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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0261114, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793548

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19-pandemic forced many countries to close schools abruptly in the spring of 2020. These school closures and the subsequent period of distance learning has led to concerns about increasing inequality in education, as children from lower-educated and poorer families have less access to (additional) resources at home. This study analyzes differences in declines in learning gains in primary education in the Netherlands for reading, spelling and math, using rich data on standardized test scores and register data on student and parental background for almost 300,000 unique students. The results show large inequalities in the learning loss based on parental education and parental income, on top of already existing inequalities. The results call for a national focus on interventions specifically targeting vulnerable students.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/trends , Socioeconomic Factors/history , Teaching/trends , Academic Failure/trends , Academic Success , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Educational Status , History, 21st Century , Humans , Income , Learning , Netherlands , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , School Teachers , Schools/trends , Students
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 804546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785435

ABSTRACT

Background: According to the theory of emotional contagion, emotions in one person can trigger similar emotions in groups within social networks. In schools, the class just like a small social network, that teachers' emotion, such as depression, might be contagious to their students. However, until now there is few studies reporting this issue. This study aims to explore whether teachers' depression be contagious to students and what mechanics behind the phenomenon. Methods: Using Children's depression and cognitive scales to assess 2,579 students, meanwhile using teachers' depression and emotional labor scales assess 529 teachers. The nested data from 112 classes were analyzed. Results: Teachers' depression was positively correlated with emotional labor surface and deep acting, and teachers' depression cross-level predicted students' depression inversely. For teachers with higher levels of depression, the teacher's deep acting affected their students' depression significantly, the more effortful the teachers' deep acting, the lower the degree of the students' depression, however, for teachers with lower levels of depression, the deep acting was not significant. Conclusion: The results maybe state that depression in teachers is not readily transmitted to students, one of reasons is that teachers' emotional labor may alleviate the influence of their depression on students. However, considered that teachers' emotional labor was positively correlated with their depression, the teachers' emotional labor may be like a double-edged sword, while alleviating the influence of teachers' depression on students, it also deteriorated their own depression, making it impossible sustainable. For students' depression interventions based in school, including teachers maybe a better selection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Child , Humans , School Teachers/psychology , Schools , Students/psychology
3.
Workplace Health Saf ; 70(4): 180-187, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785130

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Teaching is a stressful occupation due to high-stake job demands and limited resources, which were exacerbated during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study assessed the prevalence of perceived stress and explored its predictors among elementary school teachers employed at schools serving predominantly low-income populations in five cities in the United States. METHOD: Our study analyzed the data among selected schools that were collected through the Brighter Bites teacher survey which comprised items measuring sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, perceived general health, food insecurity, and concerns regarding social determinants of health needs. The predictors of perceived stress were examined using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with schools as the random variable. FINDINGS: A total of 685 teachers were included in the analysis (84.9% female, 38.1% Hispanic, 57.6% <5 years of teaching experience). Most (85.4%) of the teachers stated they were stressed "sometimes"/"often." Results from adjusted GLMM showed that teachers who were food insecure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.33, confidence interval [CI]: [1.63, 3.35]), those who had concerns regarding financial stability (2.68 [1.91, 3.75]), food availability (1.69 [1.15, 2.48]), food affordability (2.27 [1.57, 3.28]), availability/affordability of housing (2.21 [1.33, 3.67]), access to childcare (1.76 [1.06, 2.92]), and access to a clinic/doctor (1.60 [1.10, 2.33]) were at significantly greater odds of reporting perceived stress. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: Our study demonstrates the heightened impact of COVID-19 on the mental well-being of teachers across a wide range of social needs. Stress management and additional social service programs are suggested to support teachers to mitigate pandemic impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , School Teachers , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715333

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has dramatically affected the mental health and work environment of the educational sector. Our primary aim was to investigate preschool teachers' psychological distress and work engagement during the COVID-19 outbreak, while examining the possible protective role of participating in a mindfulness-based intervention geared to foster compassion (Call2Care-Israel for Teachers; C2C-IT) and emotion regulation. The prevalence of emotional distress, work engagement, and COVID-19 concerns were evaluated in 165 preschool teachers in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in Israel through questionnaires. The findings showed that preschool teachers experienced increased emotional distress. Teachers who had participated in the C2C-IT intervention six months before the pandemic outbreak (N = 41) reported lower emotional distress, higher use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, and higher work engagement, compared to their counterparts that had not participated in the intervention (N = 124). Emotion regulation strategies mediated the link between participating in CTC-IT intervention and emotional distress and work engagement. Teaching is a highly demanding occupation, especially during a pandemic, thus making it important to invest resources in empowering this population. The findings here suggest that the implementation of a mindfulness-based intervention during the school year can enhance teachers' well-being, even during stressful events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Mindfulness , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers/psychology , Work Engagement
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690260

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the relationships between COVID-19-related psychological distress, social media addiction, COVID-19-related burnout, and depression. The research, which was designed according to the relational survey model, was conducted with the participation of 332 school principals and teachers who received graduate education in the field of educational administration. Research data were collected through online surveys and then structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test and analyze the proposed hypotheses. The study's findings revealed that COVID-19-related psychological distress strongly predicted COVID-19-related burnout. In this context, as the psychological distress associated with COVID-19 increased, the sense of burnout associated with COVID-19 also increased. However, it was found that burnout associated with COVID-19 significantly and positively predicted depression. SEM results revealed that COVID-19-related psychological distress directly affected COVID-19-related burnout, depression, and social media addiction. In addition, it was determined that an indirect effect of COVID-19-related burnout and social media addiction exists in the relationship between COVID-19-related psychological distress and depression.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder , Latent Class Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers/psychology , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Work ; 71(2): 407-415, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Teachers have had to deal with many of the negative aspects of COVID-19 over the past year. The demands associated with the sudden requirement to teach remotely, and later having to manage hybrid (both in person and online) learning may be having adverse effects on the mental and physical health of teachers. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether COVID-19 continued to impact teacher stress, burnout, and well-being a year into the pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was sent out to 5300 teachers in public and private schools, and 703 completed the survey. RESULTS: Stress and burnout continue to be high for teachers, with 72% of teachers feeling very or extremely stressed, and 57% feel very or extremely burned out. Many teachers struggled to have a satisfactory work-family balance (37% never or almost never; 20% only has sometimes). CONCLUSION: School systems must start to deal with the mental and physical health of teachers before a large number of them leave the profession.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers
7.
Work ; 71(1): 53-64, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Torn between the decision to return to school classrooms or continue holding online classes during COVID-19, teachers around the world feel great uncertainty. OBJECTIVE: Bearing in mind that the study of mental health during the pandemic is of great importance for vulnerable categories, and given the role of teachers in society, the aim of this research is to assess teachers' concerns and anxiety before the start of the school year, and also to examine the factors related to them and propose measures in line with the results. METHODS: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study before the start of the 2020/2021 school year. The research sample consisted of 286 teachers. For the purposes of this research, a special questionnaire was constructed consisting of a general questionnaire and a Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7). RESULTS: The strongest predictor of a teacher's answer that they were concerned about the reopening of schools was their concern for their own life and health and for the life and health of their family members, followed by the amount of information received about COVID-19, and, finally, older age. Only 2% of teachers had mild anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This research indicated that it is necessary to examine in more detail the degree of teachers' concern and its impact on their functionality and work process. It is also necessary to repeat the research on the mental health status of teachers and implement procedures in the form of a regular screening program of the mental health status of teachers or implement procedures of support in concern management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools
8.
Sch Psychol ; 37(1): 62-74, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585969

ABSTRACT

The present cross-sectional study aimed to (a) expand our understanding of the role of risk and resilience factors for adolescent adjustment during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and (b) examine personal resilience, peer and teacher-student relationships as protective factors against mental health difficulties. A total of 3,662 students from 4th to 11th grades in Urumchi, China completed a survey in June 2020. Urumchi is an ethnically diverse city, with nearly 40% of the population in this school district being ethnic minority students. The schools of Urumchi closed in February 2020 and reopened in April 2020. The results of latent moderated structural equation modeling suggested that peer victimization was associated with greater mental health difficulties in students. Personal resilience and teacher-student relationships were promotive factors for better mental health and also served as a buffer from the negative effect of peer victimization on mental health. The results also showed divergent patterns for elementary versus secondary school students as well as gender differences. Implications for how schools can support students during COVID-19 were discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers/psychology , Students/psychology
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27684, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress among teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Systematic review of original studies published in any language. Protocol published in PROSPERO under number CRD42021240543. The search was carried out in the Web of Science, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Embase, LILACS, and SciELO databases, using the descriptors: anxiety, depression, stress, teacher, faculty, COVID-19, and their synonyms. Narrative synthesis was carried out in line with the synthesis without meta-analysis in systematic reviews. RESULTS: Of the 1372 records identified, 6 studies, all cross-sectional, were included in the review. The studies were carried out in China, Brazil, the United States of America, India, and Spain. Five studies included more women than men. The participants were aged from 24 to 60 years. Three studies included only school teachers, 2 included schools and universities teachers, and 1 only university teachers. Of the 5 studies, all dealt with remote activities and only 1 included teachers who returned to face-to-face classes 1 to 2 weeks ago. The prevalence of anxiety ranged from 10% to 49.4%, and depression from 15.9% to 28.9%, being considerably higher in studies with teachers who worked in schools. The prevalence of stress ranged from 12.6% to 50.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress was high among teachers during the pandemic, with great variation between studies. Anxiety and stress were more prevalent in the Spanish study. The results show the need for measures for the care of teachers' mental health, especially when returning to face-to-face classes.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Pandemics , School Teachers/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Prevalence
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013812, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the impact of COVID-19, national and subnational governments implemented a variety of measures in order to control the spread of the virus and the associated disease. While these measures were imposed with the intention of controlling the pandemic, they were also associated with severe psychosocial, societal, and economic implications on a societal level. One setting affected heavily by these measures is the school setting. By mid-April 2020, 192 countries had closed schools, affecting more than 90% of the world's student population. In consideration of the adverse consequences of school closures, many countries around the world reopened their schools in the months after the initial closures. To safely reopen schools and keep them open, governments implemented a broad range of measures. The evidence with regards to these measures, however, is heterogeneous, with a multitude of study designs, populations, settings, interventions and outcomes being assessed. To make sense of this heterogeneity, we conducted a rapid scoping review (8 October to 5 November 2020). This rapid scoping review is intended to serve as a precursor to a systematic review of effectiveness, which will inform guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review is reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist and was registered with the Open Science Framework. OBJECTIVES: To identify and comprehensively map the evidence assessing the impacts of measures implemented in the school setting to reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic, with particular focus on the types of measures implemented in different school settings, the outcomes used to measure their impacts and the study types used to assess these. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, MEDLINE, Embase, the CDC COVID-19 Research Articles Downloadable Database for preprints, and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease on 8 October 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that assessed the impact of measures implemented in the school setting. Eligible populations were populations at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2, or developing COVID-19 disease, or both, and included people both directly and indirectly impacted by interventions, including students, teachers, other school staff, and contacts of these groups, as well as the broader community. We considered all types of empirical studies, which quantitatively assessed impact including epidemiological studies, modelling studies, mixed-methods studies, and diagnostic studies that assessed the impact of relevant interventions beyond diagnostic test accuracy. Broad outcome categories of interest included infectious disease transmission-related outcomes, other harmful or beneficial health-related outcomes, and societal, economic, and ecological implications. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data from included studies in a standardized manner, and mapped them to categories within our a priori logic model where possible. Where not possible, we inductively developed new categories. In line with standard expectations for scoping reviews, the review provides an overview of the existing evidence regardless of methodological quality or risk of bias, and was not designed to synthesize effectiveness data, assess risk of bias, or characterize strength of evidence (GRADE). MAIN RESULTS: We included 42 studies that assessed measures implemented in the school setting. The majority of studies used mathematical modelling designs (n = 31), while nine studies used observational designs, and two studies used experimental or quasi-experimental designs. Studies conducted in real-world contexts or using real data focused on the WHO European region (EUR; n = 20), the WHO region of the Americas (AMR; n = 13), the West Pacific region (WPR; n = 6), and the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR; n = 1). One study conducted a global assessment and one did not report on data from, or that were applicable to, a specific country. Three broad intervention categories emerged from the included studies: organizational measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 36), structural/environmental measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 11), and surveillance and response measures to detect SARS-CoV-2 infections (n = 19). Most studies assessed SARS-CoV-2 transmission-related outcomes (n = 29), while others assessed healthcare utilization (n = 8), other health outcomes (n = 3), and societal, economic, and ecological outcomes (n = 5). Studies assessed both harmful and beneficial outcomes across all outcome categories. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified a heterogeneous and complex evidence base of measures implemented in the school setting. This review is an important first step in understanding the available evidence and will inform the development of rapid reviews on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/organization & administration , Administrative Personnel , Humans , School Teachers , Students
11.
Psychiatriki ; 32(4): 282-289, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552032

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the working conditions, lifestyle and mental health of Brazilian public-school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is an epidemiological websurvey, carried out from August to September 2020. Teachers from public schools in rural and urban areas in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, participated in the study. A digital questionnaire was used and the study addressed variables related to four major thematic topics: sociodemographic and economic profile, working conditions, lifestyle and health conditions, and mental health problems during the pandemic. The sample consisted of 15,641 teachers, of which 13.3% worked in rural areas, 81.9% were women, 56.2% were aged 41-60 years, 66.8% were married, 99.2% were working remotely and 79.8% adhered to social distancing. During the pandemic, 40.6% showed a decrease in family income, 33.7% were dissatisfied with their work, 58% reported increased body weight, 47.9% did not exercise, 35.8% were part of at least one risk group for COVID-19, 40.5% had some flu-like symptoms during the pandemic and 1.2% tested positive for COVID-19. Regarding mental health problems, 25.9% of teachers self-reported formal diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression during the pandemic. In addition, 7.1% of teachers were drinking more alcohol than usual, 33.4% started having sleep problems, 30.4% were using relax/sleep/anxiety/depression medications, 67.1% reported that their quality of life worsened and 43.7% reported having severe fear of COVID-19. It was also found that 82.3% of teachers had at least one mental health problem during the pandemic, such as increased alcohol consumption, sleep problems, use of psychotropic medication, decreased quality of life, and fear of COVID-19. The results of this study reveal the numerous challenges and the extent of the impact of the pandemic on working conditions, lifestyle, and especially on the mental health of teachers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Brazil/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Mental Health , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260396, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546954

ABSTRACT

School closures due to the COVID-19 global pandemic are likely to have a range of negative consequences spanning the domains of child development, education and health, in addition to the widening of inequalities and inequities. Research is required to improve understanding of the impact of school closures on the education, health and wellbeing of pupils and school staff, the challenges posed during face-to-face reopening and importantly to identify how the impacts of these challenges can be addressed going forward to inform emerging policy and practice. This qualitative study aimed to reflect on the perspectives and experiences of primary school staff (pupils aged 3-11) in Wales regarding school closures and the initial face-to-face reopening of schools and to identify recommendations for the future. A total of 208 school staff completed a national online survey through the HAPPEN primary school network, consisting of questions about school closures (March to June 2020), the phased face-to-face reopening of schools (June to July 2020) and a return to face-to-face education. Thematic analysis of survey responses highlighted that primary school staff perceive that gaps in learning, health and wellbeing have increased and inequalities have widened during school closures. Findings from this study identified five recommendations; (i) prioritise the health and wellbeing of pupils and staff; (ii) focus on enabling parental engagement and support; (iii) improve digital competence amongst pupils, teachers and parents; (iv) consider opportunities for smaller class sizes and additional staffing; and (v) improve the mechanism of communication between schools and families, and between government and schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , School Teachers/psychology , Schools , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Communication , Education, Distance , Forecasting , Humans , Qualitative Research , School Teachers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wales
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542567

ABSTRACT

Evidence about the effectiveness of school closures as a measure to control the spread of COVID-19 is controversial. We posit that schools are not an important source of transmission; thus, we analyzed two surveillance methods: a web-based questionnaire and a telephone survey that monitored the impact of the pandemic due to COVID-19 cases in Bogotá, Colombia. We estimated the cumulative incidences for Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and COVID-19 for each population group. Then, we assessed the differences using the cumulative incidence ratio (CIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). The ARI incidence among students was 20.1 times higher when estimated from the telephone survey than from the online questionnaire (CIR: 20.1; CI95% 17.11-23.53). Likewise, the ARI incidence among schoolteachers was 10 times higher in the telephone survey (CIR: 9.8; CI95% 8.3-11.5). the incidence of COVID-19 among schoolteachers was 4.3 times higher than among students in the online questionnarie (CIR: 4.3, CI95%: 3.8-5.0) and 2.1 times higher in the telephone survey (CIR = 2.1, CI95%: 1.8-2.6), and this behavior was also observed in the general population data. Both methods showed a capacity to detect COVID-19 transmission among students and schoolteachers, but the telephone survey estimates were probably closer to the real incidence rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools , Students
14.
Sch Psychol ; 36(6): 483-493, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514393

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created unprecedented challenges for the U.S. education system and for teachers. The present study examined correlates and predictors of teacher well-being in the immediate aftermath of school closures related to the pandemic. Data were collected as part of a larger group randomized trial. Six hundred and thirty-nine teachers completed surveys about their stress, coping, health, job satisfaction, and internalizing symptoms in Fall 2019, before the pandemic, and May 2020, during the pandemic. Teachers also provided ratings during COVID-19 of their teaching, student attendance and engagement, and concern about students and families. Teachers reported lower levels of work-related stress after the pandemic's onset compared to their prepandemic levels. Multilevel regression analyses revealed teacher confidence in their ability to manage student behaviors as a consistent and robust predictor of teacher well-being outcomes. Additionally, pre-COVID-19 school-level factors measured in Fall 2019, including collegial school leadership and fair and equitable school discipline structures, also predicted aspects of teacher well-being at the onset of COVID-19. Findings suggest the importance of teacher competence and perceived efficacy in managing student behavior and engaging them in learning to help them adapt to the stressors of a pandemic. Additionally, aspects of organizational health and climate may also help facilitate or hinder teacher adjustment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e418-e423, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures are a subject of debate during the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Because children are not the main driver of COVID-19 transmission in the community, school education must be prioritized in conjunction with appropriate infection prevention and control measures, as determined by local COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: We investigated the causes and transmission routes of a primary school cluster of COVID-19 that occurred during November and December 2020 in Niigata, Japan. RESULTS: In the cluster, the virus spread among teachers, then from teachers to students, and then to their family members. This primary school cluster comprised 26 infected patients and included teachers (13/33, 39%), students (9/211, 4%), and family members (4/65, 6%). The secondary attack rate from the 3 index teachers to the remaining 30 teachers was 33%; however, the rate to students was only 4%. Factors contributing to cluster formation include the fact that 2 of the index teachers continued working while symptomatic and that the environment and infection prevention measures in the teachers' room were inadequate. CONCLUSIONS: To open schools safely and without interruption, adequate measures to prevent COVID-19 infection in schools should be emphasized not only for children but also for teachers and their environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488548

ABSTRACT

The confinement experienced due to the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a rethink of the teaching-learning process to which teachers have responded without planning and instead used their resources. This study aimed to analyze the relationships between work-family interactions, technostress, and perceived organizational support in teachers during the confinement period in Spain that began in March 2020. An online survey was administered to 640 pre-school, primary, and secondary school teachers. Positive reciprocal work-family interactions and their relationship with organizational support were found, with differences according to gender, with women showing a more negative perception of the impact on the family. There were no marked levels of technostress in the overall sample, although higher levels of perceived ineffectiveness and skepticism were found in teachers aged 46 years or older. Teachers in private and subsidized schools showed a higher level of perceived support than those in public schools. There is a need to continue this work to verify the values of these dimensions in other contexts and to apply institutional measures and public policies to improve these indicators in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Educational Personnel , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers
17.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1071-1079, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482856

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has changed education for learners of all ages. Preliminary data project educational losses at many levels and verify the increased anxiety and depression associated with the changes, but there are not yet data on long-term outcomes. Guidance from oversight organizations regarding the safety and efficacy of new delivery modalities for education have been quickly forged. It is no surprise that the socioeconomic gaps and gaps for special learners have widened. The medical profession and other professions that teach by incrementally graduated internships are also severely affected and have had to make drastic changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Child , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Learning , School Teachers , Students/psychology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480766

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the educational landscape worldwide. One year after the disease outbreak, blended learning, which combines distance and face-to-face learning, became an alternative to fully online learning to address the demands of ensuring students' health and education. Physical education teachers faced an additional challenge, given the experiential nature of their subject, but research on teachers' perspectives is scarce. This study aims to explore high school physical education teachers' perceptions of the potential, advantages, and disadvantages of the blended learning model of instruction. An online survey was used to register the views of 174 Spanish high school physical education teachers (120 men and 54 women). The main findings revealed that physical education teachers considered that blended learning, compared with full face-to-face learning, implied a work overload, worsened social relationships, and did not help to increase students' motivation. Likewise, most teachers considered the physical activity performed by students during the blended learning period as being lower than usual. Furthermore, teachers reported that the students from lower-income families were the ones that experienced a lack of technological means the most. These results may guide both present and future policies and procedures for blended physical education. More research is needed to analyze the usefulness of blended learning in high school physical education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , Physical Education and Training , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128757, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460118

ABSTRACT

Importance: Recent data suggest a relatively low incidence of COVID-19 among children. The possible role that children attending primary school may play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains poorly understood. Objective: To gain a better understanding of the possible role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted from September 21 to December 31, 2020, in a primary school in Liège, Belgium, among a volunteer sample of 181 children, parents, and school employees. Exposures: Participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection once a week for 15 weeks through throat washing, performed with 5 mL of saline and collected in a sterile tube after approximately 30 seconds of gargling. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: In case of test positivity, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire aimed at determining the timing of symptom onset and symptom duration. SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequencing was also performed. Confirmed cases were linked based on available information on known contacts and viral sequences. Results: A total of 181 individuals participated in this study, including 63 children (34 girls [54.0%]; mean [SD] age, 8.6 [1.9] years [range, 5-13 years]) and 118 adults (75 women [63.6%]; mean [SD] age, 42.5 [5.7] years [range, 30-59 years]). Forty-five individuals (24.9%) tested positive: 13 children (20.6%; 95% CI, 10.6%-30.6%) and 32 adults (27.1%; 95% CI, 19.1%-35.7%) (P = .34). Children were more often asymptomatic compared with adults (6 [46.2%; 95% CI, 19.1%-73.3%] vs 4 of 31 [12.9%; 95% CI, 1.3%-24.5%]; P = .04). The median duration of symptoms was shorter in children than in adults (0.00 days [IQR, 0.00-1.00 days] vs 15.00 days [IQR, 7.00-22.00 days]). A reconstruction of the outbreak revealed that most transmission events occurred between teachers and between children within the school. Of the observed household transmission events, most seemed to have originated from a child or teacher who acquired the infection at school. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite the implementation of several mitigation measures, the incidence of COVID-19 among children attending primary school in this study was comparable to that observed among teachers and parents. Transmission tree reconstruction suggests that most transmission events originated from within the school. Additional measures should be considered to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at school, including intensified testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Mass Screening , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , School Teachers , Schools
20.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 193-194, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450926

ABSTRACT

The total or partial replacement of face-to-face teaching with distance teaching brings a number of problems for teachers, children and families. Recently, in our province in Southern Italy, in a seaside area, we conducted a survey to assess the experiences of high school teachers faced with distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the purpose of examining the real impact of these dramatic changes, both from social and health perspectives. From the preliminary aspects of this survey it emerges that it is difficult to univocally consider the effectiveness of distance learning in such a complex territory, especially in a seaside area. This experience will serve us to reflect in the future on a school tailored to the individual student by a permanent integration of face-to-face forms with distance learning.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , School Teachers/psychology , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy , Motivation , Surveys and Questionnaires
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