety levels, respectively. In addition, the most anxiety-causing factors included providing care for their infected colleagues and worrying about infecting their families. More than one-quarter and slightly less than half of the studied nurses had high and moderate stress levels, respectively. Furthermore, more than half of the participants had low coping mechanisms and one-quarter had moderate coping mechanisms. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between anxiety and stress levels, and there was a strong negative correlation between coping mechanisms and stress and anxiety levels. Conclusions: Collectively, this study explored the psychological stress, anxiety factors, and coping mechanisms among critical care unit nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Continuous educational programs for nurses on using coping mechanisms should be developed in combination with teaching preventive measures for defining a psychological intervention plan within a mandatory occupational health surveillance program. This study recommends that constructive planning and necessary provision of supportive measures by the legal authorities and policymakers protect nurses and minimize their psychological stress to fulfill high-quality nursing care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , State Medicine , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
18.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 477-482, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute adverse events and anaphylaxis were reported after the administration of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines. We aim to explore the nature and outcome of adverse events following BNT162B2 vaccine in a community vaccination center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHOD: Within 30 min post vaccination, all acute adverse events (AAEs) that occurred before March 31st, 2021, and in people older than 16 years were reviewed (AAE group). We used the case definition of Brighton collaboration on vaccine safety to define anaphylaxis. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, allergy history, and outcome at disposition were collected. Observation duration after vaccination was short (<15 min) or extended (<3 h). Statistical analysis was performed to study AAEs association with the study variables and outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 71,221 vaccine recipients, 144 (0.002%) had developed 345 AAEs, at a rate of 48.4 events per 10,000 dose administered. The majority of cases in AAE group were first dose recipients (93.8%) and previously healthy (59%), while the minority had a previous history of allergy (6.3%) or a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (4.2%). We found a significant association between female gender and the occurrence of any AAE (p-value = 0.002). Per every 10,000 doses administered, non-anaphylactic AAEs were dizziness (17.8), headache (9.7), nausea (7.1), or syncope (3.2). Only one in every ten AAEs was considered serious and resulted in an extended observation (4.8 per 10,000 doses), but only 1/144 required hospitalization for non-anaphylaxis reasons (0.1 per 10,000 doses). According to the Brighton collaboration definition of anaphylaxis, no single case of high certainty anaphylaxis was recorded. No death was documented in this cohort. CONCLUSION: Acute adverse events due toBNT162b2 vaccinewere rare andmostlynon-seriouswith a tendency to occur more in women. Further prospectivestudieson largervaccine recipientsto evaluatethe incidenceof anaphylaxis in the Saudi population are warranted.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
19.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(11): 1109-1113, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566971

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection during the period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. Aims: This study aimed to provide an update on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia from January 2019 to October 2020. Methods: Data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection in Saudi Arabia from January 2019 to 20 October 2020 were retrieved from the Health Electronic Surveillance Network of the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia. Data collected were: demographic characteristics of cases, clinical course of the infection, related mortality and association with exposure to confirmed cases or camels. Results: In total, 299 cases of MERS-CoV infection were reported in the study period. The mean age of cases was 52.4 years. Most of the cases were males (78.9%) and had comorbidities (72.7%), and 11.9% of cases were health care providers. Of the 299 cases, 83 (27.7%) died. Older age and having comorbidities were associated with higher mortality. Exposure to camels was associated with lower mortality. Health care providers also had a lower mortality rate than non-health care providers. Compared with COVID-19, MERS-CoV infection still has a higher mortality rate but with a more predictable pattern and an anticipated deterioration. Conclusion: MERS-CoV infection remains a public health concern. The percentage of cases that were health care providers (11.9%) is lower than previously reported (19.1-25.0%), possibly due to the various preventive measures put in place to control COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
20.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(11): 1114-1124, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566970

ABSTRACT

Background: With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most countries rushed to take early measures to control this disease. Aims: This paper describes and evaluates the Saudi Arabian strategic preparedness and response plan on COVID-19 up to 31 December 2020. Methods: Saudi Arabia adopted the World Health Organization's guidelines on response to COVID-19, which are based on nine pillars of public health preparedness and response. The measures Saudi Arabia took are assessed against these pillars. Results: In response to COVID-19, Saudi Arabia prepared public and private institutions to deal with the pandemic. Saudi authorities established a governance system comprised of responsible committees to continuously monitor national and international updates, trace contacts, screen the population, raise awareness and take proper actions to contain the spread of this disease. After the announcement of the first case in Saudi Arabia, all schools, social events, sports activities, domestic travel and international flights were suspended. Restrictions on social movement, social and religious gatherings, travel and businesses were imposed ahead of the first 100 confirmed COVID-19 cases. The Hajj pilgrimage for 2020 was scaled down to limit participants and no cases of COVID-19 were detected among pilgrims. The country maintained all basic health services and immunization programmes and supported all proposals for COVID-19 drugs and vaccines. The country is working to develop its capacity to produce these products and achieve self-sufficiency. Conclusion: Saudi Arabia took extreme measures to respond to COVID-19 which contributed to limiting the spread and effect of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Travel , Vaccination
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