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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 557-559, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187180

ABSTRACT

During December 3, 2020-January 31, 2021, CDC, in collaboration with the University of Utah Health and Economic Recovery Outreach Project,* Utah Department of Health (UDOH), Salt Lake County Health Department, and one Salt Lake county school district, offered free, in-school, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) saliva testing as part of a transmission investigation of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in elementary school settings. School contacts† of persons with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, including close contacts, were eligible to participate (1). Investigators approached parents or guardians of student contacts by telephone, and during January, using school phone lines to offer in-school specimen collection; the testing procedures were explained in the preferred language of the parent or guardian. Consent for participants was obtained via an electronic form sent by e-mail. Analyses examined participation (i.e., completing in-school specimen collection for SARS-CoV-2 testing) in relation to factors§ that were programmatically important or could influence likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 testing, including race, ethnicity, and SARS-CoV-2 incidence in the community (2). Crude prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using univariate log-binomial regression.¶ This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with federal law and CDC policy.*.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Contact Tracing , Humans , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Utah/epidemiology
2.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(6): 769-777, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856802

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined remote learning practices and difficulties during initial stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Participants were 238 adolescents (132 males; 118 with ADHD) aged 15.64-17.99 years and their parents. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires in May/June 2020 when in-person schools were closed in the U.S. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of families incurred financial costs to support remote learning, and only 59% of school-based services received before COVID-19 continued during COVID-19 remote learning. Adolescents with ADHD had fewer routines and more remote learning difficulties than adolescents without ADHD. Parents of adolescents with ADHD had less confidence in managing remote learning and more difficulties in supporting home learning and home-school communication. Thirty-one percent of parents of adolescents with ADHD with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or receiving academic accommodations (504 Plan) reported remote learning to be very challenging, compared with 18% of parents of adolescents with ADHD without an IEP/504 Plan, and only 4% of parents of adolescents with neither ADHD nor an IEP/504 Plan. Fewer adolescent routines, higher negative affect, and more difficulty concentrating because of COVID-19 were each associated with greater adolescent remote learning difficulties only in adolescents with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial findings of the nature and impact of remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is imperative for schools and communities to provide the necessary supports to adolescents, particularly those with mental health and/or learning difficulties, and to their parents.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Learning , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Education, Distance/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Parents/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E119, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the social needs of low-income households with children during the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our objective was to conduct a cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis of a rapid-response survey among low-income households with children on social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, and diet-related behaviors. METHODS: We distributed an electronic survey in April 2020 to 16,435 families in 4 geographic areas, and 1,048 responded. The survey asked families enrolled in a coordinated school-based nutrition program about their social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, food insecurity, and diet-related behaviors during the pandemic. An open-ended question asked about their greatest concern. We calculated descriptive statistics stratified by location and race/ethnicity. We used thematic analysis and an inductive approach to examine the open-ended comments. RESULTS: More than 80% of survey respondents were familiar with COVID-19 and were concerned about infection. Overall, 76.3% reported concerns about financial stability, 42.5% about employment, 69.4% about food availability, 31.0% about housing stability, and 35.9% about health care access. Overall, 93.5% of respondents reported being food insecure, a 22-percentage-point increase since fall 2019. Also, 41.4% reported a decrease in fruit and vegetable intake because of COVID-19. Frequency of grocery shopping decreased and food pantry usage increased. Qualitative assessment identified 4 main themes: 1) fear of contracting COVID-19, 2) disruption of employment status, 3) financial hardship, and 4) exacerbated food insecurity. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the compounding effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on households with children across the spectrum of social needs.


Subject(s)
Economics/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply , Needs Assessment , Poverty , Social Determinants of Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet Surveys , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Family Characteristics , Female , Food Supply/methods , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Male , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poverty/economics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042867, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine any change in referral patterns and outcomes in children (0-18) referred for child protection medical examination (CPME) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study, analysing routinely collected clinical data from CPME reports in a rapid response to the pandemic lockdown. SETTING: Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, which provides all routine CPME for Birmingham, England, population 1.1 million including 288 000 children. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged under 18 years attending CPME during an 18-week period from late February to late June during the years 2018-2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of referrals, source of disclosure and outcomes from CPME. RESULTS: There were 78 CPME referrals in 2018, 75 in 2019 and 47 in 2020, this was a 39.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 59.0%) reduction in referrals from 2018 to 2020, and a 37.3% (95% CI 8.6% to 57.4%) reduction from 2019 to 2020. There were fewer CPME referrals initiated by school staff in 2020, 12 (26%) compared with 36 (47%) and 38 (52%) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In all years 75.9% of children were known to social care prior to CPME, and 94% of CPME concluded that there were significant safeguarding concerns. CONCLUSIONS: School closure due to COVID-19 may have harmed children as child abuse has remained hidden. There needs to be either mandatory attendance at schools in future or viable alternatives found. There may be a significant increase in safeguarding referrals when schools fully reopen as children disclose the abuse they have experienced at home.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Child Protective Services , Child Welfare , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Protective Services/methods , Child Protective Services/statistics & numerical data , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Child Welfare/trends , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Social Work/methods , Social Work/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(11): 807-816, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures have occurred globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, empiric data on transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children and in educational settings are scarce. In Australia, most schools have remained open during the first epidemic wave, albeit with reduced student physical attendance at the epidemic peak. We examined SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children and staff in schools and early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW). METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed paediatric (aged ≤18 years) and adult COVID-19 cases who attended a school or ECEC setting while considered infectious (defined as 24 h before symptom onset based on national guidelines during the study period) in NSW from Jan 25 to April 10, 2020, were investigated for onward transmission. All identified school and ECEC settings close contacts were required to home quarantine for 14 days, and were monitored and offered SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing if symptomatic. Enhanced investigations in selected educational settings included nucleic acid testing and SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing in symptomatic and asymptomatic contacts. Secondary attack rates were calculated and compared with state-wide COVID-19 rates. FINDINGS: 15 schools and ten ECEC settings had children (n=12) or adults (n=15) attend while infectious, with 1448 contacts monitored. Of these, 633 (43·7%) of 1448 had nucleic acid testing, or antibody testing, or both, with 18 secondary cases identified (attack rate 1·2%). Five secondary cases (three children; two adults) were identified (attack rate 0·5%; 5/914) in three schools. No secondary transmission occurred in nine of ten ECEC settings among 497 contacts. However, one outbreak in an ECEC setting involved transmission to six adults and seven children (attack rate 35·1%; 13/37). Across all settings, five (28·0%) of 18 secondary infections were asymptomatic (three infants [all aged 1 year], one adolescent [age 15 years], and one adult). INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates were low in NSW educational settings during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave, consistent with mild infrequent disease in the 1·8 million child population. With effective case-contact testing and epidemic management strategies and associated small numbers of attendances while infected, children and teachers did not contribute significantly to COVID-19 transmission via attendance in educational settings. These findings could be used to inform modelling and public health policy regarding school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: NSW Government Department of Health.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine , School Health Services , Adolescent , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Population , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , School Health Services/organization & administration , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data
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