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2.
Br Dent J ; 232(5): 333-338, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740431

ABSTRACT

Introduction The University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) has been used since 2006 by a consortium of UK medical and dental schools to assist in undergraduate selection. In 2019, UCAT was used by 30 universities (14 dental schools).Aim To report how UCAT use has changed in undergraduate student selection in the UK.Methods UCAT use was categorised and trends identified from annual telephone interviews with dental school admission tutors; this process started in 2011.Results Dental schools using UCAT rose from 8 (2006) to 14 (2020). The most significant use of the test to select applicants for interview was as a weighted factor; at offer stage, UCAT was most used to discriminate between applicants at borderlines. A growing number of dental schools are using the Situational Judgement Test (SJT) in selection (2019, n = 6). In 2019, eight schools adjusted selection processes for widening access applicants. Multiple mini interviews are now used by the majority (n = 10) of dental schools.Conclusions UCAT represents a significant factor in selection to UK undergraduate dental programmes and is used by all but two dental schools. In most schools, UCAT contributes in a substantial way to selection outcomes and strength in test use has grown over time.


Subject(s)
Aptitude Tests , School Admission Criteria , Humans , Judgment , United Kingdom , Universities
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e050394, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685582

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Global, COVID-driven restrictions around face-to-face interviews for healthcare student selection have forced admission staff to rapidly adopt adapted online systems before supporting evidence is available. We have developed, what we believe is, the first automated interview grounded in multiple mini-interview (MMI) methodology. This study aimed to explore test-retest reliability, acceptability and usability of the system. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Multimethod feasibility study in Physician Associate programmes from two UK and one US university during 2019-2020. PRIMARY, SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Feasibility measures (test-retest reliability, acceptability and usability) were assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC), descriptive statistics, thematic and content analysis. METHODS: Volunteers took (T1), then repeated (T2), the automated MMI, with a 7-day interval (±2) then completed an evaluation questionnaire. Admission staff participated in focus group discussions. RESULTS: Sixty-two students and seven admission staff participated; 34 students and 4 staff from UK and 28 students and 3 staff from US universities. Good-excellent test-retest reliability was observed at two sites (US and UK2) with T1 and T2 ICC between 0.65 and 0.81 (p<0.001) when assessed by individual total scores (range 80.6-119), station total scores 0.6-0.91, p<0.005 and individual site (≥0.79 p<0.001). Mean test re-test ICC across all three sites was 0.82 p<0.001 (95% CI 0.7 to 0.9). Admission staff reported potential to reduce resource costs and bias through a more objective screening tool for preselection or to replace some MMI stations in a 'hybrid model'. Maintaining human interaction through 'touch points' was considered essential. Users positively evaluated the system, stating it was intuitive with an accessible interface. Concepts chosen for dynamic probing needed to be appropriately tailored. CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings suggest that the system is reliable, generating consistent scores for candidates and is acceptable to end users provided human touchpoints are maintained. Thus, there is evidence for the potential of such an automated system to augment healthcare student selection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feasibility Studies , Health Occupations , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , School Admission Criteria
4.
Am J Nurs ; 122(2): 14, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684815
5.
Br Dent J ; 232(3): 172-176, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683989

ABSTRACT

Aims To determine the current processes used to assess dental school admissions in the UK as well as compare the applicants' demography.Methods All 16 dental schools in the UK were invited to complete a questionnaire analysing the admissions protocols between 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. These data were combined with the admission process information available online. Retrospective data from the University Clinical Aptitude Test including the sociodemographic status of dental applicants were collected. For the six dental schools that did not reply, data presented were collected from information available to the public.Results The majority of applicants were women (63.2% in 2019-2020), white (27.9%) and are sixth form attendees or attend a further education college (40.6%). Of those who apply to study dentistry, 15.5% are graduates who hold a first degree. For each undergraduate dental place available, there were 12.6 applicants and 9.4 applicants to each post-qualified dental undergraduate place.Conclusion Further advancements are required to widen participation and broaden the sociodemographic status of dental applicants. This area would benefit from a long-term prospective study about recruitment methods and its correlation with performance at dental school. COVID-19 is impacting the application process, the full extent of which is yet to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schools, Dental , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , School Admission Criteria , United Kingdom
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e047354, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare in UK medical students the predictive validity of attained A-level grades and teacher-predicted A levels for undergraduate and postgraduate outcomes. Teacher-predicted A-level grades are a plausible proxy for the teacher-estimated grades that replaced UK examinations in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also models the likely future consequences for UK medical schools of replacing public A-level examination grades with teacher-predicted grades. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study using UK Medical Education Database data. SETTING: UK medical education and training. PARTICIPANTS: Dataset 1: 81 202 medical school applicants in 2010-2018 with predicted and attained A-level grades. Dataset 2: 22 150 18-year-old medical school applicants in 2010-2014 with predicted and attained A-level grades, of whom 12 600 had medical school assessment outcomes and 1340 had postgraduate outcomes available. OUTCOME MEASURES: Undergraduate and postgraduate medical examination results in relation to attained and teacher-predicted A-level results. RESULTS: Dataset 1: teacher-predicted grades were accurate for 48.8% of A levels, overpredicted in 44.7% of cases and underpredicted in 6.5% of cases. Dataset 2: undergraduate and postgraduate outcomes correlated significantly better with attained than with teacher-predicted A-level grades. Modelling suggests that using teacher-estimated grades instead of attained grades will mean that 2020 entrants are more likely to underattain compared with previous years, 13% more gaining the equivalent of the lowest performance decile and 16% fewer reaching the equivalent of the current top decile, with knock-on effects for postgraduate training. CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of attained A-level examination grades with teacher-estimated grades as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may result in 2020 medical school entrants having somewhat lower academic performance compared with previous years. Medical schools may need to consider additional teaching for entrants who are struggling or who might need extra support for missed aspects of A-level teaching.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , School Admission Criteria , Schools, Medical , United Kingdom
7.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1891610, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574778

ABSTRACT

Multiple mini-interview (MMI) is a 'multiple sample-based' approach comprising multiple focused encounters intended to access and assess a range of attributes in order to gain more objectively multiple impressions of an applicant's interpersonal skills, thoughtfulness and general demeanour. It is designed to focus on four domains that are not considered to be comprehensive, but are considered to be vital for a successful career in the health sciences: critical thinking, ethical decision making, communication and knowledge of the healthcare system. Traditionally, the MMI is conducted face-to-face, but with COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of social distancing measures, no onsite or campus teaching, banning of mass gatherings and cancellation of face-to-face interviews, Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences at Universiti Brunei Darussalam explored the feasibility of conducting MMI through virtual means. This report provides an account of our experience in conducting internet-MMI for the selection of new applicants into the August 2020 cohort of the Medicine programme. We also aimed to determine whether the scores derived from internet-MMI were reliable and equivalent to the scores derived from traditional MMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interviews as Topic/methods , School Admission Criteria , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Communication , Decision Making , Ethics, Medical , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thinking
9.
Am J Surg ; 222(6): 1085-1092, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466001

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the midst of a pandemic, residency interviews transitioned to a virtual format for the first time. Little is known about the effect this will have on the match process. The study aim is to evaluate resident application processes and perceived outcomes. METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed to 142 colon and rectal surgery residency applicants (95% of total). RESULTS: A total of 77 applicants responded to the survey (54% response rate). Applicants reported high levels of satisfaction with virtual interviews but less comfort. Utilizing the mute button and using notes in a different way from face-to-face interviews were significantly associated with applicant confidence that they ranked the right program highest. A majority of applicants (73%) would recommend virtual interviews next year even if COVID-19 is not a factor. CONCLUSION: While applicants appear generally satisfied with virtual interviews, they also reported less comfort. Applicant confidence was predicted by utilizing the unique technological affordances offered by the virtual platform.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Interviews as Topic/methods , School Admission Criteria , Self Concept , User-Computer Interface , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Pediatr Neurol ; 126: 3-8, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented many challenges for graduate medical education, including the need to quickly implement virtual residency interviews. We investigated how different programs approached these challenges to determine best practices. METHODS: Surveys to solicit perspectives of program directors, program coordinators, and chief residents regarding virtual interviews were designed through an iterative process by two child neurology residency program directors. Surveys were distributed by email in May 2021. Results were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Responses were received from 35 program directors and 34 program coordinators from 76 programs contacted. Compared with the 2019-2020 recruitment season, in 2020-2021, 14 of 35 programs received >10% more applications and most programs interviewed ≥12 applicants per position. Interview days were typically five to six hours long and were often coordinated with pediatrics interviews. Most programs (13/15) utilized virtual social events with residents, but these often did not allow residents to provide quality feedback about applicants. Program directors could adequately assess most applicant qualities but felt that virtual interviews limited their ability to assess applicants' interpersonal communication skills and to showcase special features of their programs. Most respondents felt that a combination of virtual and in-person interviewing should be utilized in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Residency program directors perceived some negative impacts of virtual interviewing on their recruitment efforts but in general felt that virtual interviews adequately replaced in-person interviews for assessing applicants. Most programs felt that virtual interviewing should be utilized in the future.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Graduate , Internship and Residency , Interviews as Topic , Neurology/education , Pediatrics/education , Videoconferencing , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , School Admission Criteria , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e590-e604, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a shift to virtual residency interviews for the 2020-2021 neurosurgery match, with unknown implications for stakeholders. This study seeks to analyze the perceptions of residency program directors (PDs) and associate program directors (APDs) regarding the current virtual format used for residency selection and interviews. METHODS: An anonymous, 30-question survey was constructed and sent to 115 neurosurgery PDs and 26 APDs to assess respondent demographics, factors used to review applicants, perceptions of applicants and applicant engagement, perceptions of standardized letters and interview questions, the effect of the virtual interview format on various stakeholders, and the future outlook for the virtual residency interview format. RESULTS: A total of 38 PDs and APDs completed this survey, constituting a response rate of 27.0%. Survey respondents received significantly more Electronic Residency Application Service applications in the 2020-2021 cycle compared with the 2019-2020 cycle (P = 0.0029). Subinternship performance by home-rotators, (26.3%), letters of recommendation (23.7%), and Step 1 score (18.4%) were ranked as the most important factors for evaluating candidates during the current virtual application cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that applicants applied to a greater number of residency programs compared with years prior, that the criteria used by PDs/APDs to evaluate applicants remained largely consistent compared to previous years, and that the virtual residency interview format may disproportionately disadvantage Doctor of Osteopathic medicine and international medical graduate applicants. Further exploring attitudes toward signaling mechanisms and standardized letters may serve to inform changes to future neurosurgery match cycles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Internship and Residency , Neurosurgery/education , Pandemics , School Admission Criteria/trends , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Med Teach ; 44(1): 87-94, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377938

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Queensland Basic Paediatric Training Network (QBPTN) is the centralised pathway for entry into paediatric training in Queensland, Australia. In response to COVID-19 travel and social distancing restrictions imposed in 2020, QBPTN successfully adopted a Virtual Multiple Mini Interviews (vMMIs) model for the selection of candidates for entry into paediatric training. The authors describe the planning, implementation, challenges, and evaluation of candidates' and interviewers' experiences of vMMIs, including the differences between candidates from two geographical areas. METHODS: The contents of six vMMI stations were similar to face-to-face MMI. Implementation required the identification of ZOOMTM as a preferred online platform, securing venues, communication, development of contingency plans and central coordination by the network. Candidates' experiences with vMMI were explored through thematic analysis of the qualitative data from focus groups and free text responses, and descriptive analysis of SurveyMonkey© questionnaire responses. Experiences between 'metropolitan' and 'regional and interstate' candidates were compared. RESULTS: 5-minute stations with 2-minute pre-reading were used. 78 candidates and 14 interviewers participated in the selection process. All candidates attended the focus group. 58.7% of candidates responded to post vMMI questionnaire. 93% of survey responders were happy to undertake vMMI in the future, with 23% feeling they would have performed better in face-to-face. Experiences between 'metropolitan' and 'other' groups were similar. Positive experiences of participants were related to the user-friendly IT platform, successful pre-interview communications, preparation, convenience, time, and cost savings. Stress related IT failures and difficulties establishing rapport with interviewers were reported as the main negative experiences. CONCLUSION: 'vMMI' is a feasible and acceptable method of selection into paediatric training. vMMI has many benefits and can be implemented relatively quickly by addressing key logistical requirements. The model under discussion could be adapted by other centres based on local needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , School Admission Criteria , Child , Humans , Queensland , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(2): 181-189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354057

ABSTRACT

The tremendous toll that COVID-19 has taken on this country's minority population is the most recent reminder of the health disparities between people of color and people who classify themselves as white. There are many reasons for these disparities, but one that gets less attention than it deserves is the lack of physicians of color available to treat patients of color.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schools, Medical , Cultural Diversity , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , School Admission Criteria , United States
15.
Acad Med ; 97(2): 200-206, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341133

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 physical distancing limited many medical schools' abilities to conduct in-person interviews for the 2020 admissions cycle. The University of Toronto (U of T) Temerty Faculty of Medicine was already in the midst of its interview process, with two-thirds of applicants having completed the in-person modified personal interview (MPI). As the university and surrounding region were shut down, the shift was made in the middle of the application cycle to a semisynchronous video-based MPI interview (vMPI) approach. U of T undertook the development, deployment, and evaluation of the 2 approaches mid-admissions cycle. Existing resources and tools were used to create a tailored interview process with the assistance of applicants. The vMPI was similar in content and process to the MPI: a 4-station interview with each station mapped to attributes relevant to medical school success. Instead of live interviews, applicants recorded 5-minute responses to questions for each station using their own hardware. These responses were later assessed by raters asynchronously. Out of 627 applicants, 232 applicants completed the vMPI. Validity evidence was generated for the vMPI and compared with the MPI on the internal structure, relationship to other variables, and consequential validity, including applicant and interviewer acceptability. Overall, the vMPI demonstrated similar reliability and factor structure to the MPI. As with the MPI, applicant performance was predicted by nonacademic screening tools but not academic measures. Applicants' acceptance of the vMPI was positive. Most interviewers found the vMPI to be acceptable and reported confidence in their ratings. Continuing physical distancing concerns will require multiple options for admissions committees to select medical students. The vMPI is an example of a customized approach that schools can implement and may have advantages for selection beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Future evaluation will examine additional validity evidence for the tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , School Admission Criteria/trends , Schools, Medical/standards , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Ontario , Reproducibility of Results
17.
18.
Br Dent J ; 231(1): 20-25, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303762

ABSTRACT

National recruitment has radically transformed the selection and allocation of dental graduates to dental foundation training (DFT) schemes across England, Wales and Northern Ireland, with recruitment in Scotland via a separate, independent process. It has been reported as a mostly positive change to the previous deanery-led model, in which nepotism allegedly featured too widely. A candidate's ranking is typically based on performance across two face-to-face assessments and a situational judgement test (SJT). The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has created a recruitment 'lottery' of sorts, in which ranking for 2021 is now solely based on the SJT. Subject matter experts assert that neither preparation nor revision for the SJT is required; yet, following the announcement of the adaptation to DFT recruitment for September 2021, a rapid rise of exorbitantly priced SJT question banks, mock papers, workshops and courses has ensued - a shameless monetisation of the collective angst and increased pressure faced by dental students. Preparation courses present a conceivable risk of SJT 'coaching' and 'faking'. Where medicine leads, dentistry usually follows and future selection to DFT needs to strongly consider the introduction of academic performance measures. SJTs remain one of the most well-accepted, reliable and cost-effective means of selection into healthcare roles, however, only when part of a wider selection process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , School Admission Criteria , England , Humans , Judgment , Northern Ireland , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland , Wales
19.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1946237, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287910

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most graduate medical education (GME) training programs conducted virtual interviews for prospective trainees during the 2020-2021 application cycle. Many internal medicine (IM) subspecialty fellowship programs hosted virtual interviews for the first time with little published data to guide best practices.To evaluate how IM subspecialty fellowship applicants perceived the virtual interview day experience.We designed a 38-item questionnaire that was sent via email to applicants in eight IM subspecialty programs at a single tertiary academic medical center (University of California, San Francisco) from September-November, 2020.Seventy-five applicants completed the survey (75/244, 30.7%), including applicants from all eight fellowship programs. Most survey respondents agreed that the length of the virtual interview day (mean = 6.4 hours) was long enough to gather the information they needed (n = 65, 86.7%) and short enough to prevent fatigue (n = 55, 73.3%). Almost all survey respondents agreed that they could adequately assess the clinical experience (n = 71, 97.3%), research opportunities (n = 72, 98.6%), and program culture (n = 68, 93.2%). Of the respondents who attended a virtual educational conference, most agreed it helped to provide a sense of the program's educational culture (n = 20, 66.7%). Areas for improvement were identified, with some survey respondents reporting that the virtual interview day was too long (n = 11) or that they would have preferred to meet more fellows (n = 10).Survey respondents indicated that the virtual interview was an adequate format to learn about fellowship programs. These findings can inform future virtual interviews for GME training programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fellowships and Scholarships , Internal Medicine/education , Interviews as Topic/methods , Students, Medical/psychology , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco , School Admission Criteria
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