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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 280-286, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic that endanger the health and enforced social distancing for the whole world. Social distancing may generate stress, anxiety, and depression. Understanding the psychosocial consequences of COVID19 during social distancing may help decision-makers to take suitable decisions that help in increasing awareness. Evaluate the psychosocial consequences of COVID-19 pandemic during the social distancing period and explore the relationship between social media use and psychological stress during COVID-19 outbreak among Najran city population. Research design is descriptive correlational research design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A snowball sampling technique, was used to recruit participants live in Najran city during the COVID-19 pandemic (1508 participant). RESULTS: A statistically significant differences (P<0.05) are observed between Saudi and non-Saudi participants in all social aspects assessed except for time spent on social media. In addition, a high mean of depression, stress, and anxiety subscale scores are observed in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants with statistically significant differences (p=0.000). As well as high DASS-21 total scores in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants. Also, there are positive statistically significant correlations (≤0.05) between participants' time spent in social media and their depression, stress, anxiety, and total DASS scores during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that COVID-19 pandemic generates stress, anxiety and depression among Najran population especially, non-Saudi. This poor psychological condition is exaggerated with prolonged social media use. COVID-19 also has negative impact on social wellbeing and use of social media cannot replace direct contact with friends. The current study results may be utilized to formulate interventions that enhance psychosocial health and resilience during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cities , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 751, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: A physical therapist may become infected while treating a patient since they are in direct contact with them or within a two-meter radius. In addition, physical therapists may feel that they are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection when applying rehabilitation practices, which often involve direct contact with patients. The physical therapist were surveyed on their level of anxiety and depression due to the Coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). METHODS: The physical therapists were asked to complete two reliable and validated scales, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), to identify the presence of anxiety and depression in the participants. In addition, logistic regression models were used to determine the general characteristics of anxiety or depression. RESULTS: Among the 117 physical therapists who completed and participated in the study, 74 (63%) and 65 (55.5%) physical therapists reported having symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. The prevalence of overall anxiety levels was higher; mild (OR = 2.09; P = 0.08), moderate (OR = 2.26; P = 0.15), and severe levels six times as high (OR = 6.28; P = 0.1) in females compared to male physical therapists. Females, younger age, unmarried individuals, not having children, and not living with family showed a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. Binary logistic regression analysis also revealed that the female gender, a single individual, and having no children were associated with anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of physical therapists reported symptoms of anxiety and depression, especially among females, younger age, single individuals, not having children, and not living with family. Thus, the mental health of physical therapists is suggested to be constantly and cautiously monitored, especially for those at high risk of developing psychological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology
3.
Acta Biomed ; 93(5): e2022250, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091391

ABSTRACT

AIM: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and perceived job stress among physical therapists (PTs) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was adopted; 300 PTs working within the KSA were randomly selected, and the KAP questionnaire was distributed through email using a Google form during the first quarter of 2022. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information, KAP, and perceived stress level at the job. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. RESULTS: Most PTs are knowledgeable about the management of COVID-19 patients, where their overall correct response to the items of the knowledge-related questionnaire was 87%. Most PTs had positive attitudes toward successful control of COVID-19 (83%) and took necessary precautions, such as frequent handwashing (97.2%) and adherence to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) guidelines (91.5%) during practice. The overall job stress level of the PTs was 'Moderate' (76.5%). This study showed a significant association between the level of job stress experienced by the PTs and selected demographic variables. CONCLUSION: PTs have adequate knowledge, exhibit a positive attitude and adhere to CDC guidelines while managing patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most PTs are prone to moderate job stress while managing patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, and appropriate strategies must be devised to alleviate their job stress and improve their efficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Physical Therapists , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Occupational Stress/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276183, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination of masses against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical to overcome the pandemic and restore normalcy. However, vaccine refusal and hesitancy prevail in many countries. COVID-19 has rapidly spread in Saudi Arabia since 2020. The acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccines has been investigated in adults aged >18 years in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to understand the acceptance and hesitancy of parents to vaccinate children aged <12 years against COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia and identify strategies that can encourage their engagement. METHODS: We used an online cross-sectional survey distributed to parents who lived in all regions of Saudi Arabia to investigate parents' views on the acceptability of a future COVID-19 vaccine for their children aged <12 years. Five hundred parents living in Saudi Arabia completed the survey. RESULTS: The survey indicated that mothers were more enthusiastic about participating in the study than fathers. The participant aged 37.31 ± 8.52 years. A total of 38.6% of participants refused to vaccinate their children. Additionally, 56% were unsure if the vaccine would cause serious side effects in children. A total of 48.8% of parents believed that the Pfizer vaccine was suitable for children, while 64.5% failed to decide whether to administer vaccines to their children. CONCLUSION: Vaccine hesitancy remains a major problem worldwide. A lack of scientific evidence on vaccine efficacy, low education level, and reduced level of health education and promotion are the most common factors in parents in Saudi Arabia. However, some participants agreed to receive vaccines only to protect their family members, and due to governmental rules and school mandates. Therefore, vaccine efficacy and safety in children must be clearly communicated to the public. This information would aid in reducing the hesitancy of parents to vaccinate their children against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Parents , Vaccination
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274816, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079737

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The sudden shutdown caused by coronavirus disease 2019 has far-reaching effects, including on education and training. For this reason, traditional education and training have shifted to an online learning format. This study explores the challenges of and barriers to e-learning experienced by trainers and training coordinators in the Saudi Ministry of Health during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was distributed among participants by email. The sample included 262 trainers and training coordinators currently working for the Saudi Ministry of Health in hospitals, primary health care centers, and training centers (including general directorates of regions and clusters) in all 13 administrative regions of the country. RESULTS: Most participants exhibited an intermediate level of experience with e-learning (58.4%) and found the task of adapting to unfamiliar technology to be a challenge (22.1%). Limited social interaction in relation to cheating/plagiarism contexts, frequent technological failures, and a lack of policies or standards for e-learning were significant barriers for participants; these were mentioned by 46.9%, 43.5%, and 40.1% of participants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the challenges and barriers encountered in the adoption of e-learning by trainers and training coordinators in the Saudi Ministry of Health. The challenges of and barriers to e-learning included but were not limited to communication, assessment of trainees, adaptation to a lack of policy, and frequent technology failure. Adapting to new technologies is challenging for trainers and training coordinators, which is exacerbated by a lack of adequate policies and standards to eliminate cheating and avoid technological failures. These results could help bridge gaps in the use of e-learning by improving policies, holding workshops and training sessions, and providing continuous information technology support in e-learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer-Assisted Instruction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071459

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a few studies used accelerometers to assess physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in the family context. This study aimed to assess children and parents' moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time, as well as their relationship in MVPA and sedentary time. Data were collected from 30 parent-child dyads during the COVID-pandemic for seven days, using a hip-worn accelerometer. Children and parents engaged in 65.6 and 34.6 min/day in MVPA and 442.2 and 427.9 min/day sedentary, respectively. There was no evidence of gender difference in MVPA and sedentary between boys and girls. Male parent spent more time in MVPA than female parents. A total of 50% of children and 53.3% of parents met the recommended PA. Children's MVPA and sedentary time were both correlated with that of their parents. Adjusted linear regression showed that only child MVPA was negatively associated with their parents' MVPA. There is evidence that multi-level interventions involving parents and children are more effective than interventions focusing on a single group. This study also provides evidence to support the link between MVPA and sedentary time between parents and children. Generalization of the findings is difficult due to the bias of self-selection sample.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Exercise , Schools , Accelerometry
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071429

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the present study is to examine the impact of job stress, role ambiguity, work-life imbalance and burnout on employee turnover intention. Moreover, the mediating role of burnout between job stress, role ambiguity, work-life imbalance and turnover intention is also examined. The data collection for this quantitative research was conducted through the "Questionnaire" technique. The questionnaire was developed based on previously established questions available in the literature. The data were collected using simple random sampling from the healthcare workers of KSA. From the distributed questionnaire, 73.5% of the usable questionnaires were returned. This study used SPSS and PLS for the analysis of the data to highlight the most significant variables that impact the employees' turnover intentions among KSA health workers. The findings show that job burnout is clearly related to turnover intentions and is positively affected by both role stress and role ambiguity. Moreover, a statistically positive association is found between work-life imbalance and burnout among the healthcare workers in KSA. Furthermore, the mediating role of burnout is also confirmed in this study. The study also indicates that role ambiguity and role stress due to COVID-19 may create burnout among employees, which may lead to turnover intention among healthcare workers. There is a lack of research on the assessment of the impact of the novel COVID-19-related job stress, role ambiguity and work-life imbalance on the medical staff's turnover intentions in hospitals. This study fills the gap of the limited studies conducted regarding the identification of the factors that can create turnover intention among healthcare workers of KSA by providing empirical evidence from a Gulf country, Saudi Arabia. This study provides managerial implications for hospital management and health policymakers to develop a strategy to retain the employees. Furthermore, healthcare administrators need to pay close attention to front line workers' turnover intentions as these medical heroes are the vital part of our society who assist patients to receive their initial treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Humans , Personnel Turnover , Intention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(17): 6084-6089, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare outbreaks, especially infectious disease pandemics, often stretch the healthcare systems to its limits. Healthcare systems have no option other than being supported by the participation of young and motivated healthcare providers (HCPs) in their undergraduate medical studies during their prevention and control internship program during the outbreak. Understanding key motivation factors influencing HCPs are vital to ensure their effective participation in such situations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 410 undergraduate medical students at Qassim University in Saudi Arabia with the aim to describe the motivation factors that affect their willingness to volunteer during a pandemic. An online survey questionnaire was conducted. RESULTS: 410 participants of which 239 (58.29%) were female, 108 (26.34%) were in their third academic year and 129 (31.46%) were between 21-22 years of age. More than 70% of participants showed willingness to volunteer during a pandemic. Their willingness to volunteer was motivated by distance of workplace to home, availability of transportation, being vaccinated, access to health care for self and family if affected, and provision of specialized training. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare administrators and policy makers need to address these factors effectively to ensure the availability of skilled and motivated healthcare providers during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Students, Medical , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Volunteers
9.
Rev Diabet Stud ; 18(3): 152-156, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated glycemic control among T1DM pediatric patients attending the endocrinology pediatrics clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) prior to and during COVID-19 restraining regulations. In addition, we assessed the trends and variations in the incidence of T1DM during 2017-2021, including the COVID-19 years by identifying newly diagnosed patients presenting to pediatrics emergency department (ED) in KFHU. METHODS: To estimate the effect of COVID-19 on the incidence of T1DM, we identified newly diagnosed cases of T1DM among pediatric patients attending the ED during the years 2017- 2021. The participants' data were collected through electronic medical records. Information collected included patient age, sex, and HbA1c readings. Three HbA1c readings of interest that were defined and collected are pre-COVID reading, in-COVID reading, and post-COVID reading. RESULTS: The difference of female participants' readings was statistically non-significant (Z= -0.416, p = 0.678), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.70 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.15), and 10.50 (Q1= 8.80, Q3= 12.35), respectively. In contrast, the difference was statistically significant among male participants (Z= -2.334, p = 0.02), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.20 (Q1= 8.70, Q3= 11.80), and 10.65 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.70), respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in HbA1c of persons > 11 years old (Z= -2.471, p= 0.013), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.40 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.10), and 10.90 (Q1= 9.00, Q3= 12.60), respectively. Conversely, persons ≤ 11 years old showed no statistically significant change in HbA1c (Z= -.457, p= 0.648), with a pre- and post-COVID median of 10.45 (Q1= 8.70, Q3= 11.85), and 10.20 (Q1= 8.40, Q3= 12.075), respectively. Disregarding any influence of time, the effect of sex showed no statistically significant difference in HbA1c between males and females [F (1,125) = 0.008, p = 0.930]. Meanwhile, the age effect on HbA1c, regardless of time influence, was statistically significant [F (1,125) = 4.993, p = 0.027]. There was no statistically significant interaction between time and sex on HbA1c levels [F (1.74, 217) = 0.096, p = 0.883] and between age and time [F (3.92,289.57) = 1.693, p = 0.190]. CONCLUSIONS: The number of visits to healthcare facilities dropped significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the rate of newly diagnosed T1DM increased. There was a variable effect on HbA1c levels of those patients, which suggests that each demographic group in the population might have been affected differently by the pandemic. Future research should determine factors associated with better glycemic control and measures to sustain these changes the pandemic might have created.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Child , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Incidence , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Glycemic Control , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals, Teaching
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30799, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people worldwide, of which 5% required intensive care, especially mechanical ventilation. The prognosis depends on several factors including comorbidities. This study was conducted to identify the comorbidities associated with the intensive care unit (ICU) admission in elderly with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary academic hospital. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at KSUMC including all hospitalized patients (age ≥ 65 years) with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection admitted between March 2020 and August 2021. Data collection included sociodemographic characteristics, underlying comorbidities, and the Charlson comorbidity index. Comorbidities were compared between the elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU and those not admitted to the ICU. The odds ratios were calculated and a P value of < .05 and 95% confidence intervals were used to report the statistical significance A total of 444 patients (ICU = 147, non-ICU = 297) were included in the study. The study revealed that elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU had a higher rate of mortality (n = 64, 67.4%; P < .0001) and a higher proportion of them had shortness of breath (n = 97, 38.3%; P = .007) compared to the elderly patients not admitted to ICU. The mean length of stay (P < .0001), and weight (P = .02) among ICU patients were higher than the values for the non-ICU group, while the mean oxygen saturation (SpO2; P = .006) was lower among the ICU group. The comorbidities that demonstrated a statistically significant association with ICU admission were heart failure (P = .004, odd ratio (OR) = 2.02, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.263, 3540]), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; P = .027, OR = 3.361, 95% CI [1.080, 10.464]), and chronic kidney disease (P = .021, OR = 1.807, 95% CI [1.087, 3.006]). The current study identified that the comorbidities such as COPD, heart failure, and factors like SpO2 and length of stay are associated with an increased risk of ICU admission in elderly patients with COVID-19. These findings highlight the clinical implications of comorbidity among geriatric population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Failure/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043713

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to evaluate the possible correlations between sleep quality and dietary habits in a population of Saudi during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exactly 444 adults completed a web-based cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire. Results indicate a significant difference between body mass index (BMI) and bad sleep quality. Smoking is linked to bad sleep quality. Both genders affected by coronavirus had a substantially bad quality compared to non-affected. An association between the degree of craving for sugar and bad sleep quality was found. In addition, there was a statistical difference between males and females who crave sugar very often in bad sleep quality. The result of sleep latency in males was 35.83%, who suffered from a severe sleep disorder, while 41.18% were female. The sleep duration was 65.00%, and 53.90% of males and females slept between 6 and 7 h per day. Sleep efficiency, measured according to the Pittsburgh questionnaire protocol, was measured in percentages, where a value of less than 65.00% is considered the lowest sleep efficiency. Females had a lower sleep efficiency of 25.49% compared to males (13.33%). These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.03). In conclusion, quality and sleep duration were impaired during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the observed changes were associated with diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sleep , Sleep Quality , Sugars
12.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033072

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of Dietary Supplements (DSs) has increased for health promotion purposes. Few data records were found on the safe use of DSs among university students in Saudi Arabia, during COVID-19. This study aimed to assess the perceptions and patterns of DSs during COVID-19 among students at a selected female university. (2) Methods: A descriptive cross-section design was used. A convenient sample of undergraduate students (n = 651) were recruited via email, to fill in an online validated questionnaire: The nutrition and intake of DSs during COVID-19. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. (3) Results: Among the 509 students who did not have chronic diseases, 85% of them had taken DSs. About 35.5% of the students had not changed their dietary habits since the beginning of COVID-19, but 78.6% thought that they needed to improve their immunity by taking DSs. Half of the students 51.2% believed that healthy habits may reduce the chance of being infected with COVID-19. The most used DSs were vitamin C (84.3%), followed by honey (65.3%), and vitamin D (47.7%). At the top of students' references for DSs was personal judgment or previous knowledge of the benefits (27.3%). (4) Conclusion: The usage and patterns of DSs were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Taking DSs without a doctor's prescription may lead to several complications. DSs users should be educated effectively about the proper use of DSs as an external supplementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ascorbic Acid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Students , Vitamin D , Vitamins
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033054

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Empathy is an important attribute of a healthy doctor-patient relationship. Although multiple studies have assessed empathy in different countries, little is known about its levels among Saudi residents and its association with perceived stress. Objectives: To assess the levels of empathy and to identify if there is an association with stress in general and across the demographic and training characteristics of residents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was carried out from December 2020 to March 2021 among residents training at a tertiary academic center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Empathy and perceived stress were measured using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results: A total of 229 residents participated. The mean JSE score was 105.25 ± 15.35. The mean JSE scores were significantly higher among residents training in pediatrics (mean difference (MD) = 17.35, p < 0.001), family medicine (MD = 12.24, p = 0.007), and medical specialties (MD = 11.11, p = 0.012) when compared with surgical specialties and anesthesia. In addition, residents who worked 1-4 on-calls per month had a higher mean JSE score (MD = 11.23, p = 0.028) compared with those who worked 7 or more on-calls. Lastly, no correlation between empathy and perceived stress was detected in the whole sample (r = -0.007, p = 0.913); however, there was a correlation among residents training in medical specialties (r = -0.245, p = 0.025). Conclusion: Residents in our study had empathy levels comparable with Asian but lower than Western residents. We recommend qualitative studies that explore potential factors that might affect empathy among residents and studying the association between empathy and perceived stress among medical residents. Postgraduate curricula should incorporate interventions that foster a more empathetic doctor-patient relationship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Empathy , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Physician-Patient Relations , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
14.
Saudi Med J ; 43(9): 1000-1006, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the seroprevalence of the community-acquired bacterial that causes atypical pneumonia among confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) patients. METHODS: In this cohort study, we retrospectively investigated the seroprevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila among randomly selected 189 confirmed COVID-19 patients at their time of hospital presentation via commercial immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against these bacteria. We also carried out quantitative measurements of procalcitonin in patients' serum. RESULTS: The seropositivity for L. pneumophila was 12.6%, with significant distribution among patientsolder than 50 years (χ2 test, p=0.009), while those of M. pneumoniae was 6.3% and C. pneumoniae was 2.1%, indicating an overall co-infection rate of 21% among COVID-19 patients. No significant difference (χ2 test, p=0.628) in the distribution of bacterial co-infections existed between male and female patients. Procalcitonin positivity was confirmed amongst 5% of co-infected patients. CONCLUSION: Our study documented the seroprevalence of community-acquired bacteria co-infection among COVID-19 patients. In this study, procalcitonin was an inconclusive biomarker for non-severe bacterial co-infections among COVID-19 patients. Consideration and proper detection of community-acquired bacterial co-infection may minimize misdiagnosis during the current pandemic and positively reflect disease management and prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5956-5962, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the manuscript was to measure the levels of psychological stress, both acute and post-traumatic in the Saudi Arabian population during the situation resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among people of Saudi Arabia (SA) to measure levels of psychological stress, both acute and post-traumatic during the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected from five regions in SA using validated questionnaires including Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and Impact of Events Scale (IES) through social media channels from March 2021 to January 2022. RESULTS: The total number of participants was 1,560. Most of participants (60.2%) were females. Around 53.6% of the sample were aged between 16-24 years old. The majority of participants (87.3%) was Saudi national. About 82% of participants was from Eastern (40.1%) and Western (42.2%) regions, followed by those from Central, Northern, and Southern. More than 60% of them had a college degree or above. The mean K 10 score was 28.33 for the sample which was above the cut-off of 25, implying significant levels of acute stress in the sample. IES values showed a mean of 28.19, well above the cut-off of significant Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms (24). K-10 and IES scores revealed that about 76.7% of the participants suffered from significant acute stress and 59.1% suffered from symptoms of PTSD during the COVID-19 era. CONCLUSIONS: The nationwide study emphasizes the fact that the Saudi population was found to be extremely stressed and traumatized during the COVID-19 pandemic era and calls for effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
16.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604885, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023040

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Quarantine-related loneliness has impacted university students during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to evaluate loneliness among female university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the pandemic and to investigate its correlation with depression. Methods: A sample of 753 female students was collected during the first COVID-19 summer vacation outbreak through a cross-sectional survey that consisted of two parts: 1) Sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19 related questions; 2) The eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-8) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results: Most participants were between 18 and 22 years old (75.2%) and were studying at humanities college (61.50%). Loneliness and depression were reported among 63.3% and 41.1% of female students, respectively, and the correlation between them was significantly positive (beta = 0.419, p < 0.001). Having a previous history of a psychiatric condition and families with insufficient monthly income were the main associated factors with high levels of loneliness and depression. Conclusion: Female university students experienced loneliness and depression under quarantine during the first COVID-19 summer vacation outbreak. Psychosocial intervention for the vulnerable groups is essential, as are longitudinal studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 942381, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022966

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Co-infection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue may coexist, as both viruses share similar laboratory and clinical features, making diagnosis and treatment challenging for health care professionals to prescribe, negatively impacting patient prognosis, and outcomes. Results and discussions: Both cases were positive for PCR and X-ray laboratory investigation at clinical examination, confirming COVID-19 and dengue co-infection, admission, and better management in referral hospitals are presented and discussed. The timeline provides detailed cases of situational analysis and the medical actions taken, as well as the outcomes. Conclusion: Both co-infection cases' (patients) health conditions had a poor prognosis and diagnosis and ended with undesired outcomes. Scaling up dual mosquito-vector linked viral diseases surveillance in understanding the transmission dynamics, early diagnosis, and the timely and safe monitoring of case management in clinical and hospital settings nationwide is paramount in curbing preventable co-infections and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Dengue , Animals , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1649, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021263

ABSTRACT

Severe procedures were undertaken globally because of the COVID-19 pandemic to overcome the spread of the disease and to prevent catastrophic results affecting the health care system including social distancing, lockdowns, and quarantines. Despite the widely known health benefits of Ramadan fasting, there was a general concern regarding the lifestyle of people during Ramadan 2020 that accompanied the period of COVID-19 pandemic and the home confinement applied. The main objective for the current cross-sectional investigation was to investigate the influence of Covid-19 lockdown during Ramadan fasting on weight change on 481 participants in Saudi Arabia. Identifying the contributing risk factors to weight gain were also addressed. Around 42% of the participants had gained weight and around 38% of the participants had lost weight. Physical activity level was shown to be considered as a protective factor against weight gain (OR = 1.03 with P = 0.008), while increasing the number of meals and not adapting healthy cooking methods can both be considered as contributing factors to weight gain (OR = 1.03 with P = 0.009, and OR = 1.03 with P = 0.004, respectively). Assessing these changes during Ramadan of COVID-19 quarantine provided valuable perspective on the health and wellbeing of Saudi Arabia citizens. These findings should be considered in future studies to explore the persistence of Covid-19 related weight status and habit change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Habits , Humans , Islam , Life Style , Pandemics/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Weight Gain
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Suppl_1): i70-i76, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review AMR in Saudi Arabia and initiatives addressing it. Identifying areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize a further rise in AMR within Saudi Arabia and improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National AMR initiatives, antibiotic use and prescribing, and availability of susceptibility data, particularly for the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines commonly used locally for specific CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) were also reviewed, plus local antibiotic availability. Insights from a clinician in Saudi Arabia were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: Various initiatives are underway in Saudi Arabia, including a National Action Plan for AMR, which was published in 2017. However, AMR is rising and knowledge about appropriate antibiotic use seems to be lacking among physicians and the general public. Various international guidelines are utilized by clinicians in Saudi Arabia, but a more standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections in Saudi Arabia could make management guideline use more locally relevant for clinicians. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
20.
Radiography (Lond) ; 28(4): 1087-1092, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004440

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Radiologic technologists (RTs) are among the healthcare staff negatively impacted by job dissatisfaction, occupational stress, and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess job satisfaction, lifestyle behaviors, occupational burnout symptoms, and associated factors among RTs in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A survey study was conducted from January 2021 to February 2022 using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire gathered socio-demographic information, answers to the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, lifestyle behaviors, and frequency of occupational burnout symptoms. Data were analyzed to obtain descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: A total of 261 RTs completed the survey. Participants were predominantly male and most were working in public hospitals. The overall mean score for job satisfaction was 3.77 (of 5), indicating moderate job satisfaction, with two items showing low satisfaction- compensation (3.33) and advancement (3.28). The overall mean score for lifestyle behaviors was 2.00 (of 3), indicating moderate lifestyle behaviors, with the lowest scores reported in sleep quality (1.92), healthy diet (1.85), and relaxing and unwinding (1.86). For burnout symptoms, the overall mean score was 2.30, indicating moderate burnout level, with the highest score reported in experiencing physical symptoms (2.72). There were significant relationships between job satisfaction, lifestyle behaviors and burnout symptoms. A positive and moderate relationship, r = 0.53 (p < 0.05), was found between job satisfaction and healthy lifestyle behaviors. The burnout relationships with job satisfaction, r = -0.615 (p < 0.05), and healthy lifestyle behaviors, r = -0.524 (p < 0.05), were negative and moderate relationships CONCLUSION: The interrelationships between job satisfaction, lifestyle behaviors, and occupational burnout symptoms suggest that improving lifestyle behaviors and managing burnout symptoms could contribute to higher job satisfaction. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Policymakers should focus their efforts in the workplace health promotion programs to play essential roles in promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors and occupational stress management, as well as, improvements of RTs career advancement and compensation.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Life Style , Male , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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