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1.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526148

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
2.
Saudi Med J ; 42(8): 853-861, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after pandemic's peak and before the vaccine enrollment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and further explore predictors for SARS-CoV-2 positivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 515 blood donors from November 22 to December 17, 2020 was conducted at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to look at SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) positivity. The participants were asked questions about their demographic characteristics, past SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms and exposures. RESULTS: The seroprevalence in our study was 12.2% (n=63/515). Being a non-citizen was associated with significantly higher seroprevalence (OR 2.10, p=0.02). Participants with history of SARS-CoV-2 exposure or symptoms regardless of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis had higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity compared to unexposed or asymptomatic participants (OR 2.47, p=0.0008 or 11.19, p=0.0001, respectively). Blood donors who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 IgG infection had a higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity rate (OR 5.04, p=0.008) and index value (p=0.003) than the asymptomatic. Of all the reported symptoms, cough (p=0.004) and anosmia (p=0.002) were significant predictors of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the blood donors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is considerably lower than the percentages necessary for herd immunity. Developing SARS-CoV-2-symptoms is the critical factor for higher seropositivity after SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Saudi Med J ; 42(7): 742-749, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of COVID-19 antibodies among operating room and critical care staff. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 319 Healthcare workers employed in the operation theater and intensive care unit of King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), a tertiary teaching hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between August 9, 2020 and November 2, 2020. All participants completed a 20-item questionnaire on demographic data and COVID-19 risk factors and provided blood samples. Antibody testing was performed using an in-house enzyme immunoassay and microneutralization test. RESULTS: Of the 319 participants, 39 had detectable COVID-19 antibodies. Five of them had never experienced any symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, and only 19 were previously diagnosed with COVID-19. The odds of developing COVID-19 or having corresponding antibodies increased if participants experienced COVID-19 symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-7.5) or reported contact with an infected family member (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.5-11.2). Disease acquisition was not associated with employment in the ICU and involvement in the intubation of or close contact with COVID-19 patients. Of the 19 previously diagnosed participants, 6 did not possess any detectable COVID-19 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers may have undiagnosed COVID-19, and those previously infected may not have long-lasting immunity. Therefore, hospitals must continue to uphold strict infection control during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Middle Aged , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
4.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Marital Status/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Policy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Latency , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
5.
Saudi Med J ; 42(11): 1217-1222, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient tracheostomy outcomes. METHODS: All COVID-19 patients at the National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were retrospectively recruited. Those who had tracheostomies between April and December 2020 were included. RESULTS: The population was 45 patients, of which 30 (66.7%) were males, 15 (33.3%) were females and the mean age was 66.76±12.74 years. The tracheostomy indications were anticipated prolonged weaning in 40 (88.9%) and failed extubation in 5 (11.1%) of the patients. The mean intubation to tracheostomy duration was 20.62±7.21 days. Mortalities were high, with most attributed to COVID-19. Mortality and a pre-tracheostomy C-reactive protein (CRP) uptrend were significantly related (p=0.039). Mortality and intubation to tracheostomy duration were not significantly related. The mean post-tracheostomy time to death was 10.64±6.9 days. Among the survivors, 20 (44.4%) males and 11 (24.4%) females were weaned off mechanical ventilation; 9 (20%) remained on ventilation during the study. The mean ventilation weaning time was 27.92±20 days. CONCLUSION: The high mortality rate was attributed to COVID-19. Mortality and a pre-tracheostomy CRP uptrend were significantly related; uptrend patients experienced far more mortalities than downtrend patients. Unlike previous findings, mortality and intubation to tracheostomy duration were not significantly related.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
6.
Saudi Med J ; 42(11): 1243-1246, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To calculate the seroprevalence of asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) in our institution. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among asymptomatic HCWs in a large hospital during the peak of the pandemic (from July to August 2020 and followed them up until February 2021) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We collected the data in a Microsoft Word document after collecting a single serum sample for detection of antibodies from each participant then we compared the results statically in Microsoft Excel tables. RESULTS: We enrolled 188 participants and measured their IgG antibodies from venous blood samples using CLIA. Six (3.2%) had positive antibodies despite being asymptomatic. Most of these were from non-COVID-19 working areas (4 out of 6), but all had an exposure with a positive COVID-19 patient at some point in the preceding 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with similar local studies showing low seroprevalence among HCWs while most positive cases are from non-COVID-19 areas. Despite this low seroprevalence, HCWs are still considered a high-risk group; hence, there is a need to encourage strict implementation and adherence to infection control measures and vaccination among HCWs, especially when these measures are relaxed on the national level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743520, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497183

ABSTRACT

Background: As the world is still being ravaged by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the first line of prevention lies in understanding the causative and preventive factors of the disease. However, given varied socioeconomic circumstances, there may be some inequality in the level of proper knowledge of COVID-19. Despite a proliferation of studies on COVID-19, the extent and prevalence of inequalities in knowledge about COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia are not known. Most related studies have only focused on understanding the determinants of COVID-19 knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in knowledge regarding COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were extracted from an online cross-sectional self-reported questionnaire conducted on the knowledge about COVID-19 from 3,388 participants. Frequencies and graphs were used to identify the level and distribution of inequality in knowledge about COVID-19. Concentration curves and concentration indices were further used to assess and quantify the income- and education-related inequality in knowledge about COVID-19. Results: The level of COVID-19 knowledge was high among the surveyed sample, although the extent of knowledge varied. The findings further suggest the existence of socioeconomic inequality in obtaining proper knowledge about COVID-19, indicating that inequality in comprehensive knowledge is disproportionately concentrated among the wealthy (concentration index = 0.016; P < 0.001) and highly educated individuals (concentration index = 0.003; P = 0.029) in Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: There is inequality in the level of knowledge about COVID-19 among the more socioeconomically privileged population of Saudi Arabia. Given that COVID-19 cases ebb and flow in different waves, it is important that proper policies be put in place that will help in improving knowledge among the lower income and less educated individuals, leading to behavior that can help reduce transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1489-1496, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with chronic conditions such as cancer, kidney disease, lung disease, diabetes, dementia, obesity, and heart conditions are at elevated risk of developing severe complications, and are thus at greater risk of death due to COVID-19. The COVID-19 vaccine is an effective measure to manage the pandemic as it prevents severe illness and death. Nevertheless, many people are hesitant to receive the COVID-19 vaccine due to fear of its side effects. The aim of this study was to identify the risk and protective factors of accepting COVID-19 vaccination among Saudi Arabian people with chronic diseases. METHODS: This study extracted data from an online cross-sectional self-reported questionnaire conducted on the acceptability of a COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi Arabia in December 2020. The study included a sample of 521 adults who self-reported that they had chronic diseases. Multivariable regression analyses were employed to identify the factors associated with accepting COVID-19 vaccination in Saudi Arabia. The estimates were adjusted for confounding variables, including socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: Among the sampled participants of Saudi adults with chronic diseases, approximately 52% indicated that they were willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Participants had higher willingness to accept the vaccine if they received the seasonal influenza vaccination in the past [odds ratio (OR): 2.179; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.222-3.888], reported high or very high levels of concern about contracting COVID-19 (OR: 2.426; 95% CI: 1.209-4.867), or believed in mandatory COVID-19 vaccination (OR: 84.848; 95% CI: 37.651-191.207). Participants had lower willingness to be vaccinated if they had a history of vaccine refusal (OR: 0.211; 95% CI: 0.088-0.504). Among the socio-demographic factors, being male (OR: 2.153; 95% CI: 1.007-4.603), having a postgraduate degree (OR: 2.408; 95% CI: 0.985-5.886), and being unemployed (OR: 2.780; 95% CI: 0.876-8.827) were associated with an increased willingness of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrate that willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among Saudi Arabian adults with chronic conditions is low. Therefore, further policy measures are required to manage COVID-19-related infections and the death toll.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Vaccination
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488602

ABSTRACT

Health care workers (HCWs) working in different health care facilities are exposed to many hazards, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence, pattern, and risk factors of occupational health hazards faced by 438 randomly selected HCWs from northern Saudi Arabia. The HCWs are commonly exposed to needle stick injuries (34.5%) under the biological hazards category; and work-related stress (69.6%) under the non-biological hazards categories. The significant associated factors were work setting (ref: Primary Health Center: Adjusted OR (AOR) = 2.81, 95%CI = 1.21-4.59, p = 0.017), smoking status (ref.: non-smoker: AOR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.03-2.91, p = 0.039), and mean sleeping duration per day (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.04-1.43, p = 0.014) for biological, and smoking status (ref: non-smoker: AOR = 2.16, 95%CI = 1.09-3.29, p = 0.028), and mean sleeping duration per day (AOR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.07-1.70, p = 0.013) for non-biological categories. This study revealed several risk factors and occupational health hazards that HCWs are exposed to during their work time. Periodic training and follow-up assessments regarding bio-safety measures for the HCWs should be implemented. Finally, future explorative studies are warranted on the feasibility of implementing rotation-based postings for the HCWs in different health care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488594

ABSTRACT

Substantial changes in life dynamics resulting from the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could have an impact on the quality of life (QoL) of mothers of children with and without disabilities. This study compared the quality of life (QoL) of mothers of children with disabilities (MCD) to the QoL of mothers of children without disabilities (CON) in Saudi Arabia during COVID-19 lockdown. It explored mothers' concerns and the type of support they need during the quarantine. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted during the lockdown. An online questionnaire was distributed to mothers raising children with and without disabilities in Saudi Arabia. A total of 340 mothers participated in the study by completing the survey: 93 MCD and 247 CON. The QoL of MCD and CON was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Furthermore, detailed information was provided by the mothers regarding their needs and concerns during the lockdown. The results of the study revealed that the overall QoL was significantly higher in the CON group, compared to the MCD group, during the COVID-19 lockdown. The social well-being and environmental well-being reported by MCD were significantly lower on the total scale of the WHOQOL-BREF than those reported by the CON group. The comparison between the two groups revealed significant differences in the support required by mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a higher percentage of MCD needed emotional and psychological support, especially from family members. The major concerns reported by MCD were the deterioration of their children's medical conditions and the lack of medical supplies during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Children , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1487, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments around the world to impose strict hygiene and national lockdown measures, which in turn has changed the dietary and lifestyle habits of the world's population. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate whether dietary and physical activity behaviors of Saudi Arabia's adult population changed during the COVID-19 quarantine. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire which assessed changes in body weight, dietary habits, and physical activity of Saudi Arabia's adult population (n = 2255) during the COVID-19 quarantine was distributed on social media between June and July 2020. To test the differences between changes in dietary and physical activity behaviors in relation to changes in body weight a Chi-square test was used. RESULTS: Over 40 and 45% of participants reported eating and snacking more, respectively, which led to weight gain in around 28%. Most participants reported that they consumed home-cooked (73%) and healthy meals (47%), while only 7% reported that they consumed foods from restaurants. Feelings of boredom and emptiness (44%) and the availability of time for preparing meals (40%) were the main reasons for changing dietary habits. Honey (43%) and vitamin C (50%) were the most consumed immune-boosting food and dietary supplement, respectively. COVID-19 also had a negative impact on physical activity, lowering the practice in 52% subjects, which was associated with significant weight gain (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Assessing the changes to the population's dietary habits and physical activity during the lockdown will help predict the outcome of the population's future health and wellbeing after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Close patient contact is an essential component of clinical dental education, which can expose students and faculty to risk of COVID-19 and its sequelae. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted among faculty and clinical students at an academic dental hospital in Al Madinah western Saudi Arabia. An online questionnaire was distributed to collect data on prevalence, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and long-term health and socioeconomic complications of COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Prevalence of COVID-19 was 19.6% among a total of 316 students and faculty. Participants cited family and friends as the primary source of infection (40.3%). Among cross-infection control practices, they cited failure to practice distancing as the primary reason for infection transmission (61.3%). The disease was symptomatic in 85.5% of infected personnel. Most frequently reported clinical manifestations were: fever, cough, malaise, and diarrhoea (74.1%, 56.5%, 40.3%, 32.3%, respectively). A proportion of 37.1% of infected personnel stated that they had long COVID-19, and 58.3% of infected students reported deteriorated academic achievement. CONCLUSIONS: One in five of clinical dental students and their faculty had COVID-19. Most cases were symptomatic, and a large proportion developed long COVID or adverse socioeconomic consequences. Regardless of the severity of symptoms encountered during the acute stage of COVID-19 infection, all infected dental healthcare personnel should be followed, especially those who report long COVID. Continuous follow-up and assistance for infected students may be warranted to mitigate the potential academic and mental drawbacks caused by the pandemic. Dental schools should adopt clear policies regarding COVID-19 transmission and prevention and should implement them in their infection-control education and training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257904, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468162

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic cautionary measures have affected the daily life of people around the globe. Further, understanding the complete lifestyle behaviors profile can help healthcare providers in designing effective interventions and assessing overall health impact on risk of disease development. Thus, this study aims to assess the complete spectrum of lifestyle behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, distress, social support, dietary habits, and smoking) prevalence and its association with fear of COVID-19 in people living in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Self-administered survey consisted of seven sections was used to collect data on fear of COVID-19 using Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), physical activity and sedentary behavior using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), psychosocial distress using Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), social support using the MOS social support survey, and dietary habits using a short version of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The online survey was distributed via social media platforms during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic (May-June 2020). Each section consisted of validated questionnaire examining one of aforementioned lifestyle behaviors. Associations were analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 669 individuals attempted to complete the online survey, 554 participants completed at least 2 sections of the survey (82.8%), and 41.3% (n = 276) completed the whole online survey. The majority of the sample were female (83%), not smokers (86.5%), had sufficient sleep duration (7.5 hrs ± 2.1), and only indicated mild level of distress (21.4 ± 8.9); they also reported high level of sedentary behavior (7.7 hrs ± 4.5), poor sleep quality (5.4 ± 2.4), were not engaged in healthy eating habits, and moderate level of perceived social support (62.0% ± 27). Only physical activity results indicated that about half of the sample were engaged in moderate to vigorous level of physical activity (54.3%). Further, being female (ß = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.45, 2.94) and married (ß = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.3, 2.63) were associated with fear of COVID-19 level (ß = 0.21; 95% IC: 0.05, 0.19) with a confidence interval level of 95%. In addition, distress was associated with fear. CONCLUSION: The trend of lifestyle behaviors measured during lockdown period changed from previously published rates. Future research needs to establish the short-term and long-term effect of lifestyle behaviors complete profile on physical and mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Life Style , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1567-1570, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461377

ABSTRACT

The emerging of the COVID-19 pandemic is currently challenging for the public health system globally. Beyond SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity, co-infections with recycling respiratory pathogens, whether bacterial, viral, or fungal, might increase disease symptoms, morbidity, and mortality. In this study, we reported two COVID-19 cases in the early phase of the virus spread in Saudi Arabia with underdiagnosed respiratory viruses' co-infections, influenza B and Parainfluenza-2, detected retrospectively. Fortunately, both patients recovered and were discharged home. Underestimation of co-infection among COVID19 patients might lead to hospital stay prolongation and increases morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is crucial to consider and screen for co-infecting pathogens among COVID-19 patients and those with risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
15.
Saudi Med J ; 42(10): 1083-1094, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456564

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics for 224 of in-hospital coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality cases. This study's clinical implications provide insight into the significant death indicators among COVID-19 patients and the outbreak burden on the healthcare system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS: A multi-center retrospective cross-sectional study conducted among all COVID-19 mortality cases admitted to 15 Armed Forces hospitals across KSA, from March to July 2020. Demographic data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, and complications of COVID-19 mortality cases were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age was 69.66±14.68 years, and 142 (63.4%) of the cases were male. Overall, 30% of the COVID-19 mortalities occurred in the first 24 hours of hospital admission, while 50% occurred on day 10. The most prevalent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (DM, 73.7%), followed by hypertension (HTN, 69.6%). Logistic regression for risk factors in all mortality cases revealed that direct mortality cases from COVID-19 were more likely to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR]: 1.75, confidence intervel [CI: 0.89-3.43]; p=0.102) and acute kidney injury (OR: 1.01, CI: [0.54-1.90]; p=0.960). CONCLUSION: Aging, male gender and the high prevalence of the underlying diseases such as, DM and HTN were a significant death indicators among COVID-19 mortality cases in KSA. Increases in serum ferritin, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer levels can be used as indicators of disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
16.
Saudi Med J ; 42(10): 1095-1102, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of home isolation on feelings and behaviors of children aged 6-14 years during COVID-19 pandemic in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and August 2020 in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. A snowball sampling was applied, parents with children aged 6-14 years participated in this survey (N=361). questionnaires were distributed electronically. RESULTS: Four out of ten children reported severe psychological impact on feelings (41.3%), while a majority of the children demonstrated mild psychological impact on behavior (74.8%). Age was associated with risk of psychological impact on behavior (OR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.35-16.18). Being male was associated with risk of psychological impact on feelings (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 0.67-6.43), and behavior (OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 0.42-6.00). Living in a small house or without an outside play area was associated with risk of psychological impact on feelings and behaviors. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that children experienced mild-to-severe psychological impact on behaviors and feelings during home isolation during COVID-19 pandemic. Priority should be given to boys, older age, children of low-income families, living in small houses and those without outside play areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Patient Isolation , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450808

ABSTRACT

Background: A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the relationship between previous MERS-CoV and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. Methods: Starting in March 2020, we prospectively followed two groups of individuals who tested negative for COVID-19 infection. The first group had a previously confirmed MERS-CoV infection, which was compared to a control group of MERS-negative individuals. The studied cohort was then followed until November 2020 to track evidence of contracting COVID-19 infection. Findings: A total of 82 (24%) MERS-positive and 260 (31%) MERS-negative individuals had COVID-19 infection. Patients in the MERS-positive group had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than those in the MERS-negative group (Risk ratio [RR] 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.522-0.929; p =0.014). The risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in the MERS-positive group was significantly higher (RR 4.036, 95% CI 1.705-9.555; p =0.002). The case fatality rate (CFR) from COVID-19 was 4.9% in the MERS-positive group and 1.2% in the MERS-negative group (p =0.038). The MERS-positive group had a higher risk of death than the MERS-negative group (RR 6.222, 95% CI 1.342-28.839; p =0.019). However, the risk of mortality was similar between the two groups when death was adjusted for age (p =0.068) and age and sex (p =0.057). After controlling for all the independent variables, only healthcare worker occupation and >1 comorbidity were independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interpretation: Individuals with previous MERS-CoV infection can exhibit a cross-reactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study demonstrated that patients with MERS-CoV infection had higher risks of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death than MERS-negative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Reactions/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 693159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441154

ABSTRACT

Background: In the face of the contemporary COVID-19 pandemic, health service providers have emerged as the most at-risk individuals who are likely to contract the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Aim: To measure the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) during COVID outbreak among health workers in Saudi Arabia using FiRST and LFESSQ tool. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional methodology to explore the prevalence of Fibromyalgia among health workers at different health care settings in Saudi Arabia. The assessment of the prevalence of fibromyalgia among health worker was determined by using the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) and London Fibromyalgia Epidemiological Study Screening Questionnaire (LFESSQ) questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Results: The sample size included 992 participants. The prevalence of fibromyalgia using FiRST and LFESSQ was 12.6 and 19.8%, respectively. In this study, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was higher in females when compared to males. Most of the respondents have Vitamin D deficiency. The relationship of fibromyalgia was significantly associated with the participants who worked during an outbreak, who covered COVID-19 inpatient, covered in-hospital on call and in area quarantine. Conclusion: The study's findings demonstrate that the prevalence of Fibromyalgia among health service providers during the current COVID-19 pandemic is considerably higher and that there are potential interventions that may be employed to mitigate the prevalence of the infection during the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibromyalgia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fibromyalgia/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Information on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in women and children in Madinah has been limited. The current study aimed to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity among women and children at Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 579 participants were recruited between January and April 2021 from Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Data concerning age, sex (for children), blood group, and height and weight (for women) were collected from the hospital database. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike (anti-S) IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Over 58% of children (n = 195), including 60% of children ≤ 1 year (n = 75), and 50.2% (n = 124) of women were SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG seropositive. Significantly higher anti-S IgG levels were observed in children than in women (0.78 ± 1.05 vs. 0.65 ± 0.98, p = 0.008). Compared with women, children had higher odds of high SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG levels (odds ratio: 1.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.97; p = 0.041). No significant associations were observed for anti-S IgG levels with age in women or children or with body mass index among women. CONCLUSION: Non-reported COVID-19 infections were more prevalent among children than women, and non-reported COVID-19 infections children represent a viral transmission risk; therefore, increased screening, especially among school-aged children, may represent an important COVID-19 preventive control measure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pregnancy , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
20.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 6638443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438137

ABSTRACT

Background. Lack of knowledge about appropriate handwashing practices has caused great concerns for human health, especially in the risk of many communicable diseases. The objective of the current study is to determine the level of handwashing knowledge, attitudes, and practices among school students in Eastern Province Schools, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was recruited from November 2019 to March 2020 to assess the level of the students' handwashing knowledge. A reliable questionnaire was prepared (Cronbach's alpha = 0.608) and conducted using a two-stage sampling technique. A total of 271 students participated in the study from primary, middle, and high schools; 80% were boys, most of whom displayed an acceptable level of knowledge on hand hygiene. Nearly 75% and 74% of boys and girls, respectively, gained knowledge about hand hygiene practices from their parents. Only 46% of the students thought that handwashing is a potential protective measure against diseases, whereas 34% thought it only removes dirt. Prevalence of handwashing with soap after using the toilet was recognized among 52% of the students. Additionally, 93% of the students used water and soap to wash their hands (p value < 0.001) and 97% suggested that soap and water are the best methods to wash their hands (p value < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between the mother's education and hand hygiene practices (p value = 0.044). Results collectively indicated that handwashing knowledge and practices among school students in the Eastern Province are acceptable interventions in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Indeed, further improvement conducted through specific health education programs to emphasize the role of handwashing in health hygiene is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Schools , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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