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1.
Child Abuse Negl ; 132: 105807, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307662

ABSTRACT

One of the many outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic was a shift in the delivery of elementary (primary) education. Schools transitioned swiftly to e-learning and prioritized education that was already or could be easily adapted to virtual formats. Given the paucity of online content available, it is not likely that child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention education was prioritized. Given that CSA prevention education has demonstrated success in increasing knowledge, protective behaviors, and disclosures, and the potential long-term need for e-learning options, there is a demand for an exploration of how CSA prevention can be implemented using e-learning strategies. In the current discussion, we explore how school-based CSA prevention education could be implemented in a "new normal" context of e-learning. We first present the existing e-learning content for CSA prevention education. We then describe how best practices for prevention education can be applied to e-learning. Finally, we present considerations for the use of e-learning specifically for CSA prevention education. In short, implementing CSA prevention programs through e-learning offers many affordances for program accessibility and reach, flexibility in implementation and opportunities for greater exposure to content, and a wide range of ways to demonstrate effective skills and engage children in cycles of practice and feedback. E-learning, may also, however, limit important conversations between children and trained instructors that lead to disclosures. The extant literature leaves us unsure as to whether implementing CSA prevention programs through e-learning will result in better or worse outcomes for children. However, given the increasing demand for e-learning options, and the promise of some new e-learning programs, further research on the effectiveness of e-learning CSA prevention programs is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse, Sexual , Child , Humans , Pandemics , School Health Services , Schools
2.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284457, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296165

ABSTRACT

In response to a need to implement an evidence-based prevention program, D.A.R.E. America adopted keepin' it REAL. The program was previously developed and tested in middle school settings. As part of its adoption, an elementary version of the program was developed. This study tests the effectiveness of keepin' it REAL when delivered to fifth graders. The intervention was delivered to two cohorts of students, the first in the 2019-2020 school year, the second in the 2020-2021 school year. Pretest surveys were completed by 6,122 students. The COVID-19 pandemic interfered with posttest and follow-up data collection. At immediate posttest, 2,049 students (33.5%) completed analyzable posttest surveys. One year after the pretest, 1,486 (24.3%) students completed usable follow-up surveys. We used algorithmically generated cases (virtual controls) that use treatment cases' pretest psychosocial scores to assess program effectiveness. When compared to virtual control cases, the program had identifiable improvements in both a key psychosocial measure and in terms of deterring the onset of 30-day alcohol use, drunkenness, and vaping. Outcomes suggest that the delivery of elementary school keepin' it REAL by D.A.R.E. officers is having a positive effect in terms of deterring the onset of alcohol use and vaping.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Curriculum , Program Evaluation , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , School Health Services
4.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 236, 2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This article outlines the protocol for a trial to test the effectiveness of a nature-based intervention called Open Sky School to reduce mental health problems among elementary school children. Experimental studies show that contact with nature (e.g. walks in parks) improve mental health. A growing number of teachers have been applying outdoor education within the regular school curriculum and evidence suggests that such teaching methods could improve students' mental health but a randomized controlled trial has never been conducted. METHODS: A two-arm clustered randomized controlled trial will be conducted in elementary schools across Québec, Canada. Following informed consent by teachers, parents and students, schools will be randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention or the control group with a total of 2500 5-6th grade students and 100 teachers expected to participate. The intervention will take place outdoors in a green-space (2 h per week for 12 weeks) and include a toolkit of 30 activities to foster well-being (e.g. mindfulness) and academic competencies (e.g. mathematics). Questionnaires will be administered to teachers and students before, immediately after and 3 months after the intervention. The primary outcome will be reductions of mental health problems in children from pre-to-post test (Social Behavior Questionnaire: self and teacher reports). Secondary outcomes include depression, positive and negative affect, nature connectedness, and pro-environmental behaviors among children. We will explore, immediate benefits on teacher's well-being and positive and negative affect and sustained benefits among students at 3 months follow-up. For the primary outcome, we will explore moderators including child's sex, child's disability status, the green-space of neighbourhoods, the school's socio-economic position and teacher's experience. DISCUSSION: In conducting the first randomized controlled trial of the Open Sky School, our results could provide empirical evidence on the effectiveness of nature-based interventions in reducing mental health problems among elementary school children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov: NCT05662436 on December 22, 2022.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Schools , Humans , Child , Students/psychology , Curriculum , Child Behavior , School Health Services , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Am J Occup Ther ; 77(2)2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276363

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic accelerated the impending youth mental health crisis in the United States, necessitating a comprehensive approach to providing mental health education and interventions. School-based occupational therapy practitioners' scope of practice includes wellness promotion, early detection, and evidence-based interventions for mental health challenges. Given the rise of school-based wellness programs, the growing legislation supporting the formation of such programs, and the burgeoning burden of pediatric mental health concerns, occupational therapy practitioners are uniquely positioned to create and implement interventions to support student access to the general education curriculum and can do so by using both prepandemic funding sources and pandemic response funds. This Health Policy Perspectives column is a call to action to refocus the occupational therapy practitioner's role in school settings to include providing high-quality, evidence-based preventive mental health education and interventions. In this column, we examine prevention-based occupational therapy services in Mason City Schools, Mason, Ohio, as a model of success in the execution of this vision for school-based practice. In addition, we outline the importance of expanding the role of occupational therapy practitioners in schools, which will in turn increase the visibility and relevancy of the profession and broaden its impact on mitigating the youth mental health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Therapy , Adolescent , Humans , Child , United States , COVID-19/prevention & control , Students , Health Promotion , Mental Health , School Health Services
6.
J Sch Health ; 93(5): 428-435, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence links loneliness to poor academic outcomes and poor employment prospects. Schools have been shown to be places that mitigate or aggravate loneliness, suggesting a need to consider how schools can better support youth experiencing loneliness. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review on loneliness in childhood and adolescence to examine the literature on how loneliness changes over the school years and how it influences learning. We also examined whether there were increases in loneliness because of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated school closures, and whether schools can be places for loneliness interventions/prevention. FINDINGS: Studies describe how loneliness becomes more prevalent during the adolescent years and why that is the case. Loneliness is associated with poor academic outcomes and poor health behaviors that impact learning or turn students away from education. Research shows that loneliness increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence suggests that creating positive social classroom environments, where teacher and classmate support are available, is crucial in combatting youth loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptations to the school climate can be made to meet the needs of all students, reducing loneliness. Investigation of the impacts of school-based loneliness prevention/intervention is crucial.


Subject(s)
Learning , Loneliness , School Health Services , Schools , Students , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Loneliness/psychology , Social Environment , Students/psychology , Child , Academic Failure/psychology , Health Policy
7.
Trials ; 24(1): 44, 2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic stress is detrimental to health, and children and young people have had to cope with significantly more stress since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, stress at school and in relation to learning is a major problem in this age group. Studies in Germany have indicated that the pandemic has led to a reduced quality of life (QoL) and an increased risk for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Schools are an ideal setting for interventions against stress, which is one of the strongest predictors for the development of psychosocial problems. The present study seeks to address stress by means of a short prevention training programme in schools, including emotion regulation, mindfulness, and self-compassion. In addition to information material for self-study, students should have the opportunity to actively deal with the topic of stress and develop coping strategies within a short space of time. In contrast to very long stress reduction programmes that often last several weeks, the programme is delivered in just 90 min. METHODS: The effectiveness of the short and economical prevention programme LessStress will be examined in a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) encompassing 1894 students. At several measurement time points, students from two groups (intervention and control) will be asked about their subjectively perceived stress levels, among other aspects. Due to the clustered nature of the data, mainly multilevel analyses will be performed. DISCUSSION: In Germany, there are no nationwide universal prevention programmes for students against stress in schools, and this gap has become more evident since the outbreak of the pandemic. Universal stress prevention in schools may be a starting point to promote resilience. By dealing with stress in a healthy way, mental health can be strengthened and maintained. Moreover, to reach at-risk students at an early stage, we advocate for a stronger networking between child psychiatry and schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00025721 . Registered on November 4, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Child , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health , Schools , Adaptation, Psychological , School Health Services , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
Am J Public Health ; 112(12): 1791-1799, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119227

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the rate of COVID-19 among in-person K-12 educators and the rate's association with various COVID-19 prevention policies in school districts. Methods. We linked actively working, in-person K-12 educators in Wisconsin to COVID-19 cases with onset from September 2 to November 24, 2021. A mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for pertinent person- and community-level confounders, compared the hazard rate of COVID-19 among educators working in districts with and without specific COVID-19 prevention policies. Results. In-person educators working in school districts that required masking for students and staff experienced 19% lower hazards of COVID-19 than did those in districts without any masking policy (hazard ratio = 0.81; 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.92). Reduced COVID-19 hazards were consistent and remained statistically significant when educators were stratified by elementary, middle, and high school environments. Conclusions. In Wisconsin's K-12 school districts, during the fall 2021 academic semester, a policy that required both students and staff to mask was associated with significantly reduced risk of COVID-19 among in-person educators across all grade levels. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(12):1791-1799. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307095).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Wisconsin/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , School Health Services , Schools , Nutrition Policy
9.
N Engl J Med ; 387(21): 1935-1946, 2022 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In February 2022, Massachusetts rescinded a statewide universal masking policy in public schools, and many Massachusetts school districts lifted masking requirements during the subsequent weeks. In the greater Boston area, only two school districts - the Boston and neighboring Chelsea districts - sustained masking requirements through June 2022. The staggered lifting of masking requirements provided an opportunity to examine the effect of universal masking policies on the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in schools. METHODS: We used a difference-in-differences analysis for staggered policy implementation to compare the incidence of Covid-19 among students and staff in school districts in the greater Boston area that lifted masking requirements with the incidence in districts that sustained masking requirements during the 2021-2022 school year. Characteristics of the school districts were also compared. RESULTS: Before the statewide masking policy was rescinded, trends in the incidence of Covid-19 were similar across school districts. During the 15 weeks after the statewide masking policy was rescinded, the lifting of masking requirements was associated with an additional 44.9 cases per 1000 students and staff (95% confidence interval, 32.6 to 57.1), which corresponded to an estimated 11,901 cases and to 29.4% of the cases in all districts during that time. Districts that chose to sustain masking requirements longer tended to have school buildings that were older and in worse condition and to have more students per classroom than districts that chose to lift masking requirements earlier. In addition, these districts had higher percentages of low-income students, students with disabilities, and students who were English-language learners, as well as higher percentages of Black and Latinx students and staff. Our results support universal masking as an important strategy for reducing Covid-19 incidence in schools and loss of in-person school days. As such, we believe that universal masking may be especially useful for mitigating effects of structural racism in schools, including potential deepening of educational inequities. CONCLUSIONS: Among school districts in the greater Boston area, the lifting of masking requirements was associated with an additional 44.9 Covid-19 cases per 1000 students and staff during the 15 weeks after the statewide masking policy was rescinded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Masks , School Health Services , Universal Precautions , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Incidence , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/legislation & jurisprudence , Students/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Masks/statistics & numerical data , School Health Services/legislation & jurisprudence , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Groups/legislation & jurisprudence , Occupational Groups/statistics & numerical data , Universal Precautions/legislation & jurisprudence , Universal Precautions/statistics & numerical data , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065910

ABSTRACT

Child maltreatment is a global public health problem, and school-based universal prevention programs such as the Speak Up Be Safe (SUBS) curriculum can be an effective solution to help address child violence. This randomized control study employed a pre-, post-, and six-month follow-up design for students in kindergarten to grade 8, approximately ages 5-13 (n = 2797). Surveys measured the efficacy of the curriculum in increasing students' knowledge of safety rules and self-protection strategies. The analyses explored the differences at follow-up between the conditions for each index/scale for each grade using an analysis of covariance, which controlled for the pre-survey scores. The SUBS group had significantly higher scores at follow-up than the students in the control group. This study showed that the students learned new knowledge and skills to act upon and identify child abuse and neglect in keeping themselves and others safe. Policy- and decision makers now know that as a child maltreatment prevention program, SUBS can be implemented universally in schools at a low cost, delivering an essential evidence-based safety curriculum that protects students from child maltreatment.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Schools , Adolescent , Child , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Child, Preschool , Curriculum , Humans , Power, Psychological , School Health Services
12.
Implement Sci ; 17(1): 68, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Natural disasters and public health crises can disrupt communities' capacities to implement important public health programs. A nationwide implementation of an evidence-based HIV prevention program, Focus on Youth in The Caribbean (FOYC) and Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together (CImPACT), in The Bahamas was disrupted by Hurricane Dorian and the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in its more remote, Family Islands. We explored the teacher- and school-level factors that affected implementation of the program in these islands during those disruptions. METHODS: Data were collected from 47 Grade 6 teachers and 984 students in 34 government elementary schools during the 2020-2021 school year. Teachers completed a pre-implementation questionnaire to record their characteristics and perceptions that might affect their implementation fidelity and an annual program training workshop. School coordinators and high-performing teachers acting as mentors received additional training to provide teachers with monitoring, feedback, and additional support. Teachers submitted data on their completion of the 9 sessions and 35 core activities of FOYC + CImPACT. The fidelity outcomes were the number of sessions and core activities taught by teachers. RESULTS: On average, teachers taught 60% of sessions and 53% of core activities. Teachers with "very good" school coordinators (34% of teachers) taught more activities than those with "satisfactory" (43%) or no (34%) school coordinator (27.5 vs. 16.8 vs. 14.8, F = 12.86, P < 0.001). Teachers who had attended online training or both online and in-person training taught more sessions (6.1 vs. 6.2 vs. 3.6, F = 4.76, P < 0.01) and more core activities (21.1 vs. 20.8 vs. 12.6, F = 3.35, P < 0.05) than those who received no training. Teachers' implementation was associated with improved student outcomes (preventive reproductive health skills, self-efficacy, and intention). CONCLUSIONS: The Hurricane Dorian and the COVID-19 pandemic greatly disrupted education in The Bahamas Family Islands and affected implementation of FOYC + CImPACT. However, we identified several strategies that supported teachers' implementation following these events. Teacher training and implementation monitoring increased implementation fidelity despite external challenges, and students achieved the desired learning outcomes. These strategies can better support teachers' implementation of school-based interventions during future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Bahamas , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Emergencies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , School Health Services
13.
J Child Sex Abus ; 31(5): 577-592, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991884

ABSTRACT

Universal child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention is a public health priority. The prevailing prevention strategy is school-based CSA prevention programming. School closures during the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for flexible modes of delivery, including virtual programs. This pilot examined the virtual delivery of an evidence-based, school-based CSA prevention program, Safe Touches, designed to teach CSA-related knowledge and concepts. Using mixed methods, the pilot sought to determine the feasibility of the virtually delivered CSA prevention program. One school district that had previously received Safe Touches in-person participated. A total of 176 second grade students participated in the virtual workshop. Post-workshop survey responses from virtual (N = 37) and in-person workshops (N = 60) were compared descriptively. Mean item scores and response patterns from students who received the virtual workshop were nominally comparable to the student scores from the in-person workshop. Following the virtual workshop, one teacher notified the research team of a disclosure of CSA. Qualitative input from the facilitator and school staff was positive, indicating high student engagement. Results suggest the viability and feasibility of virtual school-based CSA preventive programs. Investment in virtual modes of delivery would ensure all students have access to CSA prevention programming in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse, Sexual , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Abuse, Sexual/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , School Health Services
14.
J Sch Health ; 92(11): 1045-1050, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding utilization of school-based health centers (SBHCs) during prolonged school closures, such as those that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to compare SBHC utilization before and after pandemic-related school closures across a network of SBHCs affiliated with a large Southern Californian urban school district. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of encounter data extracted from electronic health records from 12 SBHCs that remained open despite school closures, including patient demographics and diagnostic and billing codes. We used the Clinical Classifications Software Refined to group encounters for common primary care conditions. Utilization before and during pandemic-related school closures was compared using logistic regression with cluster-robust standard errors to account for clustering within clinics, after adjusting for month of encounter. RESULTS: During the pandemic, study SBHCs conducted 52,530 encounters and maintained ∼4040 encounters/month. The frequency of encounters for annual preventative health exams increased for school-aged patients but decreased for other age groups while the frequency of encounters for mental health problems increased for all age groups. IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL HEALTH POLICY, PRACTICE, AND EQUITY: Despite pandemic-related school closures, SBHCs appeared play a critical role in providing primary care to vulnerable communities. CONCLUSIONS: SBHCs may hold value beyond their co-location with academic instruction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , School Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , School Health Services , Schools
15.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 60(7): 4, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924360
16.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 65(7-8): 758-767, 2022 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examines the extent to which schools implement activities on health promotion and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, potential differences with regard to demographic variables, school type, state, and participation in state health promotion initiatives are determined. METHODS: As part of the international COVID Health Literacy Network, an online-based study was conducted from March to April 2021 with 2186 school principals from the German federal states of Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, and North Rhine-Westphalia. The implementation status of COVID-19-related school health promotion was assessed using a self-developed instrument. After examining the factorial structure of the instrument, univariate and bivariate data analyses were performed. RESULTS: Three dimensions of implementing school health promotion can be identified: (1) COVID-19-related support for pupils, (2) health promoting design of teaching, learning, and working conditions, and (3) the principles of Health Promoting Schools. A low level of implementation is observed for aspects of teaching, learning, and working conditions as well as for participation and cooperation with community stakeholders. Significant differences are observed, with female, older, and primary school principals reporting a higher implementation status, while for federal states non-homogenous differences are found. Stratified by participation in state health promotion initiatives, only schools with a certificate in health promotion show a higher level of implementation. DISCUSSION: The results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic is a disruptive event for schools, impeding the implementation of holistic activities on health promotion and prevention. In particular, more attention should be given to the creation of health promoting working conditions, participation, and community cooperation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , School Health Services , Schools
17.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221105998, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874956

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examines how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affecting utilization of medical and behavioral health services through school based health centers (SBHC s). METHODS: We leveraged the electronic health records from one of the largest sponsors of SBHCs in the country, and tested differences in SBHC utilization with chi-square tests one year prior to the pandemic (pre-pandemic: March 2019-February 2020) compared to one year into the pandemic period (March 2020-February 2021). RESULTS: A significant difference in SBHC utilization was found between pre-pandemic and pandemic periods (P <.001). 63.5% of SBHC patients accessed medical services pre-pandemic compared to 51.2% during the pandemic. In contrast, 36.5% of SBHC patients accessed behavioral services pre-pandemic compared to 48.8% during the pandemic, representing a 12.3% increase in SBHC behavioral service utilization since the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: SBHCs may serve as an invaluable means of ensuring youth, particularly those from disadvantaged communities, have access to needed behavioral health services during the current public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , School Health Services , Adolescent , Connecticut/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans
18.
Vaccine ; 40(19): 2802-2809, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The CARD (Comfort Ask Relax Distract) system is a vaccine delivery framework that integrates evidence-based interventions to reduce stress-related responses and improve the vaccination experience for children undergoing vaccinations at school. In preliminary studies, CARD was acceptable and effective. The objective was to evaluate CARD in a large, pragmatic trial to confirm its effectiveness in real-world settings. METHODS: Hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized trial in schools receiving vaccination services from Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health. Forty schools with grade 7 students (12 years old) were randomized to CARD and control (n = 20/group). Nurses in CARD schools planned clinics with principals and educated students about CARD ahead of time. Principals disseminated information to staff and parents and sent reminders. Vaccination day processes minimized fear and facilitated student self-selected coping strategies. Nurses in control schools followed usual practices, which excluded principal meetings, education, reminders, and systematic integration of fear-reducing or child-selected coping strategies. Outcomes included stress-related symptoms (fear - primary outcome, pain, dizziness, fainting, post-vaccination reactions), use of coping interventions, vaccination uptake, attitudes and implementation outcomes (acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity). RESULTS: Altogether, 1919 students were included. Fear and pain were lower in CARD schools: OR 0.65 (95% CI 0.47-0.90) and OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.50-0.77), respectively. No students fainted in CARD schools compared to 0.8% in control (p = 0.02). Dizziness and post-vaccination reactions did not differ. Student-led coping interventions were used more frequently in CARD schools. Vaccination uptake was 76.1% in CARD schools and 72.5% in control schools (OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.85-1.50)). Staff and students had positive attitudes about CARD and implementation outcomes; however, recommendations were made to improve fidelity. DISCUSSION: CARD reduced stress-related responses in students undergoing vaccinations at school and was positively received by students and public health staff. CARD is recommended to improve the quality of vaccination delivery services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03966300.


Subject(s)
Dizziness , Schools , Child , Humans , Pain , School Health Services , Students , Vaccination
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 822155, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776018

ABSTRACT

Background: Many factors can influence health behavior during adolescence, and the lifestyle of adolescents is associated with health behavior during adulthood. Therefore, their behavior can determine not only present, but also later health status. Objective: We aimed to develop an intervention program to improve high school students' health behavior and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods: We performed our study at a secondary school in a rural town in East Hungary between 2016 and 2020. Sessions about healthy lifestyles were organized regularly for the intervention group to improve students' knowledge, to help them acquire the right skills and attitudes, and to shape their behavior accordingly. Data collection was carried out via self-administered, anonymous questionnaires (n = 192; boys = 49.5%; girls = 50.5%; age range: 14-16). To determine the intervention-specific effect, we took into account the differences between baseline and post-intervention status, and between the intervention and control groups using individual follow-up data. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the effectiveness of our health promotion program. Results: Our health promotion program had a positive effect on the students' health-related knowledge and health behavior in the case of unhealthy eating, moderate to vigorous physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that school health promotion can be effective in knowledge transfer and lifestyle modification. To achieve a more positive impact on health behavior, preventive actions must use a complex approach during implementation.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , School Health Services , Adolescent , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Schools
20.
J Sch Health ; 92(5): 436-444, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schools have a long history of delivering health services, but it is unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic may have disrupted this. This study examined changes in school-based health services and student needs before and during the pandemic and the factors important for delivering school-based health services. METHODS: A web-based survey regarding the impact of the pandemic on school-based health services was distributed via email to all 1178 Virginia public elementary schools during May 2021. RESULTS: Responding schools (N = 767, response rate = 65%) reported providing fewer school-based health services during the 2020-2021 school year than before the pandemic, with the largest declines reported for dental screenings (51% vs 15%) and dental services (40% vs 12%). Reports show that mental health was a top concern for students increased from 15% before the pandemic to 27% (P < .001). Support from families and school staff were identified by most respondents (86% and 83%, respectively) as very important for the delivery of school-based health services. CONCLUSIONS: Schools reported delivering fewer health services to students during the 2020-2021 school year and heightened concern about students' mental health. Understanding what schools need to deliver health services can assist state and local education and health officials and promote child health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , School Health Services , Schools , Virginia/epidemiology
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