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2.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 57(2): 317-329, 2023 Apr.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328207

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks due to parasites can occur in various parts of the world and in different periods. These outbreaks can be caused by water and food, as well as by human-to-human or vector-borne transmission. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis were among the pathogens that affected most people in water-borne outbreaks occurred in the world between 2010-2014. The chlorine resistance of both Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. leads to the widespread detection of these parasites in waterborne outbreaks. These two protozoans cause self-limiting watery diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals, but they can also cause chronic disease in certain situations. Apart from this, parasites such as Cyclospora spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii can also cause foodborne outbreaks. In Türkiye, outbreaks related to these parasites have emerged with the neglect of the notification. Some parasites transmitted from person to person can also pose a threat to public health in certain periods. Head lice, the most common examples of such parasites, can cause outbreaks in certain periods. Another example for human-induced parasitic outbreaks is scabies. There has been an increase in scabies rates in the world and in Türkiye, especially due to the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the first period of the pandemic, it was thought that due to the curfew restrictions, family members spending time at home might have led to an increase in the rate of scabies. On the other hand, as a result of the disruption of services due to COVID-19, the cases of malaria, a vector-borne disease, and the resulting deaths increased in 2020 compared to 2019 in the world. Although only imported malaria cases are detected in Türkiye today, there is a potential for an outbreak to occur at any time due to the presence of malaria vectors. An outbreak of imported malaria occurred in Mardin in 2012 due to a lorry driver entering the country from an endemic region. Immigrants that reside in Türkiye pose a risk for some infectious diseases due to the circumstances during migration or the conditions in their living areas. Leishmaniasis, which maintains its importance in the Mediterranean region, is another vector-borne disease and can be detected in Türkiye, especially in regions where immigrants reside. Bed bug infestations, which have increased recently, also closely affect the provision of health services. It is important to implement regular inspections in regions with outbreak potential, and to ensure the continuity of hygiene conditions and health services to prevent a possible outbreak. In case of an outbreak, different centers should cooperate, health authorities and academics should act together, patients and their contacts should be identified quickly and necessary precautions should be taken, the society should be informed and the outbreak should be taken under control in a short time. In this review article, outbreaks caused by parasites were examined under four headings as water, food, human and vector/arthropod-borne and examples from the world and Türkiye were given for these outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Parasites , Scabies , Animals , Humans , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Water/parasitology
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(3): e0011207, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) based on two doses of ivermectin, one week apart, substantially reduces prevalence of both scabies and impetigo. The Regimens of Ivermectin for Scabies Elimination (RISE) trial assessed whether one-dose ivermectin-based MDA would be as effective. METHODS: RISE was a cluster-randomised trial in Solomon Islands. We assigned 20 villages in a 1:1 ratio to one- or two-dose ivermectin-based MDA. We planned to test whether the impact of one dose on scabies prevalence at 12 and 24 months was non-inferior to two, at a 5% non-inferiority margin. RESULTS: We deferred endpoint assessment to 21 months due to COVID-19. We enrolled 5239 participants in 20 villages at baseline and 3369 at 21 months from an estimated population of 5500. At baseline scabies prevalence was similar in the two arms (one-dose 17·2%; two-dose 13·2%). At 21 months, there was no reduction in scabies prevalence (one-dose 18·7%; two-dose 13·4%), and the confidence interval around the difference included values substantially greater than 5%. There was however a reduction in prevalence among those who had been present at the baseline assessment (one-dose 15·9%; two-dose 10·8%). Additionally, we found a reduction in both scabies severity and impetigo prevalence in both arms, to a similar degree. CONCLUSIONS: There was no indication of an overall decline in scabies prevalence in either arm. The reduction in scabies prevalence in those present at baseline suggests that the unexpectedly high influx of people into the trial villages, likely related to the COVID-19 pandemic, may have compromised the effectiveness of the MDA. Despite the lack of effect there are important lessons to be learnt from this trial about conducting MDA for scabies in high prevalence settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618001086257.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Impetigo , Scabies , Humans , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Scabies/drug therapy , Scabies/epidemiology , Scabies/prevention & control , Mass Drug Administration , Impetigo/drug therapy , Impetigo/epidemiology , Impetigo/prevention & control , Pandemics , Australia , COVID-19/epidemiology
4.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 39(5): 737-739, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937986

ABSTRACT

The influence of the nationwide lockdown orders during the COVID-19 pandemic on the transmission of scabies and lice remains unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing UNC patient registry i2b2 to investigate monthly cases and prescriptions for scabies and lice in adult and pediatric patients in North Carolina. There were significant decreases in the cases and prescriptions for scabies and lice in the pediatric and adult populations. These results provide early insights on how COVID-19 pandemic lockdown orders affected the prevalence of these two conditions and suggest that physical distancing measures reduce transmission of these parasitic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insecticides , Lice Infestations , Phthiraptera , Scabies , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ivermectin , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Lice Infestations/prevention & control , Pandemics , Permethrin , Scabies/epidemiology , Scabies/prevention & control
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268865, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933294

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several Public Health Services and general practitioners in the Netherlands observed an increase in scabies in the Netherlands. Since individual cases of scabies are not notifiable in the Netherlands, the epidemiological situation is mostly unknown. To investigate the scabies incidence in the Netherlands, we described the epidemiology of scabies between 2011 and 2021. METHODS: Two national data sources were analysed descriptively. One data source obtained incidence data of scabies (per 1,000 persons) of persons consulting in primary care from 2011-2020. The other data source captured the number of prescribed scabicides in the Netherlands from 2011-2021. To describe the correlation between the incidence of diagnoses and the number of dispensations between 2011 and 2020, we calculated a correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The incidence of reported scabies has increased by more than threefold the last decade (2011-2020), mainly affecting adolescents and (young) adults. This was also clearly reflected in the fivefold increase in dispensations of scabicide medication during 2011-2021. The incidence and dispensations were at an all-time high in 2021. We found a strong correlation between the reported incidence and the number of dispensations between 2011 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: More awareness on early diagnosis, proper treatment and treatment of close contacts is needed.


Subject(s)
Acaricides , General Practitioners , Scabies , Acaricides/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Incidence , Netherlands/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Scabies/epidemiology
7.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(10): e760-e761, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895991
8.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(2): 802-808, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an increase in the incidence of scabies in Turkey, which started before the Covid-19 pandemic, and this situation is considered as an epidemic. With this study, we aimed to reveal the prevalence of scabies during the pandemic period and the risk factors that are effective in the transmission of scabies. METHODS: Our study was performed as a cross-sectional study in 376 patients who applied to our dermatology outpatient clinic between 1st and 30th April 2021. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, living space, health behavior, and health care utilization of the patients were questioned. RESULTS: The prevalence of scabies was determined as 10.9%. Features such as sex, area of residence, age, formal education status, employment status, total income, number of shower, number of people per room, water source, and heating method, which were found to be significant as a result of the double test, were included in the logistic regression analysis. Scabies was found 2.728 times (CI 1.325-5.557) more in those who live in rural areas than those who live in urban areas, 2.714 times (CI 1.365-5.451) more in men than women, 2.707 times (CI 1.256-5.833) more in nonworking than working, 2.354 times (CI 1.057-5.243) more in those with less than 9 showers per month than those with 9 or more showers per month. CONCLUSION: During the Covid-19 pandemic period, the prevalence of scabies in Turkey is increasing and it is becoming a serious health problem. Our study emphasizes this increase and determines the risk factors for transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Scabies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Scabies/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology
9.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(7): 1368-1369, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853670
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 68(1): 35-38, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771929

ABSTRACT

Scabies is a highly contagious, parasitic infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. There are some reports which claim the incidence of scabies has increased during COVID-19 lockdown. In this study, we aimed to compare the prevalence of scabies between March to September 2020 - the first six months of the COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey - and March to September 2019 - the same period in the previous year. Case number percentages were compared month-over-month and by total numbers for each specified period. Pearson's chi-squared test was the comparison tool used. We checked the records of 36,469 patients who were admitted to Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Medicine, Dermatology Department, a tertiary healthcare center, between March and September 2019, and out of this number, 258 patients had been diagnosed with scabies. The overall scabies case percentage was 0.71% and the range of monthly prevalence was 0.57%-0.83%. During the corresponding period in 2020, 26,219 dermatology patients were admitted, and 465 of those patients were diagnosed with scabies. The overall scabies case percentage was 1.77% and the range of monthly prevalence was 1.37%-3.46%. Scabies prevalence percentages were statistically significantly higher in all months and in the overall total in 2020 (P<0.001). Our nine patients, who admitted in 2020, did not respond to permethrin treatment but responded well to an ivermectin and permethrin combination. Scabies incidence has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic according to our study. We believe there may be an underreported resistance to permethrin and that starting treatment with oral ivermectin in combination with topical permethrin in extraordinary times, such as a pandemic, may help to control outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insecticides , Scabies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Permethrin/therapeutic use , Scabies/drug therapy , Scabies/epidemiology
13.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(2): 274, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688545

ABSTRACT

Null.


Subject(s)
Ivermectin , Scabies , Humans
14.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(5): 867-872, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdowns and physical distancing have dramatically limited the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 and other common communicable infections. However, little is known about their impact on head lice and scabies. AIM: To assess the impact of the 2020 French National lockdowns (17 March-11 May 2020, and 30 October-15 December 2020) and physical distancing recommendations (from February 2020) on the dynamics of head lice and scabies infestations. METHODS: The weekly sales of topical head lice treatments, topical scabies treatments and oral ivermectin were extracted from the database of the healthcare science company IQVIA (60% of all French retail pharmacies) and analysed over a 5-year period (March 2016-December 2020). A periodic regression model was fitted to drug sales before the COVID-19 period (2016-2019) and extrapolated to compare the observed sales in 2020 to the expected sales. RESULTS: A decrease of the sales of tracer topical treatments for head lice and scabies was observed from March 2020, synchronously with the first French national lockdown. For the period March-December 2020, the mean reduction in observed vs. expected sales for head lice and scabies topical treatments was 44% and 14%, respectively. By contrast, although there was an observed decrease in oral ivermectin sales after March 2020, it was much lower (4%), probably because of studies reporting the potential positive effects of this drug on COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 lockdown and physical distancing reduce circulation of head lice and scabies in France. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term impact of these social behaviour changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lice Infestations , Pediculus , Scabies , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lice Infestations/drug therapy , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Scabies/drug therapy , Scabies/epidemiology , Scabies/prevention & control
16.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(3): 190-194, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395155

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the post-pandemic changes in the frequency of scabies and determined the clues that may indicate a possible outbreak of scabies in the future. Methods: All patients diagnosed with scabies in the University of Health Sciences Turkey, Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital and Palandöken State Hospital between January 2019 and September 2020 were evaluated. Results: The frequency of scabies of 1.87% was remarkable in the first quarter of 2020, which corresponds to the pre-pandemic, and >50% (n=442) of all patients with scabies in 2019 (n=769) were encountered only in the first 3 months. The frequency of scabies seen in the first 3 quarters of 2020 was significantly higher than in 2019 (p<0.001). Significant decreases were found in the 0-14 years age groups (infant, preschool and school period) compared to 2019 (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). No significant increase or decrease was determined in the frequency of scabies in 2020 (p=0.205). In addition, an increase in the number and rates of scabies patients are observed after the first month of normalisation period followed by the increase in the number of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) daily cases. Conclusion: Applications for scabies to polyclinics after the pandemic were determined to be too low compared to previous periods, especially in school-age children, and showed an increasing trend over time. Patients with scabies that reach treatment late or not due to the pandemic may cause outbreak aftermath COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Scabies , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Scabies/epidemiology
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